Shahadah

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For other meanings, see Shahada (disambiguation).

Part of a series on the Islamic creed:
Aqidah


Sunni Five Pillars of Islam

Shahādah - Profession of faith
Salat - Prayer
Zakât - Paying of alms (giving to the poor)
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca

Sunni Six articles of belief

Tawhīd - Oneness
Nabi and Rusul - Prophets and Messengers
Kutub - Divinely Revealed Books.
Malā'ikah - Angels
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Qadar - Fate

Shia Twelvers
Principles of the Religion

Tawhīd - Oneness
Adalah - Justice
Nubuwwah - Prophethood
Imamah - Leadership
Qiyâmah - Judgment day

Shia Twelvers
Practices of the Religion

Salat - Prayer
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Zakât - Poor-rate
Khums - One-fifth tax
Jihad - Struggle
Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf - Commanding good
Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbidding evil
Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Tabarra - Disassociating Ahl al-Bayt's enemies

Shia Ismaili 7 pillars

Walayah - Guardianship
Taharah - Purity & cleanliness
Salat - Prayers
Zakât - Purifying religious dues
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad - Struggle

Others

Salafi/Kharijite Sixth pillar of Islam.

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The shahadah (Arabic: شهادة  translit: Shahādah) (Turkish: Şehadet) is the Islamic creed. It means "to testify" or "to bear witness" in Arabic. The shahadah is the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God and in Muhammad as his final prophet. Recitation of the shahadah is one of the Five Pillars of Islam for Muslims.

  • أشهد أن لا إله إلاَّ الله ، وأشهد أن محمد رسول الله
  • 'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāh, wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh
  • I testify that there is no god (ilah) but God (Allah), and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
  • I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

A single honest recitation of the shahādah in Arabic, in front of two Muslim witnesses, is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim according to most traditional schools.

In usage the two occurrences of 'ašhadu 'an (or similar) = "I testify that" are very often omitted.

Some Shi'a Muslims add Alīyun wali Allah ("Ali is the vicegerent of God") at the end of the shahada. This is not compulsory for Shi'a; it is a matter of personal choice, although most Ayatollahs say it is preferable to add it.

Contents

[edit] History

One of the earliest surviving translations of the Shahadah into a foreign language is in Greek, from the reign of al-Walid I (86-96 AH, 705-715 CE): Οὐκ ἔστι[ν θεὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ θεὸς μόνος·] Μααμὲ[τ ἀπόστολος θεοῦ] (Ouk esti[n theos ei mē ho theos monos;] Maame[t apostolos theou]).[1] "There is no god except the single god; Muhammad is god's apostle", i.e. "Allah" is being translated as ὁ θεὸς μόνος "the single god".

Image:Offadinarrev.jpg
the 8th century "Offa dinar" was copied from a gold dinar of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur dated 157AH (773-4 AD). The reverse side reproduces the Shahadah, though the moneyer clearly had no understanding of Arabic as the Arabic text is upside down.

[edit] Conditions of the Shahadah

There are seven critical conditions of the Shahadah, without which it is considered to be meaningless:

  • Al-`Ilm: Knowledge of the meaning of the shahadah, its negation and affirmation.
  • Al-Yaqeen: Certainty – perfect knowledge of it that counter-acts suspicion and doubt.
  • Al-Ikhlaas: Sincerity which negates shirk.
  • Al-Sidq: Truthfulness that permits neither falsehood nor hypocrisy.
  • Al-Mahabbah: Love of the shahadah and its meaning, and being happy with it.
  • Al-Inqiad: Submission to its rightful requirements, which are the duties that must be performed with sincerity to God (alone) seeking His pleasure.
  • Al-Qubool: Acceptance that contradicts rejection.

[edit] Flags

Several national flags display the Shahadah:

[edit] Differences

Part of a series of articles on

Islam

History of Islam

Beliefs and practices

Oneness of God
Profession of Faith
PrayerFasting
CharityPilgrimage

Major figures

Muhammad
Household of Muhammad
Prophets of Islam
Companions of Muhammad

Texts & Laws

Qur'anSunnahHadith
FiqhShariaTheology

Major branches

SunniShi'a

Societal aspects

AcademicsHistory
PhilosophyScience
ArtArchitectureCities
CalendarHolidaysWomen
LeadersPoliticsIslamism

See also

Vocabulary of Islam

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It is considered correct to refer to previous figures such as prophets like Jesus (in Arabic, Isa) as Messengers (rasul), and a few groups (notably certain Sufi mystics) amend the declaration to mention prior prophets whose names are found in the Qur'an.[citation needed]

Sometimes اشهد ان 'ašhadu 'an = "I witness that" is prefixed to each half of the Shahadah.

Sometimes و wa = "and" is prefixed to the first word of the second half of the Shahada.

Some of the relatively small minority, labelled the "Quran Alone Muslims" or the "Quranis" consider the second part of the Shahadah incorrect and say it should not include Muhammad's name, one of the reasons being that the full Shahadah with Muhammad's name is never found in the Qur'an. One who does not believe in both parts of the Shahadah is considered to be outside of the fold of Islam.

Some Indonesian Muslims pray "Allah il Allah" or "Insya Allah" when appealing for God's help. This is an altered form of the first part of the Shahada.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

<references />

[edit] External links

bs:Šehadet da:Shahadah de:Schahada et:Šahada es:Shahada fr:Chahada id:Syahadat is:Trúarjátning múslima it:Shahada he:שהאדה mk:Шехадет ms:Syahadah nl:Shahadah ja:シャハーダ no:Shahadah nn:Sjahádah pl:Szahada pt:Chahada ru:Шахада sq:Deklarata Islame simple:Shahadah su:Sahadat fi:Shahada sv:Shahadah tr:Şehadet ur:شہادت zh:清真言

Shahadah

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