Viceroy

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A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and French roi, meaning king. His province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty. The relative adjective is viceregal. A vicereine is a woman in a viceregal position (rare, as it usually includes military high command), or a Viceroy's wife. a Viceigel is for a prince or princess.

The etymological allusion to the royal style makes it be perceived as higher than governor-general, even when in some cases it is a synonym for that administrative rank, and not necessarily above several 'provincial' (lieutenant-) governors.

In some cases, the title (and the office, unless the title is not permanently attached to the job) is reserved for members of the ruling dynasty. It was not uncommon for potentials heirs to the throne to obtain such a post (or an equivalent one, without the viceregal style) as a test - and learning stage, not unlike the even loftier 'associations to the throne', such as the Roman consortium imperii- or the Caesars in Emperor Diocletian's original Tetrarchy.

Image:MansoDeVelasco.JPG
José Antonio Manso de Velasco, Peruvian Viceroy

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[edit] Under the monarchs of Spain

The title was originally used in the Aragonese Crown since 14th Century for Sardinia and Corsica. The absolutist Kings of Spain employed numerous Viceroys to rule over various parts of their vast empire "where the sun never set", both European and overseas.

In Europe, until the 18th century the Spanish crown appointed Viceroys of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Sardinia, Sicily, Naples and Portugal (15801640)

Meanwhile in the New World, there were colonial viceroys to govern New Spain and to govern South American territories known as Viceroyalties (Spanish term: virreinato). Until 1717, there were only two Spanish viceroyalties, the Viceroyalty of Peru and the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital in Lima, ruled over all of Spain's territory in South America, while the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with its capital in Mexico City, ruled over Spain's territory in Mexico, Central and North America, the Caribbean and the Philippines. (Venezuela, in South America, was at times attached to the Viceroyalty of New Spain.)

Due to the growing size of Spain's American colonies, new viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires). The viceroyalties of Spanish America were subdivided into smaller units, Audiencias and Captaincies General, which in many cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Spanish America.

[edit] British Empire and Commonwealth

From 1858 (when the British crown took over the role of the British East India Company — which had appointed Governors-general since 20 October 1774—and maintained its last incumbent) to 1947, the height of the Raj, the British colonial Governor-General of India was also known, though not officially, as the Viceroy of India (only the last incumbent was a royal: 21 February15 August 1947 Louis Francis Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten of Burma).

The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was also sometimes referred to as a British Viceroy.

The title itself and the derived adjective "vice-regal" are used in some Commonwealth realms (generally as incorrect technically as formerly in British India) to refer to the function of the Governor-general (and in Canada, provincial Lieutenant-governors, and in Australia, state Governors) as representatives of the Crown. This usage may reflect the direct relationship between a Governor-general and the Crown and a Governor-general's exercise of all royal powers and functions under the Balfour Declaration 1926.

[edit] Other colonial viceroyalties

  • New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle (b. c.1500 – d. 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (d. 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (b. 1557 – d. 1615); next a series of Viceroys (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general
  • in Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the 'federation' of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when fascist forces temporarily occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel claimed the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" (Nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") and declared himself to be a successor to the Nəgusä nägäst[citation needed], even though Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to hold this title while in exile, and resumed his actual, physical throne on 5 May 1941.
  • in Portuguese Vice-Rei:
    • Portuguese India, with its seat in Goa, started (1505 – 1509) under Viceroy Francisco de Almeida (b. 1450 – d. 1510), then had mostly governors(-general) or governing commissions, but some viceroys (1524 Vasco da Gama, conde de Vidigueira (b. 1460 – d. 1524), 1538 – 1540 Garcia de Noronha, a series of viceroys 1550 – 1773 and after two governors – general again 1578 – 1768 (but interrupted by some Governors and commissions) and after more Governors again 1807 – 1835
    • in Brazil 13 July 1714 – 16 December 1815; from that date, the giant colony was the seat of the Portuguese royal Bragança dynasty in exile, until on 7 September 1822 the royal Regent declared the independence of the now separated Kingdom of Brazil, proclaiming himself on 12 October 1822 Emperor of Brazil (13 May 1825 recognized by Portugal). Allegedly there were once two viceroyalties in Brazil, including Grão Para

[edit] Other Domestic Viceroys, including personal unions

  • Corsica had one, 1406 – c.1420: Vincentello d'Istria, Count and Viceroy (nominally for Aragon)
  • Napoleon I Bonaparte created his adoptive stepson, Eugène de Beauharnais, Viceroi d'Italie in his kingdom of Italy (in personal union with his French Empire), and the same Prince later Prince of Venice, i.e. Heir apparent to that royal crown, while excluded from the French imperial throne which was reserved for his son by the empress, a born Habsburg archduchess)
  • Viceroy of Norway, for the King of Denmark, an example where the title is reserved for Princes of the Blood
  • List of Spanish Viceroys of Naples
  • under the Romanov Emperors of Russia:
    • Poland, while in personal union under the Emperors of Russia as Kings (styled Tsar; 20 June 1815 – 5 November 1916), had only one Viceroy, 9 December 1815 – 1 December 1830: Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov (b. 1779 – d. 1831)
    • Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaidjan & Georgia; first under Governors in Tiblisi 1802 – 1844) had Viceroys of Transcaucasia:
      • 1845 – 1853 Mikhail Semyonovich Prince Vorontsov (b. 1782 – d. 1856)
      • 1853 – 1854 Nikolay Andreyevich Read (acting) (b. 1792 – d. 1855)
      • 1854 – 1856 Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyev (b. 1794 – d. 1866)
      • 1856 – 1862 Prince Aleksandr Ivanovich Baryatinsky (b. 1814 – d. 1879)
      • 1862 – 1881 Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich Romanov (b. 1832 – d. 1909); next a series of Chief Heads of the Civil Administration of the Caucasus, including several imperial princes, 1882 – 1905, then again Viceroys:
      • 1905 – 1915 Count Illaryon Ivanovich, Vorontsov-Dashkov (b. 1837 – d. 1916)
      • 1915 – February 1917 Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (b. 1837 – d. 1929)

[edit] In Fiction

[edit] Exotic counterparts

As many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.

[edit] Ottoman empire

  • The khedive of Egypt, especially with the dynasty initiated by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's son, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy.

[edit] China

In imperial China, viceroy was the English translation of the title "general supervisor-protector" (Zǒngdū 總督), otherwise translated as the Governor General, who were heading large administrative divisions, directly under the imperial court. These divisions are usually two or three provinces. The regions included Zhili, Huguang, Liangjiang, Liangguang, Shangan, Minzhe, Yungui and Sichuan. Li Hongzhang was viceroy of Huguang from 1867 to 1870, and Yuan Shikai was once Viceroy of Chihli.

[edit] Sri Lankan and Southeast Asian tradition

  • Uparaja, variations and compounds such as Maha Uparaja

[edit] Informal use

  • US Administrator Paul Bremer, the American civilian in-charge of the Iraqi reconstruction prior to return of sovereignty has, on occasion, been referred to in the media as the "American Viceroy" to Iraq. The use of the term in this context is often pejorative and linked to Iraq War criticism. No U.S. official could ever truly be considered a Viceroy because the American constitution (in an original republic's tradition) forbids bestowing titles of nobility upon American government officials.
  • An elite motoring club based out of the United States, centered around lavish lifestyles and a constant pursuit of automotive perfection. [[1]]

[edit] Sources and references

de:Vizekönig es:Virrey fr:Vice-roi it:Viceré ja:副王 nl:Onderkoning pl:Wicekról pt:Vice-Rei ru:Вице-королевство sv:Vicekung zh:总督

Viceroy

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