Transportation in New York
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Transportation in New York is made up of some of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering difficulties because of the terrain of New York State and the unique issues of New York City brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome since the state was young. Population expansion of the state generally followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River and then the Erie Canal. Today, railroad lines and the New York State Thruway follow the same general route.
Transportation was used early on to support industry and commerce in New York State. The Boston Post Road, between what then the relatively small City of New York and Boston, began as a path to deliver the post using post riders (the first ride to lay out the Upper Post Road starting January 22, 1673), and developed into a wagon, or stage road in later colonial times. During the 19th century, pieces of the road were taken over and improved by turnpike companies. In the 1910s and 1920s, the Lower Post Road alignment (and realignments made to the route) was a National Auto Trail known as the Boston Post Road. Large sections of the various routes are still given the name Boston Post Road, much of it is now U.S. Route 1.
By the American Revolutionary War, the colonial Province of New York was still small and relatively sparsely populated. In the 1790 United States Census, the state had a population of 340,120, placing it behind Virginia (747,610), Pennsylvania (434,373), Massachusetts (378,787). The state grew rapidly after this as New York City grew to become the country's shipping epicenter. On October 24, 1825, the Erie Canal opened and over the next century would make boom towns out of the Upstate cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Rome, Utica and Schenectady. Use of the canal would only decline after 1950. Cities in New York State would frequently show up as amongst the largest in the United States during the 19th, and into the early 20th century.
The other major contribution to New York's transportation system was its extensive railroad network. The New York Central Water Level Route was advertised as the world's first four-track railroad, and connected New York City, Buffalo, and the cities inbetween.
Early transportation in New York State was primarily by rivers and canals. Today, the canals are primarily used for recreation.
 Urban mass transit
Besides New York City, many of the other cities have mass transit systems.
Syracuse is the smallest city in the U.S. to have a local rail line, known as OnTrack. As of 2006, service is infrequent and it serves only one residential neighborhood. If OnTrack had frequent service, it would resemble an urban mass transit system more than a commuter line.
Rochester had a subway system, although it is mostly destroyed. Only a small part exists under the old Erie Canal Aquaduct. In its day, the system would carry people underground on what were essentially streetcars. If the system still existed today, it would probably be described as a light rail service.
 Commuter railroads
 Intercity rail
Like most of United States, the only intercity rail passenger service is provided by Amtrak. New York City's Pennsylvania Station is the busiest of Amtrak's rail stations. The most successful of Amtrak's routes, the Northeast Corridor, operates between Washington, D.C., and Boston, Massachusetts. The most popular and heavily-used routes in the Amtrak system are those on the Northeast Corridor, which include the Acela Express, Metroliner, and Regional.
Amtrak's Empire Service trains provide frequent daily service along the 460-mile (740 km) Empire Corridor between New York City and Niagara Falls. The route was formerly the Water Level Route of the New York Central Railroad to Buffalo and then the former Buffalo and Niagara Falls Railroad. One train, known as the Maple Leaf, continues beyond Niagara Falls to Toronto.
Recently, the state has taken more interest in increasing the frequency and speed of intercity rail, going so far as to propose the creation of a state-wide high-speed rail network.
 Automobile transportation
 New York Thruway
The largest single artery in New York State is probably the New York Thruway, which is more than 400 miles from The Bronx to Buffalo. Like the New York Central before it, it roughly follows the course of the Erie Canal.
New York is made up of many parkways built by Robert Moses. Among his projects are the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, the Staten Island Expressway, the Cross-Bronx Expressway, the Belt Parkway, the Laurelton Parkway, and many more.
 Transportation in New York City
- Further information: Transportation in New York City
New York City boasts one of the most extensive urban transportation systems in the world, including two distinct mass transit systems:
- New York Subway—by some measures, the most extensive rapid transit system in the world
- Staten Island Railway—not technically part of the Subway, but serves a similar purpose on the Borough of Staten Island; isolated from the national rail network and the New York City Subway
- Port Authority Trans-Hudson—rapid transit between Manhattan and New Jersey
New York City's automobile network is also extensive. It includes many bridges and limited access highways built by Robert Moses, and is integrated with a street grid that dates to the early 19th Century.
While extensive, much of New York City's infrastructure is aging and in need of capital investment. Neither the rapid transit systems nor the automobile network has expanded much in the past few decades.
 Commuter rail
 Mass transit
- The Second Avenue Subway is proposed in New York City.
- The New York Subway's 7 Train is planned to be extended.
 Proposed light rail systems
New York presently only boasts the Buffalo Metro Rail, which is arguably a light rail system. Proposals include:
- Capital district light rail (with State Senate Majority Leader Joseph Bruno voicing support)
- 42nd Street Light Rail
- Staten Island light rail proposals
- Rochester is entertaining the idea of getting light rail service. The city has been discussing what to do with the right of way used by its former subway system. The city wants to use the right of way, which used to be the route of the Erie Canal, for light rail, recreate the canal, or fill the trench.