Trade union

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"A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment."<ref name="webb">Webb, Sidney, Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans, Green and Co. London. ch. I</ref>

Over the last three hundred years, trade unions have developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing political and economic regimes. The immediate objectives and activities of trade unions vary, but may include:

  • Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses. In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state; however, the provision of professional training, legal advice, and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership.
  • Collective bargaining: Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognised by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions.
  • Industrial action: Trade unions may organize strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals.
  • Political activity: Trade unions may promote legislation favourable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole. To this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such as the Labour Party in Britain) for public office.

Contents

[edit] History

Beginning in the eighteenth century, much of Western society (with most changes occurring earliest in Britain) witnessed a transformation from an agrarian culture with craft-based production to a culture shaped by the first industrial revolution. Some of the changes brought on by this new order, such as new work methods and downward pressure on traditional wage structures,<ref>Fraser, W. Hamish (1974). Trade Unions and Society (The Struggle for Acceptance, 1850 – 1880). New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-87471-514-8. pg. 34</ref> sparked rising alarm in the crafts and guilds of the time, who feared encroachment on their established jobs.

Additionally, the rapid expansion of industrial society was to draw women, children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in larger numbers and in new roles. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organised in fits and starts throughout its beginnings,<ref name="webb" /> and would later be an important arena for the development of trade unions.

[edit] Origins and early history

Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of Medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed. <ref>Trade Unions and Socialism International Socialist Review, Vol.1 No.10, April 1901.</ref> Medieval guilds existed to protect and enhance their members' livelihoods through controlling the instructional capital of artisanship and the progression of members from apprentice to craftsman, journeyman, and eventually to master and grandmaster of their craft. They also facilitated mobility by providing accommodation for guild members travelling in search of work. Guilds exhibited some aspects of the modern trade union, but also some aspects of professional associations and modern corporations.

Additionally, guilds, like some craft unions today, were highly restrictive in their membership and only included artisans who practiced a specific trade. Many modern labour unions tend to be expansionistic, and frequently seek to incorporate widely disparate kinds of workers to increase the leverage of the union as a whole. A labour union in 2006 might include workers from only one trade or craft, or might combine several or all the workers in one company or industry.

Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism (1894) by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." <ref name="webb" /> A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members." <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Yet historian R.A. Leeson, in United we Stand (1971), said:

"Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies,...the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all 'labouring men and women' for a 'different order of things'..."

Recent historical research by Dr Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery (2001) puts forward that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Freemasons, Oddfellows, friendly societies and other Fraternal organisations.


The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners (or "masters"). In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote:

We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labour above their actual rate...
[When workers combine,] masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, and the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combinations of servants, labourers, and journeymen.

As indicated in the preceding quotation, unions were illegal for many years in most countries. There were severe penalties for attempting to organise unions, up to and including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power, eventually resulting in a body of labour law which not only legalised organising efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organised into unions. Even after the legitimisation of trade unions there was opposition, as the case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs shows.

Many consider it an issue of fairness that workers be allowed to pool their resources in a special legal entity in a similar way to the pooling of capital resources in the form of corporations.

The right to join a trade union is mentioned in article 23, subsection 4 of the UDHR, which also states in article 20, subsection 2. that "No one may be compelled to belong to an association". Prohibiting a person from joining or forming a union, as well as forcing a person to do the same (e.g. "closed shops" or "union shops", see below), whether by a government or by a business, is generally considered a human rights abuse. Similar allegations can be levelled if an employer discriminates based on trade union membership. Attempts by an employer, often with the help of outside agencies, to prevent union membership amongst their staff is known as union busting.

[edit] 19th Century Unionism

In France, Germany and other European countries, socialist parties and anarchists played a prominent role in forming and building up trade unions, especially from the 1870s onwards. This stood in contrast to the British experience, where moderate New Model Unions dominated the union movement from the mid-nineteenth century and where trade unionism was stronger than the political labour movement until the formation and growth of the Labour Party in the early years of the twentieth century.

[edit] Unions in the world

[edit] Unions today

[edit] Structure and politics

Union structures, politics, and legal status vary greatly from country to country. For specific country details see below.
Image:UnisonStrikeRallyOxford20060328 KaihsuTai.jpg
A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike on 2006-03-28.

Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). These unions are often divided into "locals", and united in national federations. These federations themselves will affiliate with Internationals, such as the International Trade Union Confederation.

In many countries, a union may acquire the status of a legal entity, with a mandate to negotiate with employers for the workers it represents. In such cases, unions have certain legal rights, most importantly the right to negotiate collectively with the employer (or employers) over wages, working hours and other terms and conditions of employment. The inability of both parties to reach an agreement may lead to industrial action, culminating in either strike action or management lockout. In extreme cases, violent or illegal activities may develop around these events.

In other circumstances, unions may not have the legal right to represent workers, or the right may be in question. This lack of status can range from non-recognition of a union to political or criminal prosecution of union activists and members, with many cases of violence and deaths having been recorded both historically and in the current day<ref>ICFTU press release - regarding Cambodia.</ref><ref>Amnesty International report 23 September 2005 - fear for safety of SINALTRAINAL member José Onofre Esquivel Luna</ref>.

Unions may also engage in broader political or social struggle. Social Unionism encompasses many unions which use their organisational strength to advocate for social policies and legislation favourable to their members or to workers in general. As well, unions in some countries are closely aligned with political parties.

Unions are also delineated by the service model and the organising model. The service model union focuses more on maintaining worker rights, providing services, and resolving disputes. Alternately, the organising model typically involves full-time organisers, who work by building up confidence, strong networks and leaders within the workforce; and confrontational campaigns involving large numbers of union members. Many unions are a blend of these two philosophies, and the definitions of the models themselves are still debated.

Although their political structure and autonomy varies widely, union leaderships are usually formed through democratic elections.

Research, such as that conducted by the Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training (ACIRRT)<ref>Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training report.</ref> purports to show that unionised workers enjoy better conditions and wages than those who are not unionised.

[edit] Shop types

Companies that employ workers with a union generally operate on one of several models:

  • A closed shop (US) employs only people who are already union members. The compulsory hiring hall is the most extreme example of a closed shop—in this case the employer must recruit directly from the union.
  • A union shop (US) or a closed shop (UK) employs non-union workers as well, but sets a time limit within which new employees must join a union.
  • An agency shop requires non-union workers to pay a fee to the union for its services in negotiating their contract. This is sometimes called the Rand formula. In certain situations involving state government employees in the United States, such as for example California, fair share laws make it easy to require these sorts of payments.
  • An open shop does not discriminate based on union membership in employing or keeping workers. Where a union is active, the open shop allows workers to be employed who benefit from, but do not contribute to, a union or the collective bargaining process. In the United States, "Right To Work" laws mandate the open shop on the state level.

In Britain a series of laws were introduced during the 1980s by Margaret Thatcher's government to restrict closed and union shops. All agreements requiring a worker to join a union are now illegal. The Taft-Hartley Act outlawed the closed shop in the United States in 1947, but permits the union shop in most states.

[edit] Diversity of international unions

As labour law is very diverse in different countries, so is the function of unions. For instance, in Germany only open shops are legal; that is, all discrimination based on union membership is forbidden. This affects the function and services of the union. In addition, German unions have played a greater role in management decisions through participation in corporate boards and co-determination than have unions in the United States. (newsletter/files/BTS012EN_12-15.pdf}.

In addition, unions' relations with political parties vary. In many countries unions are tightly bonded, or even share leadership, with a political party intended to represent the interests of working people. Typically this is a left-wing or socialist party, but many exceptions exist. In the United States, by contrast, although it is historically aligned with the Democratic Party, the labour movement is by no means monolithic on that point; the International Brotherhood of Teamsters has supported Republican Party candidates on a number of occasions and the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) endorsed Ronald Reagan in 1980 (the following year, Reagan effectively destroyed PATCO, breaking a strike by bringing in permanent replacement workers). The AFL-CIO has been against liberalising abortion, consistent with a Republican position, so as not to alienate its large Catholic constituency. In Britain the labour movement's relationship with the Labour Party is fraying as party leadership embarks on privatisation plans at odds with what some perceive as workers' interests.

In Western Europe, professional associations often carry out the functions of a trade union. Notable cases of these are the German Verein deutscher Ingenieure. In these cases, they may be negotiating for white collar workers, such as physicians, engineers or teachers. Typically such trade unions refrain from politics or pursue markedly more right-wing politics than their blue-collar counterparts [citation needed].

Finally, the structure of employment laws affects unions' roles and how they carry out their business. In many western European countries wages and benefits are largely set by governmental action. The United States takes a more laissez-faire approach, setting some minimum standards but leaving most workers' wages and benefits to collective bargaining and market forces. Historically, the Republic of Korea has regulated collective bargaining by requiring employers to participate but collective bargaining has been legal only if held in sessions before the lunar new year. In totalitarian regimes such as Nazi-Germany and the Soviet Union, unions have typically been de facto government agencies devoted to smooth and efficient operation of enterprises.

[edit] Trade unions worldwide and by region and country

Image:Unionization in the world.svg
Unionisation in the world

[edit] Worldwide and international cooperation

The largest organisation of trade union members in the world is the Brussels-based International Trade Union Confederation, which today has approx. 309 affiliated organisations in 156 countries and territories, with a combined membership of 166 million. Other global trade union organisations include the World Federation of Trade Unions.

National and regional trade unions organising in specific industry sectors or occupational groups also form global union federations, such as Union Network International and the International Federation of Journalists.

[edit] Trade unions in Africa

[edit] Trade unions in Burkina Faso

[edit] Trade unions in Niger

Main article: Trade unions in Niger

Trade unions in Niger are free to engage in regular unionist activities, with constitutionally protected provisions for forming and joining trade unions. However, with 95% the working population engaged in subsistence activities,<ref name = "ICTUR"> (2005) ICTUR et al,: Trade Unions of the World, 6th, London, UK: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 0-9543811-5-7.</ref> the numbers of trade union members are low.

[edit] Trade unions in South Africa

Trade unions in South Africa have a history dating back to the 1880s. From the beginning unions could be viewed as a reflection of the racial disunity of the country, with the earliest unions being predominantly for white workers.<ref name = "ICTUR"/> Through the turbulent years of apartheid trade unions played an important part in developing political and economic resistance, and eventually were one of the driving forces in realising the transition to an inclusive democratic government.

Today trade unions are still an important force in South Africa, with 3.1 million members representing 25% of the formal work force.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is the largest of the three major trade union centres, with a membership of 1.8 million, and is part of the Tripartite alliance with the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). The second largest trade union centre is the Federation of Unions of South Africa (FEDUSA), with a membership of 500 000 and 23 affiliated trade unions.

[edit] Trade unions in America

[edit] Labor unions in the United States

Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but in recent years have seen their greatest growth among service sector and public sector workers. Activity by labor unions in the United States today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their membership and on representing their members if management attempts to violate contract provisions. Although down from the peak membership they achieved in the third quarter of the twentieth century, American unions also remain an important political factor, both through mobilization of their own memberships and through coalitions with like-minded activist organizations around issues such as immigrant rights, trade policy, health care, and living wage campaigns.

Labor unions in the past have been infiltrated by members of organized crime, such as the Mafia. Organized crime had been active in some Teamster locals, particularly in the garment industry in New York City, as early as the 1920s. Labor racketeers made inroads in other cities, such as Chicago, Cleveland, Kansas City and Detroit, in the 1930s. Jimmy Hoffa and other Teamster leaders made strategic alliances with organized crime, in deals that benefited both the Mafia and its associates, who obtained sweetheart contracts, and the union leaders, who received kickbacks and other forms of assistance. Jimmy Hoffa would later mysteriously disappear. Hoffa's son, James P. Hoffa, is the current president of the Teamsters. For more information, refer to Teamsters: Organized crime's influence. The US labor movement has gone through major changes in the last year with the departure from the AFL-CIO of five major unions led by the Service Employees International Union into the Change to Win Federation. The face of the labor movement is also changing. For the last twenty years women have made up the majority of new workers organized and union growth has been significantly higher among workers of color and immigrant workers than among white male workers.<ref>http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=cbpubs</ref>

[edit] Asia and Oceania

[edit] Afghanistan

Trade unions in Afghanistan have a brief and turbulent history, beginning in 1967 and effectively ending with the Islamic state of the Mujahideen. There has been no reported trade union activity since the military intervention and removal of the Taliban regime.

Afghanistan has not ratified the ILO conventions; the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 and the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949.

[edit] Australia

The Australian labour movement has a long history of craft, trade and industrial unionism While unions have sometimes been very strong, as of 2005 they are relatively weak and in decline, due in part to the actions of Australian politicians, including Prime Minister John Howard and his Liberal government which introduced the Workplace Relations Act 1996; although the decline in membership had begun before Howard came into power. In 2005 the Federal Government brought in WorkChoices which many Australian Unions claimed would reduce minimum wage, the powers of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission and the ability of Australian Unions to organise. The full extent of this legislation has yet to be seen, as it only became effective in March 2006. However, the movement has mounted a strong campaign against the changes and have activated large levels of community support. There are reports among unions such as the Transport Workers Union that membership levels have increased.

[edit] Malaysia

[edit] Pakistan

[edit] Qatar

Main article: Trade unions in Qatar

[edit] Trade unions in Europe

The European Trade Union Confederation was set up in 1973 to promote the interests of working people at European level and to represent them in the EU institutions. It is recognised by the European Union, by the Council of Europe and by EFTA as the only representative cross-sectoral trade union organisation at European level.

Some countries such as Belgium, Ireland, Sweden, Finland, and the other Nordic countries have strong, centralised unions, where every type of industry has a specific union, which are then gathered in large national union confederations. Usually there are at least two national union confederations, one for academically educated and one for branches with lower education level. The largest Swedish union confederation is Landsorganisationen, or LO. The LO has almost two million members, which is more than a fifth of Sweden's population. Finland's equivalent is SAK, the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions, with about one million members out of the country's 5.2 million inhabitants. In addition, there are two other Finnish union confederations for more educated workers with combined membership of circa one million.

In comparison, France is thought to have one of the lowest union densities in Europe, with only about 10% of the workers inside unions. Generally, several unions are represented inside large companies or administrations, normally with one from each of the main national confederation of unions and possibly independent unions. Union membership, however, tends to be concentrated in some specific areas, especially the public sector. Unions in some sectors, such as public transportation (e.g. SNCF and RATP) are likely to enter well-publicised strikes.

[edit] Early trade unions in the United Kingdom

Unions in Britain were subject to often severe repression until 1824, but were already widespread in cities such as London. Workplace militancy had also manifested itself as Luddism and had been prominent in struggles such as the 1820 Rising in Scotland where 60,000 workers went on a general strike, which was soon crushed. From 1830 on, attempts were made to set up national general unions, most notably Robert Owen's Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834, which attracted a range of socialists from Owenites to revolutionaries. That organisation played a part in the protests after the Tolpuddle Martyrs' case, but soon collapsed.

In the later 1830s and 1840s, trade unionism was overshadowed, to some extent, by political activity. Of particular importance was Chartism, the aims of which were supported by most socialists, although none appear to have played leading roles.

More permanent trade unions were established from the 1850s, better resourced but often less radical. The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868. The legal status of trade unions in the United Kingdom was established by a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organizations was to the advantage of both employers and employees. Legalized in 1871.

The strongest unions of the mid-Victorian period were unions of skilled workers such as the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. Trade unionism amongst semi-skilled and unskilled workers made little progress until the emergence of the New Unions in the late 1880s. Unions played a prominent role in the creation of the Labour Representation Committee which effectively formed the basis for today's Labour Party, which still has extensive links with the Trade Union Movement in Britain.

The years 1910-14 witnessed serious industrial unrest and an enormous increase in trade union membership which affected all industries, though to differing extents. The First World War resulted in a further increase in union membership, as well as widespread recognition of unions and their increased involvement in management.

[edit] Impact of Unions

Union supporters often state that the labour movement brought an end to child labor practices, improved worker safety, increased wages for both union and non-union workers, raised the entire society's standard of living, reduced the hours in a work week, fought for and won public education for children, and brought a host of other benefits to working class families [citation needed].

This is considered particularly important for groups who are more likely to suffer "labour-market discrimination." On average, women in Britain earn 20% less than men for the same work but women who are union members earn 24% more than those who are not [1]. In the People's Republic of China, the pay gap between men and women has actually increased in recent years despite the booming economy [2].

[edit] Criticism

Trade unions are often accused of benefiting the insider workers, those having secure jobs and high productivity, at the cost of the outsider workers, consumers of the goods or services produced, and the shareholders of the unionised business. The ones that are likely to lose the most from a trade union are those who are unemployed or at the risk of unemployment or who are not able to get the job that they want in a particular area of work <ref>Card David, Krueger Alan. (1995). Myth and measurement: The new economics of the minimum wage. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.</ref>

Critics sometimes claim, viewing labor as a commodity, unions essentially operate by cartelizing labor.<ref>Charles Baird "Unions and Antitrust:Governmental Hypocrisy." The Freeman, Vol. 50 No. 2. Foundation for Economic Education, New York.</ref>

The higher cost of labor in union-employing businesses increases overhead and raises the price of the goods and services those companies offer. This also affects the overhead expenses of other businesses who rely on union-employing businesses for goods and services, raising the price they must offer to the customer as well.

The higher cost offered by union-employing companies leaves them with a competitive disadvantage, which has in certain cases[citation needed] led to bribery, extortion and other illegal tactics to secure contracts with unions where they would otherwise not be able to compete.

The competitive disadvantage felt by union-employing businesses often leads to a search for cheaper labor. In the United States, the outsourcing of labor to India, China, Mexico and Africa has been partially driven by increasing costs of union partnership.

Union strikes have significant adverse effects, such as the confusion resulting at schools when teachers' unions strike and the paralysis of an entire city, or even country, as strikers such as traffic controllers refuse to work, or farmers block roads.

Critics also contend that unionized workers may feel protected in their employment to the extent that they produce poor-quality goods[citation needed], refuse to perform tasks outside their prescribed duties[citation needed], and work fewer hours or days than non-protected workers[citation needed].

[edit] Union publications

Several sources of current news exist about the trade union movement in the world. These include LabourStart and the official website of the international trade union movement Global Unions.

Another source of Labor news is the Workers Independent News, a news organization providing radio articles to independent and syndicated radio shows.

Labor Notes is the largest circulation cross-union publication remaining in the United States--reports news and analysis about labor activity or problems facing the labor movement.

[edit] See also

This article has a
Translation summary:

A Trade union is an organization which has the stated purpose to promote and protect the interests of a collection of workers.

Often trade unions are the workers' representative when negotiating wages or working conditions with employers and/or governments.

  • In some countries trade unions enjoy considerable freedom, from the right to Freedom of Association, to public demonstrations and active protest against political opponents.
  • In other countries trade unions are actively suppressed by political or military regimes, with little or no freedoms, and the prospect of violence or even death.

Trade unions are unavoidably political, and often attract both passionate support, and heated disagreement.

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[edit] Union related topics

[edit] Types of Unions

[edit] Major Unions

[edit] Related Books and Films

  • 1985 documentary film: 'Final Offer' by Sturla Gunnarsson & Robert Collision. It shows the 1984 union contract negotiations with General Motors. It's an interesting look at the hard world of business negotiations and union politics (it's from the 1980s but still relevant today).
  • Norma Rae, Director: Martin Ritt, USA 1979 – A film based on the true story of Crystal Lee Jordan's successful attempt to unionize her Southern USA textile factory.

[edit] External links

[edit] International

[edit] Europe

  • Trade union membership 1993-2003 - European Industrial Relations Observatory report on membership trends in 26 European countries
  • Trade Union Ancestors - Listing of 5,000 UK trade unions with histories of main organisations, trade union "family trees" and details of union membership and strikes since 1900.
  • TUC History online - History of the British union movement

[edit] USA

[edit] General

[edit] References

[edit] Footnotes

<references/>

[edit] General

  1. Clarke, T., Clements, L. (1978). Trade Unions under Capitalism. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-00728-9.
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Trade union

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