United States Secretary of State

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Image:US-DeptOfState-Seal.jpg
Seal of the United States Department of State.

The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The current Secretary of State is Condoleezza Rice.

Contents

[edit] History

On January 10, 1781, the Second Continental Congress created the office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs to head a "Department of Foreign Affairs".

On July 27, 1789, George Washington signed a congressional bill into law reauthorizing an executive Department of Foreign Affairs headed by a Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Congress then passed another law giving certain additional domestic responsibilities to the new Department and changing its name to the Department of State and the name of head of the department to the Secretary of State, and Washington approved this act on September 15, 1789. The new domestic duties assigned to the newly renamed department were receipt, publication, distribution, and preservation of laws of the United States, custody of the Great Seal of the United States, authentication of copies and preparation of commissions of executive branch appointments, and finally custody of the books, papers, and records of the Continental Congress including the Constitution itself and the Declaration of Independence.

The title of Secretary of State is British in origin. At the time of American independence, "Secretary of State" was a title given to senior members of the King's cabinet (e.g., "Secretary of State in Charge of Colonies"). The position of "Secretary of State of the United States" was thus intended to be the most general and important office in the U.S. government, after the Presidency.

Particularly in the early years of the republic, the post was regarded as a natural stepping-stone to the Presidency. Secretaries of State who later occupied the White House included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan. Secretaries who unsuccessfully ran for President (either before or after their service at the State Department) were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, William H. Seward, James G. Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, Charles Evans Hughes, and Edmund Muskie.

The current Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, has been mentioned as a Presidential or Vice Presidential prospect, although she has denied any such ambition.

[edit] Functions

Image:Condoleezza Rice.jpg
Condoleezza Rice, the current Secretary of State

Most of the non-original domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain in the Department are: storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, drafting of certain proclamations, formally accepting notice of the president's resignation, and replies to inquiries. In addition, the Secretary performs such duties as the President is required, in accordance with the United States Constitution, relating to correspondence, commission, or instructions to U.S. or consuls abroad, and to conduct negotiations with foreign representatives. The Secretary has also served as principal adviser to the President in the determination of U.S. foreign policy and in recent decades has become responsible for overall direction, coordination, and supervision of interdepartmental activities of the U.S. Government overseas, excepting certain military activities.

As the highest-ranking Cabinet member, the Secretary of State is fourth in line to succeed the Presidency, after the Vice President, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and President pro tempore of the Senate. (See United States presidential line of succession.)

Federal law provides that resignation from the Presidency is effected only by written communication from the President to the Secretary of State. (See 3 U.S.C. Section 20). This has only occurred once, when President Richard Nixon resigned in August 1974 via a letter to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.

[edit] Oath of Office

The Oath of Office for the Vice President, Secretary of State, and other federal employees is as follows:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, and I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God."

[edit] Lists of Secretaries of State

# Picture Name State of Residency Term of Office President(s) served under
Start End
1 Image:T Jefferson by Charles Willson Peale 1791 2.jpg Thomas Jefferson Virginia September 26, 1789 December 31, 1793 George Washington
2 Image:EdmundRandolph.jpeg Edmund Randolph Virginia January 2, 1794 August 20, 1795 George Washington
3 Image:TimothyPickeringSoS.jpg Timothy Pickering Massachusetts December 10, 1795 May 12, 1800 George Washington, John Adams
4 Image:JMarshall.jpg John Marshall Virginia June 13, 1800 February 4, 1801 John Adams
5 Image:JamesMadison.jpg James Madison Virginia May 2, 1801 March 3, 1809 Thomas Jefferson
6 Image:RobertSmithSecofState.jpg Robert Smith Maryland March 6, 1809 April 1, 1811 James Madison
7 Image:Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg James Monroe Virginia April 2, 1811 September 30, 1814
James Madison
February 28, 1815 March 3, 1817
8 Image:John Quincy Adams.jpg John Quincy Adams Massachusetts March 5, 1817 March 3, 1825 James Monroe
9 Image:Henry Clay.JPG Henry Clay Kentucky March 7, 1825 March 3, 1829 John Quincy Adams
10 Image:Martin Van Buren.jpg Martin Van Buren New York March 28, 1829 May 23, 1831 Andrew Jackson
11 Image:EdwardLivingston.jpeg Edward Livingston Louisiana May 24, 1831 May 29, 1833 Andrew Jackson
12 Image:McLaneLouis.jpg Louis McLane Delaware May 29, 1833 June 30, 1834 Andrew Jackson
13 Image:JohnForsythSoS11.jpg John Forsyth Georgia July 1, 1834 March 3, 1841 Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren
14 Image:DWebster pic.jpg Daniel Webster Massachusetts March 6, 1841 May 8, 1843 William Harrison, John Tyler
15 Image:AbelPUpshurUSSoS.JPG Abel P. Upshur Virginia July 24, 1843 February 28, 1844 John Tyler
16 Image:JohnCCalhoun.jpeg John C. Calhoun South Carolina April 1, 1844 March 10, 1845 John Tyler [1]
17 Image:James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan Pennsylvania March 10, 1845 March 7, 1849 James Polk [1]
18 Image:JMiddletonClayton-SecofState.jpg John M. Clayton Delaware March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore
19 Image:DWebster pic.jpg Daniel Webster Massachusetts July 23, 1850 October 24, 1852 Millard Fillmore
20 Image:Everett, E.jpg Edward Everett Massachusetts November 6, 1852 March 3, 1853 Millard Fillmore
21 Image:Marcy.gif William L. Marcy New York March 7, 1853 March 6, 1857 Franklin Pierce [1]
22 Image:LewCass.jpg Lewis Cass Michigan March 6, 1857 December 14, 1860 James Buchanan
23 Image:Jeremiah S. Black - Brady-Handy.jpg Jeremiah S. Black Pennsylvania December 17, 1860 March 5, 1861 James Buchanan [1]
24 Image:William Seward, Secretary of State, bw photo portrait circa 1860-1865.jpg William H. Seward New York March 5, 1861 March 4, 1869 Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson
25 Image:Elihu B. Washburne - Brady-Handy.jpg Elihu B. Washburne Illinois March 5, 1869 March 16, 1869 Ulysses Grant
26 Image:Fish-Hamilton-LOC.jpg Hamilton Fish New York March 17, 1869 March 12, 1877 Ulysses Grant [1]
27 Image:William M. Evarts - Brady-Handy.jpg William M. Evarts New York March 12, 1877 March 7, 1881 Rutherford Hayes [1]
28 Image:James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1881 December 19, 1881 James Garfield, Chester A. Arthur
29 Image:Frederick T. Frelinghuysen - Brady-Handy.jpg Frederick T. Frelinghuysen New Jersey December 19, 1881 March 6, 1885 Chester Arthur [1]
30 Image:Thomas F. Bayard, Brady-Handy photo portrait, circa 1870-1880.jpg Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. Delaware March 7, 1885 March 6, 1889 Grover Cleveland [1]
31 Image:James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1889 June 4, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
32 Image:JohnWatsonFosterSoS.jpg John W. Foster Indiana June 29, 1892 February 23, 1893 Benjamin Harrison
33 Image:Walter Q. Gresham - Brady-Handy.jpg Walter Q. Gresham Illinois March 7, 1893 May 28, 1895 Grover Cleveland
34 Image:Richard Olney, Bain bw photo portrait, 1913.jpg Richard Olney Massachusetts June 10, 1895 March 5, 1897 Grover Cleveland [1]
35 Image:Ohio John Sherman.jpg John Sherman Ohio March 6, 1897 April 27, 1898 William McKinley
36 Image:WRDay.jpg William R. Day Ohio April 28, 1898 September 16, 1898 William McKinley
37 Image:John Hay, bw photo portrait, 1897.jpg John Hay District of Columbia September 30, 1898 July 1, 1905 William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt
38 Image:Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root New York July 19, 1905 January 27, 1909 Theodore Roosevelt
39 Image:Bacon, Robert.jpg Robert Bacon New York January 27, 1909 March 5, 1909 Theodore Roosevelt [1]
40 Image:Philander Knox, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg Philander C. Knox Pennsylvania March 6, 1909 March 5, 1913 William Taft [1]
41 Image:William Jennings Bryan.JPG William Jennings Bryan Nebraska March 5, 1913 June 9, 1915 Woodrow Wilson
42 Image:Robert Lansing.jpg Robert Lansing New York June 24, 1915 February 13, 1920 Woodrow Wilson
43 Image:Bainbridge Colby, bw photo portrait, 1920.jpg Bainbridge Colby New York March 23, 1920 March 4, 1921 Woodrow Wilson
44 Image:Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes.jpg Charles Evans Hughes New York March 5, 1921 March 4, 1925 Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge
45 Image:FrankKellogg.jpg Frank B. Kellogg Minnesota March 5, 1925 March 28, 1929 Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover
46 Image:Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg Henry L. Stimson New York March 28, 1929 March 4, 1933 Herbert Hoover
47 Image:Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull Tennessee March 4, 1933 November 30, 1944 Franklin Roosevelt
48 Image:EdwardRStettiniusJrSoS.jpg Edward Stettinius, Jr. Virginia December 1, 1944 June 27, 1945 Franklin Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman
49 Image:JamesFByrnesSoS.jpg James F. Byrnes South Carolina July 3, 1945 January 21, 1947 Harry Truman
50 Image:General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Marshall Pennsylvania January 21, 1947 January 20, 1949 Harry Truman
51 Image:Dean acheson.jpg Dean Acheson Maryland January 21, 1949 January 20, 1953 Harry Truman
52 Image:JohnFosterDulles.jpeg John Foster Dulles New York January 21, 1953 April 22, 1959 Dwight Eisenhower
53 Image:ChristianHerterSoS.jpg Christian Herter Massachusetts April 22, 1959 January 20, 1961 Dwight Eisenhower
54 Image:DeanRuskSoS.jpg Dean Rusk New York January 21, 1961 January 20, 1969 John Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson
55 Image:WilliamPRogersSoS.jpg William P. Rogers Maryland January 22, 1969 September 3, 1973 Richard Nixon
56 Image:Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry Kissinger District of Columbia September 22, 1973 January 20, 1977 Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford
57 Image:CyrusVanceSoS.jpg Cyrus Vance New York January 23, 1977 April 28, 1980 Jimmy Carter
58 Image:Edmund Muskie.jpg Edmund Muskie Maine May 8, 1980 January 18, 1981 Jimmy Carter
59 Image:Alexander Haig.jpg Alexander Haig Connecticut January 22, 1981 July 5, 1982 Ronald Reagan
60 Image:GeorgePShultz.jpg George P. Shultz California July 16, 1982 January 20, 1989 Ronald Reagan
61 Image:JamesBaker.jpeg James Baker Texas January 25, 1989 August 23, 1992 George H. W. Bush
62 Image:LawrenceEagleburgerSoS.jpg Lawrence Eagleburger Florida December 8, 1992 January 19, 1993 George H. W. Bush
63 Image:Warren Christopher.jpg Warren Christopher California January 20, 1993 January 17, 1997 Bill Clinton
64 Image:Albrightmadeleine.jpg Madeleine Albright District of Columbia January 23, 1997 January 19, 2001 Bill Clinton
65 Image:Colin Powell official Secretary of State photo.jpg Colin Powell Virginia January 20, 2001 January 26, 2005 George W. Bush
66 Image:Condoleezza Rice.jpg Condoleezza Rice California January 26, 2005 Present George W. Bush

[1] In addition to the President listed, this Secretary of State served for a brief period of time (eight days or less) under that President's successor until a replacement could be named and confirmed.

[edit] List of Acting Secretaries of State

When there is a vacancy as Secretary, the United States Assistant Secretary of State or the United States Deputy Secretary of State serves as Acting Secretary of State until the President nominates and the United States Senate confirms a new Secretary.

# Name Term of Office President(s) served under
Start End
1 John Jay March 4, 1790 March 22, 1790 George Washington
2 Timothy Pickering August 20, 1795 December 9, 1795 George Washington
3 Charles Lee May 13, 1800 June 5, 1800 John Adams
4 John Marshall February 4, 1801 March 4, 1801 John Adams
5 Levi Lincoln, Sr. March 5, 1801 May 1, 1801 Thomas Jefferson
6 John Graham March 4, 1817 March 9, 1817 James Monroe
7 Richard Rush March 10, 1817 September 22, 1817 James Monroe
8 Daniel Brent March 4, 1825 March 7, 1825 John Quincy Adams
9 James A. Hamilton March 4, 1829 March 27, 1829 Andrew Jackson
10 Jacob L. Martin March 4, 1841 March 5, 1841 William Henry Harrison
11 Hugh S. Legaré May 9, 1843 June 20, 1843 John Tyler
12 William S. Derrick June 21, 1843 June 23, 1843 John Tyler
13 Abel P. Upshur June 24, 1843 July 23, 1843 John Tyler
14 John Nelson February 29, 1844 March 31, 1844 John Tyler
15 Charles M. Conrad October 25, 1852 November 5, 1852 Millard Fillmore
16 William Hunter March 4, 1853 March 7, 1853 Franklin Pierce
17 William Hunter December 15, 1860 December 16, 1860 James Buchanan
18 William F. Wharton June 4, 1892 June 29, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
19 William F. Wharton February 24, 1893 March 6, 1893 Benjamin Harrison (2/24-3/4), Grover Cleveland (3/4-3/6)
20 Edwin F. Uhl May 28, 1895 June 9, 1895 Grover Cleveland
21 Alvey A. Adee September 17, 1898 September 29, 1898 William McKinley
22 Francis B. Loomis July 1, 1905 July 18, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt
23 Robert Lansing June 9, 1915 June 23, 1915 Woodrow Wilson
24 Frank L. Polk February 14, 1920 March 12, 1920 Woodrow Wilson
25 Joseph C. Grew June 28, 1945 July 3, 1945 Harry S. Truman
26 H. Freeman Matthews January 20, 1953 January 21, 1953 Dwight Eisenhower
27 Livingston T. Merchant January 20, 1961 January 21, 1961 John F. Kennedy
28 Charles E. Bohlen January 20, 1969 January 22, 1969 Richard Nixon
29 Kenneth Rush September 3, 1973 September 22, 1973 Richard Nixon
30 Philip C. Habib January 20, 1977 January 23, 1977 Jimmy Carter
31 Warren Christopher April 28, 1980 May 2, 1980 Jimmy Carter
32 David Newsom May 2, 1980 May 3, 1980 Jimmy Carter
33 Richard N. Cooper May 3, 1980 Jimmy Carter
34 David Newsom May 3, 1980 May 4, 1980 Jimmy Carter
35 Warren Christopher May 4, 1980 May 8, 1980 Jimmy Carter
36 Walter J. Stoessel, Jr. July 5, 1982 July 16, 1982 Ronald Raegan
37 Michael H. Armacost January 20, 1989 January 25, 1989 George H. W. Bush
38 Lawrence Eagleburger August 23, 1992 December 8, 1992 George H. W. Bush
39 Arnold Lee Kanter January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton
40 Frank G. Wisner January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton

[edit] References


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United States Secretary of State

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