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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.
See also: Renaissance of the 12th century
- 1102, King Coloman unites Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian Crown
- c.1119, Foundation of the Knights Templar
- 1127, The Song dynasty loses power over Northern China.
- 1128, Portugal gains independence from the kingdom of León (recognised by León in 1143).
- 1130–1180, Fifty-year drought in the American Southwest.
- 1135–1154, The Anarchy is a period of civil war in England.
- 1136, Suger begins rebuilding abbey church at St Denis north of Paris, which is regarded as the first major Gothic building.
- 1140–1150, Collapse of the Ancestral Puebloan culture at Chaco Canyon
- 1145–1148, The Second Crusade is launched in response to the fall of the County of Edessa.
- 1169, start of the conquest of Ireland. Richard fitzGilbert de Clare ('Strongbow') makes an alliance with the exiled Irish chief, Dermot MacMurrough, to help him recover his kingdom of Leinster.
- 1170, Thomas Becket is murdered.
- 1185, Founding of the cathedral school (Katedralskolan) in Lund, Sweden. The school is the oldest in northern Europe, and one of the oldest in Europe as a whole.
- 1189–1192, The Third crusade was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
- 1193, Nalanda, the great Indian Buddhist educational centre, is destroyed.
- 1198, Frederick II is crowned King of Sicily at the age of 3 (also known as Frederick I of Sicily).
- c. 1200, The Toltec Empire collapses.
- Renaissance of the 12th century in Europe.
- The Kamakura Shogunate deprives the Emperor of Japan of political power.
- Gothic Architecture begins in France
- Conflict between the Khmer Empire and Champa. Angkor Wat is built under the Hindu king Suryavarman II. At the end of the century the Buddhist Jayavarman VII becomes ruler.
- Pope Adrian IV grants overlordship of Ireland to Henry II of England.
- The medieval Serbian state formed by Stefan Nemanja and continued by the Nemanjić dynasty.
- Pierre Abelard teaches.
 Significant people
- Francis of Assisi Christian saint
- Genghis Khan, Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
- Bhaskara, towering figure in several disparate fields of mathematics
- Pierre Abélard, one of the first scholastic philosophers; author of "Historia calamitatum mearum", a description of his love affair with Héloïse.
- Bernard of Clairvaux, French abbot influential in church politics.
- William Marshal, knight and statesman.
- Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor who allied with the Crusaders.
- Saladin, ruler of Egypt and Syria who resisted the Crusaders.
- Hugh of St. Victor, French scholar.
- Philip Augustus, French king.
- Friedrich Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor
- Richard I of England
- Richard of St. Victor, theologian.
- Alfonso I Henriques, first King of Portugal.
- Maimonides, leading Jewish philosopher.
- Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury.
- Minamoto no Yoritomo, first shogun of Japan.
- Omar Khayyám, Persian poet and astronomer
- Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen consort of France and later the Kingdom of England.
- Hildegard of Bingen, first Western musical composer known by name.
- Suryavarman II, Khmer king
- Jayavarman VII, Khmer king
- Ibn Rushd, Philosopher
 Inventions, discoveries and introductions
 Decades and years
jv:Abad kaping 12
vi:Thế kỷ 12