Russo–Turkish War (1735–1739)

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Russo–Turkish War of 1735–1739, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by intensified contradictions over the results of the War of the Polish Succession of 17331735 and endless raids by the Crimean Tatars. The war also represented Russia's continuing struggle for the access to the Black Sea.

[edit] Russian diplomacy before the war

By the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war, Russia had managed to secure a favorable international situation by signing a few treaties with Persia in 1732–1735 (which was at war with Turkey in 17301736) and supporting the accession to the Polish throne of Augustus III in 1735 instead of the French protégé Stanislaw I Leszczynski, nominated by pro-Turkish France. Austria was Russia's ally since 1726.

[edit] The course of the war in 1735–1738

The casus belli was the raids of the Crimean Tatars on Ukraine in the end of 1735 and the Crimean khan's military campaign in the Caucasus. In 1736, the Russian commanders envisioned the seizure of Azov and the Crimea.

On May 20, 1736, the Russian Dnieper army (62,000 men) under the command of Field Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Munnich took by storm the Turkish fortifications at Perekop and occupied Bakhchisaray on June 17. However, lack of supplies coupled with the outbreak of an epidemic forced Munnich to retreat to Ukraine. On June 19, the Russian Don army (28,000 men) under the command of General Peter Lacy with the support from the Don Flotilla under the command of Vice Admiral Peter Bredahl seized the fortress of Azov. In July of 1737, the Munnich army took by storm the Turkish fortress of Ochakov. The Lacy army (already 40,000 men strong) marched into the Crimea the same month, inflicting a number of defeats on the army of the Crimean khan and capturing Karasubazar. However, Lacy and his soldiers had to leave the Crimea due to lack of supplies.

In July of 1737, Austria entered the war against Turkey, but was defeated a number of times. In August, Russia, Austria and Turkey began negotiations in Nemirov, which would turn out to be fruitless. There were no significant military operations in 1738. The Russian army had to leave Ochakov and Kinburn due to the plague outbreak.

[edit] The final stage of the war

In 1739, the Munich army crossed the Dnieper, defeated the Turks at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin (August 19) and Jassy. However, Austria was defeated by the Turks once again and signed the separate Belgrad Peace Treaty with the Ottoman Empire on August 21. This, coupled with the imminent threat of the Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Treaty of Nissa with Turkey on September 18, which ended the war.he:מלחמת רוסיה-תורכיה, 1735-1739 ru:Русско-турецкая война 1735—1739 tr:1735-1739 Osmanlı-Rus Savaşı de:Russisch-Österreichischer Türkenkrieg (1736-1739)

Russo–Turkish War (1735–1739)

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