Treaty of San Stefano

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Image:Bulgaria-SanStefano -(1878)-byTodorBozhinov.png
Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano

The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78. It was signed on March 3, 1878 at San Stefano (Greek: Ayastefanos, now Yeşilköy), a village west of Istanbul, by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Alexander Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.

March 3, the day the Treaty of San Stefano was signed, is the National Day of the Republic of Bulgaria.

Contents

[edit] Effects

[edit] On Bulgaria

The treaty set up an autonomous self-governing tributary principality Bulgaria with a Christian government and the right to keep an army. Its territory included the plain between the Danube and the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina), the region of Sofia, Pirot and Vranje in the Morava valley, Northern Thrace, parts of Eastern Thrace and nearly all of Macedonia (Article 6).

A prince elected by the people, approved by the Sublime Porte and recognized by the Great Powers was to take the helm of the country and a council of noblemen was to draft a Constitution (Article 7). The Ottoman troops were to pull out of Bulgaria, while the Russian military occupation was to continue for two more years (Article 8).

[edit] On Serbia, Montenegro and Romania

Image:HouseOfSanStefanoTreaty.jpg
The Treaty was signed in this house of Yeşilköy.

Under the Treaty, Montenegro more than doubled its territory with former Ottoman areas, including Nikšić, Podgorica and Antivari (Article 1), and the Ottoman Empire recognized its independence (Article 2).

Serbia annexed the Moravian cities of Niš and Leskovac and became independent (Article 3).

The Porte recognized the independence of Romania (Article 5).

[edit] On Russia and the Ottoman Empire

In exchange for the war reparations, the Porte ceded to Russia territories in the Caucasus, including Batumi and Kars, as well as Northern Dobruja, which Russia handed to Romania in exchange for Southern Bessarabia (Article 19).

The Ottoman Empire promised reforms for Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 14), Crete, Epirus and Thessaly (Article 15).

The Straits — the Bosporus and the Dardanelles — were declared open to all neutral ships in war and peacetime (Article 24).

[edit] Reaction

The Great Powers were unhappy with this extension of Russian power, and Serbia and Greece feared the establishment of Greater Bulgaria would harm their interests in the Ottoman heritage. This prompted the Great Powers to obtain a revision of this treaty through the Treaty of Berlin, 1878.

Romania, which had contributed significantly to the victory in the war, was extremely disappointed by the treaty, and the Romanian public perceived some its stipulations as Russia breaking the Russo-Romanian prewar treaties that guaranteed the integrity of Romanian territory.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

bg:Санстефански мирен договор de:Frieden von San Stefano fr:Traité de San Stefano it:Pace di Santo Stefano he:חוזה סאן סטפנו lt:San Stefano taika nl:Vrede van San Stefano ja:サン・ステファノ条約 ru:Сан-Стефанский мир sv:Freden i San Stefano tr:Ayastefanos Antlaşması zh:聖斯特凡諾條約

Treaty of San Stefano

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