Learn more about Sparta
- For other uses see: Sparta (disambiguation).
Sparta (Doric: Σπάρτα, Attic: Σπάρτη) is a city in southern Greece. In antiquity it was a Dorian Greek militarist state, whose territory included Laconia and Messenia, dominating over Peloponnese. During the classical age of Greece, she had the most powerful Greek army. The modern town is situated some kilometres away from the ancient site. Technically, 'Sparta' was the name of the ancient town; Lacedaemon, (Greek Λακεδαίμων), was the wider city-state. Sparta is now normally used for both. The Spartans were believed to be the descendants of Heracles.
|Image:Flag of Greece.svg Sparta (Σπάρτη)|
| Image:Sparta map.png
|Coordinates||37°4′ N 22°26′ E|
|Population||18,184 source (2001)|
|Population density||215 /km²|
|Postal code||231 00|
|Licence plate code||ΑΚ|
The city of Sparta lies at the southern end of the central Laconian plain, on the right bank of the river Eurotas. The site was strategically located; guarded from three sides by mountains and controlling the routes by which invading armies could penetrate Laconia and the southern Peloponnesus via the Langhda Pass over Mt Taygetus. At the same time, its distance from the sea—Sparta is 27 miles from its seaport, Gythium—made it difficult to blockade.
Sparta had the best army in ancient Greece; it was the most powerful state before the rise of Athens, and many would argue that it remained so afterwards. Also, following the defeat of Athens in the First Peloponnesian War, it became a great naval power. Sparta and Athens were reluctant allies against the Persians, but became rivals thereafter. The greatest series of conflicts between the two states, which resulted in the dismantling of the Athenian Empire, is called the Peloponnesian War. Athenian attempts to control Greece and take over the Spartan role of 'guardian of Hellenism' ended in failure. The first ever defeat of a Spartan hoplite army at full strength occurred at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, after which Sparta's position as the dominant Greek city-state swiftly disappeared with the loss of its Helots. By the time of the rise of Alexander the Great in 336 BC, Sparta was a shadow of its former self, clinging to an isolated independence. During the Punic Wars Sparta was an ally of the Roman Republic. Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was eventually overpowered by its ancient rival Argos and forced into the Achaean League.
Spartans continued their way of life even after the Roman conquest of Greece. The city became a tourist exhibit for the Roman elite who came to observe the "unusual" Spartan customs. Supposedly, following the disaster that befell the Roman Imperial Army at the Battle of Adrianople (378 AD), a Spartan phalanx met and defeated a force of raiding Visigoths in battle. There is, however, no genuine evidence of this occurring.
Little is known of the internal development on Sparta. Many Greeks believed there had been none, and that "the stability of the Spartan constitution" had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus. Seeing how most of Spartan laws were passed down orally and committed to memory, little is known about Spartan society. Spartan society was considered primitive even by Greek standards. Settlements were scattered and mirrored the dwellings during Greece's 'Dark Age' (1150–700 BC) which means that they were mostly thatched houses. Stone construction was reserved for public works such as temples, government halls, and gymnasiums. What we do know of Spartan society comes from historians of that time.
Sparta was a mixed Constitutional system, it was comprised of elements of both Monarchical, Oligarchial, and Democratic systems. The Spartan government was by many standards considered totalitarian. Laws regulated everything from child birth to beards and the length of males' hair.
The Spartans had no historical, literature, or written laws, which were, according to tradition, expressly prohibited by an ordinance of Lycurgus. The Doric state of Sparta, copying the Doric Cretans, developed a mixed governmental state. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontids families, equal in authority, so that one could not act against the veto of his colleague, though the Agiad king received greater honour in virtue of the seniority of his family (Herod. vi. 5). The origins of the powers exercised by the assembly of the citizens, or apella, are virtually unknown, due to the paucity of historical documentation.
There are several legendary explanations for this unusual dual kingship, which differ only slightly; for example, that King Aristodemus had twin sons, who agreed to share the kingship, and this became perpetual. Modern scholars have advanced various theories to account for the anomaly. Some theorize that this system was created in order to prevent absolutism, and is paralleled by the analogous instance of the dual consuls at Rome. Others believe that it points to a compromise arrived at to end the struggle between two families or communities. Other theories suggest that this was an arrangement that was met when a community of villages combined to form the city of Sparta. Subsequently the two chiefs from the largest villages became kings. Another theory suggest that the two royal houses represent respectively the Spartan conquerors and their Achaean predecessors: those who hold this last view appeal to the words attributed by Herodotus (v. 72) to Cleomenes I: "I am no Dorian, but an Achaean;" although this is usually explained by the (equally legendary) descent of Aristodemus from Heracles. Either way, Kingship in Sparta was hereditary and thus every King Sparta had was a descendant of the Agiad or Eurypontids family. Accession was given to the male child who was first born after a King's accession.
The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial and militaristic functions. They were the chief priests of the state, and performed certain sacrifices and also maintained communication with the Delphian sanctuary, which always exercised great authority in Spartan politics. In the time of Herodotus (about 450 BC), their judicial functions had been restricted to cases dealing with heiresses, adoptions and the public roads. Civil cases were decided by the ephors, and criminal jurisdiction had been passed to the ephors, as well as a council of elders. The dual kings' power was exercised in most aspects of Spartan life, military, religious, and judicial. By 500 B.C. the Spartans had become increasingly involved in the political affairs of the surrounding City States. Often times putting their weight behind Pro-Spartan candidates. Shortly before 500 B.C., as described by Herodotus, such an action fueled a confrontation between Sparta and Athens. The two Kings, Demeratus and Cleomenes took their troops to Athens. However, just before the heat of battle, King Demeratus changed his mind about attacking the Athenians and abandoned his Co-King. For this reason, Demeratus was banished, eventually found himself at the side of Persian King Xerxes for his invasion of Greece twenty years later (480 B.C.), and the Spartans enacted a law demanding that one king remain behind in Sparta while the other commanded the troops in battle. This was one of the reasons why King Leonidas, in 480 B.C., led his 300 bodyguards to Thermopylae where they confronted Xerxes' Army.
Aristotle describes the kingship at Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" (Pol. iii. I285a), while Isocrates refers to the Spartans as "subject to an oligarchy at home, to a kingship on campaign" (iii. 24). Here also, however, the royal prerogatives were curtailed over time. Dating from the period of the Persian wars, the king lost the right to declare war, and was accompanied on the field by two ephors. He was supplanted also by the ephors in the control of foreign policy. Over time, the kings became mere figure-heads except in their capacity as generals. Real power was transferred to the ephors and to the gerousia. Causes for this change lay partly in the fact that the ephors, chosen by popular election from the whole body of citizens, represented a democratic element in the constitution without violating those oligarchical methods which seemed necessary for the state's administration. They also lay partly in the weakness of the kingship, the dual character of which inevitably gave rise to jealousy and discord between the two holders of the office, often resulting in a practical deadlock. Another cause lay in the loss of prestige suffered by the kingship, especially during the 5th century, owing to these aforementioned quarrels, to the frequency with which kings ascended the throne as minors making the creation of regencies necessary. The dual kingship's prestige also suffered due to the fact that the kings were, rightly or wrongly, suspected of having taken bribes from the enemies of the state at one time or another.
 State organization
After the ephors were introduced, they together with the two kings were the executive branch of the state. Ephors themselves had more power than anyone in Sparta, although the fact that they only stayed in power for a single year reduced their ability to conflict with already established powers in the state. Since reelection was not possible, an ephor who abused his power, or confronted an established power center, would have to suffer retaliation. The difference with today's states is that Sparta had a special policy maker. That was gerousia, a council consisting of 28 elders, elected for life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings. High state policy decisions were discussed by this council that proposed action alternatives to Spartan citizens (called Damos in Spartan dialect). Damos had to select one of the alternatives by voting.
Not all inhabitants of the Spartan state were considered to be citizens (part of Damos). Only the ones that had followed the military training, called the agoge, were eligible. However, the only people eligible to recieve the agoge were Spartans, or people who could trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city. Others in the state were the Perioeci, who can be described as civilians, and Helots who were state owned serfs. Due to the fact that descendants of non-Spartan citizens were not able to follow the agoge, and Spartans could lose their citizenship if they couldn't afford to pay the expenses of the agoge, the actual number of the Spartan citizens was constantly reduced, known as oliganthropia.
 Foreign Policy
Sparta, by the 5th century BC, was the most powerful nation in all of Greece. Unlike many of the Greek city-states it had only one colony, and most of its power came from alliances with other regions. Sparta was not an empire: no tribute was paid except in times of war. What Sparta essentially formed was a league, and they chose their allies strategically. For example, Sparta favoured Corinth because of its naval fleet. The allies would vow to have the same friends and enemies, follow Sparta wherever they led, and not go to war unless all the allies were in consensus. The league's governmental structure was fairly democratic; it met in Corinth and was led by Sparta. The Congress, as it was called, consisted of representatives from each of the allied city states who each held one vote.
 Social customs
Sparta was, above all, a military state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, the mother of the child bathed it in wine to see whether the child was strong. If the child survived it was brought before the elders of the tribe, by the child's father, who decided whether it was to be reared or not. If found defective or weak, the baby was left on the wild slopes of Mt Taygetos. In this way the Spartans attempted the maintenance of high physical standards in their population. From the earliest days of the Spartan citizen, the claim on his life by the state was absolute and strictly enforced.
It was customary in Sparta that before the males would go off to war, their wives or another female of some significance would present them with their shield and say: "Etan I Epitas" (Ηταν Η Επιτας) which translates to "With this or upon this." The idea was that a Spartan could only return to Sparta in one of two ways, victorious or dead. If a Spartan hoplite were to return to Sparta alive and without his shield, it was assumed that he threw his shield at the enemy in an effort to flee; an act punishable by death or banishment. Burials in Sparta were also considered an act of honor, marked headstones would only be granted to Spartan soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign (or females who died in service of a divine office or in childbirth).
A strong emphasis was placed on honor and carrying out acts because it was the 'right thing to do.' Xenophon wrote about the Spartans as he observed them during an Olympic game:
"An elderly man was trying to find a place to sit and observe the Olympic Games, as he went to each section. All the others Greeks laughed as he tried to make his way through. Some ignored him. Upon entering the Spartan section all the Spartans stood and offered the elderly man their seats. Suddenly the entire stadium applauded. All the Greeks knew what was the right thing to do, but the Spartans were the only ones who did it."
Until the age of seven, boys were educated at home and were taught to fight their fears as well as general superstition by their nurses, who were prized in Greece. Their training was then undertaken by the state in the agoge system and supervised by the paidonomos, an official appointed for that purpose. This training consisted for the most part in physical exercises, such as dancing, gymnastics, and ball-games. The Dorians were the first to introduce nudity in athletics, as well as oiling the body during exercise to enhance its beauty, a costly practice which broke with the customary frugality of the Spartans.<ref>Thomas F. Scanlon, "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in Sixth-Century BC Greece," in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, ed. B. C. Verstraete and V. Provencal, Harrington Park Press, 2005, pp. 76–77</ref> According to Plato this practice was introduced from Crete to Sparta, and then to the rest of Greece.
Training in music and literature occupied a subordinate position. The tireless emphasis on physical training gave Spartans the reputation for being “laconic”, economical with words, a word derived from the name of their homeland of Laconia. Education was also extended to girls, in the belief that strong and intelligent mothers would produce strong and intelligent children. Thus modern day historians, with the corroboration of ancient writers, tend to conclude that Spartan women were among the most educated in the ancient Greek world. Both sexes exercised nude and because of this a strong emphasis was placed on the physical fitness for men as well as women. Despite their physical fitness, women could not compete in the Olympic Games, according to the Olympic rules (they competed in the Heraea Games instead). There were also contests to see who could take the most severe flogging, an ordeal known as diamastigosis.
At the age of thirteen, young men were arranged into groups, and were sent off into the countryside with nothing, and were expected to survive on wits and cunning. It was assumed that they would steal their food, yet anyone caught stealing was severely punished. Many speculate that this was to teach the young Spartans stealth and quickness. If you were caught it was concluded that you were not quick enough or silent enough. This was called the Crypteia, secret (ritual). This was very probably, in origin, an old initiation rite, a preparation for their later career as elite soldiers.
Other sources claim that the Crypteia (or Krypteia) was an "adolescent death squad" made up of the most promising young Spartans. Their job was to roam the countryside killing Helots at night in order to instill fear in the slave population and prevent rebellion.
 Military life
The ordinary Spartan was a warrior, trained to obey and endure; he became a politician only if chosen as ephor for a single year. He could be elected a life member of the council after his sixtieth year, in which he would be free from military service.
At the age of twenty, the Spartan began his military service and his membership in one of the syssitia (dining messes or clubs), composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member. The Spartan exercised the full rights and duties of a citizen at the age of thirty. Only native Spartans were considered full citizens, and needed to undergo the training as prescribed by law, and participation in and contribution to one of the dining-clubs. Those who fulfilled these conditions were considered "peers," (homoioi) citizens in the fullest sense of the word, while those who failed were called "lesser men," and retained only the civil rights of citizenship.
Spartans were absolutely debarred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the perioeci, and were forbidden (in theory) to possess either gold or silver. Spartan currency consisted of bars of iron, thus making thievery and foreign commerce very difficult and discouraging the accumulation of riches. Wealth was, in theory at least, derived entirely from landed property, and consisted in the annual return made by the Helots, who cultivated the plots of ground allotted to the Spartans. But this attempt to equalize property proved a failure: from the earliest times, there were marked differences of wealth within the state, and these became even more serious after the law of Epitadeus, passed at some time after the Peloponnesian War, removed the legal prohibition of the gift or bequest of land. Helots were ruthlessly controlled, primarily through the secret police or Krypteia.
Full citizens, released from any economic activity, were given a piece of land (kleros), which was cultivated and run by the Helots. As time went on, greater portions of land were concentrated in the hands of large landholders, but the number of full citizens decreased over time. Citizens had numbered 8,000 at the beginning of the 5th century BC, but had decreased by Aristotle's day (384–322BC) to less than 1,000, and had further decreased to 700 at the accession of Agis IV in 244 BC. Attempts were made to remedy this situation by creating new laws. Certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life. These laws, however, came too late and were ineffective in reversing the trend.
Perhaps the most widely known event on the efficiency of the Spartan war-machine is related to the Persian Wars. The Spartan stand at the Battle of Thermopylae has been repeatedly cited in a military Grand Strategy context as a role model on the advantages of training, strategy and bravery against extremely overwhelming odds.
 Social life
Despite modern conceptions, homosexuality in Greece was only contained to a few select city-states. Yet one can not deny that the 'moral lines' of sexuality were less defined in ancient times as they are now. In Sparta, because of the boys military training beginning at a young age, it is suggested that Spartans were homosexual. Bisexual relations were common place among Spartan women, and it was often considered acceptable for married Spartan women to have affairs with unmarried women in their prime. This, by modern standards, would be considered adultery, but the Spartans did not consider it as such, and therefore Sparta was also one of the most monogomous city states in the known Greek world. There is one exception to the normal rule regarding marriages in Sparta. Women were more independent than in other Greek societies, and were able to negotiate with their husbands to bring their lovers into their homes. According to Plutarch in his work Life of Lycurgus, men both allowed and encouraged their wives to bear the children of other men, due to the general communal ethos which made it more important to bear many progeny for the good of the city, than to be jealously concerned with one's own family unit. However, some historians argue that this 'wife sharing' was only reserved for elder males who had not yet produced an heir. For this reason, Plutarch claims that the concept of "adultery" was alien to the Spartans, and relates that one ancient Spartan had said that it was as possible to find a bull with a neck long enough to stand on a mountain top and drink from a river below, as to find an adulterer in Sparta.
There is a well-known passage in Thucydides which runs thus:
- "Suppose the city of Sparta to be deserted, and nothing left but the temples and the ground-plan, distant ages would be very unwilling to believe that the power of the Lacedaemonians was at all equal to their fame.
- "Their city is not built continuously, and has no splendid temples or other edifices; it rather resembles a group of villages, like the ancient towns of Hellas, and would therefore make a poor show" (i. 10, trans. Jowett).
The first feeling of most travellers who visit modern Sparta is one of disappointment with the ancient remains. A better "show" is put on by Byzantine Mistra, with its grass-grown streets, its decaying houses, its ruined fortress and its beautiful churches. Until the early twentieth century, the chief ancient buildings at Sparta were the theatre, of which, however, little showed above ground except portions of the retaining walls; the so-called Tomb of Leonidas, a quadrangular building, perhaps a temple, constructed of immense blocks of stone and containing two chambers; the foundation of an ancient bridge over the Eurotas; the ruins of a circular structure; some remains of late Roman fortifications; several brick buildings and mosaic pavements.
The remaining archaeological wealth consisted of inscriptions, sculptures, and other objects collected in the local museum, founded by Stamatakis in 1872 (and enlarged in 1907). Excavations were carried on near Sparta, on the site of the Amyclaeum in 1890 by (?)Tsounas, and in 1904 by Furtwängler, and at the shrine of Menelaus in Therapne by Ross in 1833 and 1841, and by Kastriotis in 1889 and 1900. Organized digs were attempted in the area of Sparta proper; partial excavation of the round building was undertaken in 1892 and 1893 by the American School at Athens. The structure has been since found to be a semicircular retaining wall of Hellenic origin that was partly restored during the Roman period.
In 1904, the British School at Athens began a thorough exploration of Laconia, and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae, Geronthrae, and Angelona near Monemvasia as several medieval fortresses were being surveyed. In 1906, excavations began in Sparta itself, yielding many finds, which have been published in the British School Annual, vol. xii. sqq.
A small circus described by Leake proved to be a theatre-like building constructed soon after AD 200 around the altar and in front of the temple of Artemis Orthia. Here musical and gymnastic contests took place as well as the famous flogging ordeal (diamastigosis). The temple, which can be dated to the 2nd century BC, rests on the foundation of an older temple of the 6th century, and close beside it were found the remains of a yet earlier temple, dating from the 9th or even the 10th century. The votive offerings in clay, amber, bronze, ivory and lead found in great profusion within the precinct range, dating from the 9th to the 4th centuries BC., supply invaluable evidence for early Spartan art; they prove that Sparta reached her artistic zenith in the 7th century and that her decline had already begun in the 6th.
In 1907, the sanctuary of Athena "of the Brazen House" (Chalkioikos) was located on the acropolis immediately above the theatre, and though the actual temple is almost completely destroyed, the site has produced the longest extant archaic inscription of Laconia, numerous bronze nails and plates, and a considerable number of votive offerings. The Greek city-wall, built in successive stages from the 4th to the 2nd century, was traced for a great part of its circuit, which measured 48 stades or nearly 10km. (Polyb. 1X. 21). The late Roman wall enclosing the acropolis, part of which probably dates from the years following the Gothic raid of 262 AD, was also investigated. Besides the actual buildings discovered, a number of points were situated and mapped in a general study of Spartan topography, based upon the description of Pausanias. Excavations showed that the town of the Mycenean Period was situated on the left bank of the Eurotas, a little to the south-east of Sparta. The settlement was roughly triangular in shape, with its apex pointed towards the north. Its area was approximately equal to that of the "newer" Sparta, but denudation has wreaked havoc with its buildings and nothing is left save ruined foundations and broken potsherds.
 The Spartan World
Around the middle of the 6th century BC, the southern Peloponnese was Spartan territory. With an area of 8,050 square kilometres, it was the largest state in Greece. The territory was divided into two parts, Laconia and Messenia, which were separated by the Taygetos mountain range. Unlike other Greek cities, Sparta controlled much arable land. Earliest archeological evidence testifying settlement in Sparta dates from around 950 BC.
Around 750 BC, Sparta began expanding slowly but steadily. The subjugated population of Laconia either became Helots or Perioeci. The Helots kept their farmland but were required to deliver half of their output to the Spartan state, while the Perioeci were inhabitants of cities that remained autonomous, save in matters of foreign affairs and military actions. The Perioeci formed a vital part of Spartan society. As Spartans were forbidden non-military pursuits and occupations, the Perioeci worked as traders, craftsmen, and artists. From 650 to 620 BC, Sparta brought Messenia under its control. In the first third of the 6th century. Sparta was defeated by the city of Argos and later by Tegea. It was against the backdrop of the Messenian war and the following defeats that the unique Spartan way of life developed, which made Sparta famous in Ancient Greece.
From 550 BC onwards, the goals of the Spartan cosmos – toughness of body and mind as well as military efficiency – seem to have been achieved. Sparta did not suffer under the rule of any tyrant or dictator, and its phalanxes were considered undefeatable. "Spartan" remains synonymous for anyone rigorously self-disciplined or courageous in the face of pain, danger, or adversity. However, Sparta was a nation closed off from the influence of other nations, with few foreign imports and ideas, creating a barren cultural world, devoid of great works of music and literature. According to Byzantine sources, some parts of the Laconian region remained pagan until well into the 10th century AD, and Doric-speaking populations survive until today.
 Modern Sparta
Prior to modern times, the site of Sparta was occupied by a relatively small village that lay in the shadow of Mystras, a more important medieval Greek settlement nearby. In 1834, after the Greek War of Independence, King Otto of Greece decreed that the village was to be rebuilt into a city on and bear the same name (pronounced Sparti in Demotic Greek, Sparta in Tsakonian). The city was designed with the intention of creating one of the most beautiful cities in Greece through the use of tree-lined boulevards and parklands. During the monarchy, the title of Duke of Sparta was used as primogeniture for the diadochos, i.e. the Greek crown prince. At present, Sparta is the administrative capital of the prefecture of Laconia. A Laconian Doric (Spartan) language known as Tsakonian survives in the Laconian region of Peloponnese until the modern era, although today its number of native speakers has significantly decreased.
|Year||Communal population||Municipal population|
 In modern culture
- The term "spartan" has entered modern language to mean something that strictly utilitatiran and devoid of luxuries and "non-essential comforts". Classic examples would be the living quarters on many naval warships.
- The Spartan culture is popularized in the Stephen Pressfield novel, "Gates of Fire," and Spartan by Valerio Massimo Manfredi
- Laconic wit (from Lacedonia - ancient region of Sparta) is seen as a harsh method of communication abrupt in its nature and delivery.
- Frank Miller's illustrated comic 300 (1998), about the battle of Thermopylae and The 300 Spartans; is also being turned into a movie (to be released 2007).
- Michigan State University, San Jose State, and Case Western Reserve University's mascot is the Spartans
- In the video game God of War, the protagonist Kratos is an exiled general from the army of Sparta.
- In the video game Halo, the main character is the leader of elite, genetically enhanced, super-soldiers known as Spartans.
 See also
 References and further reading
- W. G. Forest. A History of Sparta, 950–192 B.C.. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1968.
- Ernle Bradford. The Battle for the West-Thermopylae 480. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
- Cartledge, Paul. Spartan Reflections. London: Duckworth, 2001.
- Cartledge, Paul. "What have the Spartans Done for us?: Sparta’s Contribution to Western Civilization", Greece & Rome, Vol. 51, Issue 2 (2004), pp. 164–179.
 External links
- Traveljournals.net - Location of Sparta on world map
- GTP - Sparta
- GTP - Municipality of Sparta
- GTP - Ancient Sparta
- Sparta Reconsidered - History, beliefs and culture of Ancient Sparta
- Journal of Laconian Studies - A peer-review open source Journal for the study of Laconian history
- Sparta - An educational periodical for Sparta & Greek history
- Ancient Sparta - extensive black and white photo-essays of the site and related artifacts
|Municipalities and communities of the Laconia Prefecture|
|Asopos • East Mani • Elos • Faris • Geronthres • Gytheio • Krokees • Molaoi • Monemvasia • Mystras • Niata • Oinountas • Oitylo • Pellana • Skala • Smynos • Sparta • Therapnes • Voies • Zarakas|
|Elafonisos • Karyes|
|Topics about Ancient Greece edit|
|Places: Aegean Sea | Hellespont | Macedon | Sparta | Athens | Corinth | Thermopylae | Antioch | Alexandria | Pergamon | Miletus | Delphi | Olympia | Troy|
|Life: Agriculture | Art | Cuisine | Economy | Law | Medicine | Pederasty | Pottery | Prostitution | Slavery|
|Philosophy: Pythagoras | Heraclitus | Parmenides | Protagoras | Empedocles | Democritus | Socrates | Plato | Aristotle | Zeno | Epicurus|
|Literature: Homer | Hesiod | Pindar | Aeschylus | Sophocles | Euripides | Aristophanes | Herodotus | Thucydides | Xenophon | Polybius|
|Buildings: Parthenon | Temple of Artemis | Acropolis | Ancient Agora | Arch of Hadrian | Statue of Zeus | Temple of Hephaestus | Samothrace temple complex|
|Chronology: Aegean civilization | Mycenaean civilization | Greek dark ages | Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Greece | Roman Greece|
<span class="FA" id="fr" style="display:none;" /> <span class="FA" id="he" style="display:none;" /> <span class="FA" id="es" style="display:none;" />
af:Sparta ar:أسبرطة bg:Спарта ca:Esparta cs:Sparta da:Sparta de:Sparta et:Sparta el:Σπάρτη es:Esparta eo:Sparto eu:Esparta fr:Sparte ga:Sparta hr:Sparta io:Sparta is:Sparta it:Sparta he:ספרטה la:Sparta lb:Sparta lt:Sparta hu:Spárta nl:Sparta (Griekenland) ja:スパルタ no:Sparta nn:Sparta pl:Sparta pt:Esparta ro:Sparta ru:Спарта simple:Sparta sk:Sparta (starovek) sl:Sparta sr:Спарта fi:Sparta sv:Sparta tr:Sparta uk:Спарта zh:斯巴达