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Continuum mechanics
Solid mechanics
Fluid mechanics

A solid object is in the phase of matter characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume.

At the microscopic scale, a solid has these properties:

  • The atoms or molecules that comprise the solid are packed closely together.
  • These constituent elements have fixed positions in space relative to each other. This accounts for the solid's rigidity.
    • If sufficient force is applied, either of these properties can be violated, causing permanent deformation.
  • Because any solid has some thermal energy, its atoms vibrate. However, this movement is very small and very rapid, and cannot be observed under ordinary conditions.

The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is a type of condensed matter physics. Materials science is primarily concerned with properties of solids such as strength and phase transformations. It overlaps strongly with solid state physics. Solid-state chemistry overlaps both of these fields, but is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials.

The lightest known solid is man-made and is called aerogel. The lightest aerogel produced has a density of 1.9 mg/cm3 or 1.9 kg/m3 (1/530 as dense as water).

We encounter many solids in our every day lives. Some examples of solids are ice, wood, plastic, and more.

[edit] See also

Look up Solid in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Phases of matter (list)}"> |
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Solid | Liquid | Gas | Plasma
Colloid | Supercritical fluid | Superfluid | Supersolid | Degenerate matter | Quark-gluon plasma | Fermionic condensate | Bose-Einstein condensate | Strange matter
melting point | boiling point | triple point | critical point | equation of state | cooling curve

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