Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs

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Modern emblem of Russian MVD
Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s

The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. The Ministry is headquartered in Moscow.


[edit] Russian Empire

Created by Alexander I in 1802 in the process of government reforms to replace the aging colleges of Peter the Great, the MVD was one of the most powerful governmental bodies of the Empire, responsible for the police forces and Internal Guards and the supervision of gubernial administrations. Its initial reponsibilies also included penitentiaries, firefighting, state enterprises, the state postal system, state property, construction, roads, medicine, clergy, natural resources, and nobility; most of them were transferred to other ministries and government bodies by the mid-1800s.

Following the growth of the revolutionary movement and assassination of Tsar Alexander II, the Department of State Police inherited the secret police functions of the dismissed Third Section and transferred the most capable Gendarmes to the Okhranka. By World War I, the Department had spawned a counter-intelligence section.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the Gendarmes and the Okhranka were disbanded as anti-revolutionary.

[edit] Soviet era

Having won the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks disbanded the tsarist police forces and formed all-proletarian Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya under NKVD of the Russian SFSR.

In March 1946, all of the People's Commissariats (NK) were redesignated as Ministries (M). The NKVD was renamed the MVD of the Soviet Union, along with its former subordinate, the NKGB which became the MGB of the USSR. The new Union Republics acquired during World War II also created their own Ministries of Internal Affairs. The MVD functioned for a time as the secret police, after Lavrenty Beria merged the MGB into the MVD in March 1953. Within a year Beria's purge caused the MVD to be split up again; after that, the MVD retained its "internal security" (police) functions, while the new KGB took on "state security" (secret police) functions. In 1946 the MVD placed a apparatus in the Australian Legation "Search by expert has revealed a microphone behind the skirting board in the Minister's office and there is reason to suspect the existence of others and the possibility that the whole of the legation may be wired." Deschamps to Burton In his efforts to fight bureaucracy and maintain 'Leninist principles', Nikita Khrushchev, as the Premier of the Union, called for the dismissal of the All-Union MVD. The Ministry ceased to exist in January 1960 and its functions were transferred to the respective Republican Ministries. The MVD of the Russian SFSR was renamed the Ministry for Securing the Public Order in 1962.

Leonid Brezhnev again recreated the All-Union Ministry for Securing the Public Order in July 1966 and later assigned the infamous Nikolay Shchyolokov as Minister; the RSFSR Ministry was disbanded for the second time, the first being at the creation of the NKVD of the Soviet Union. The MVD regained its original title in 1968.

Another role of the reformed MVD was to combat economic crimes, that is to suppress private business which was largely prohibited by socialist law. This fight was never successful due to the pervasive nature of the black market.

By the mid-1980s, the image of the people's militsiya was largely compromised by the corruption and disorderly behaviour of both enlisted and officer staff (the most shocking case was the robbery and murder of a KGB operative by a gang of militioners stationed in Moscow Metro in 1983). Many high-ranking MVD officers, including the Minister himself, were revealed to be routinely bribed by illegal shadow business and criminals.

[edit] Russian Federation

The Russian MVD was recreated as the MVD of the Russian SFSR in 1990, following the restoration of the republican Council of Ministers and Supreme Soviet, and remained when Russia gained independence from the Soviet Union. It currently controls the Militsiya, the State Road Inspection Service (GAI), and the Internal Troops. Since the disbanding of the Tax Police, it also investigates economic crimes.

The long-time additional duties of the Imperial MVD and NKVD, such as the Firefighting Service and Prisons Service, were recently moved to the Ministry of Extraordinary Situations and the Ministry of Justice respectively. The last reorganization abolished Main Directorates inherited from the NKVD in favour of Departments. The current minister of internal affairs in Russia is Rashid Nurgaliyev.

Concerning attrocities in the outskirts of the Chechnyan village Kurchaloi by Kadyrov units on July 27 2006 - July 28 2006 the director of the press office of the troops of the Interior Ministry, Vasily Panchenkov, urged the journalist Anna Politkovskaya, to forget the incident.[1]

Politkovskaya was shot to death in October of the same year. The fact that the murder weapon was left with the body points to a professional hit, although no arrests have been made to date.(20 November 2006)

Image:Militsya on parade.jpg
Russian Militsiya on parade in 2002

[edit] The MVD Central Administration Comprises

1. Criminal Militia Service - the Criminal Investigations Department

  • Main Office for Criminal Investigation
  • Main Office for Combating Financial Crimes
  • Main Office for Combatting Organized Crime
  • Office for Operational Investigation Information
  • Co-ordination Office of Criminal Militia Service

2. Public Security Service - The Uniformed Militia

  • Main Office for Public Order Maintenance
  • Main Office of State Road Safety Inspection - the Highway patrol
  • Main Office of the Interior for Restricted Facilities
  • Main Office of Interdepartmental Security Guard Service
  • Co-ordination Office of Public Security Service

3. Federal Migration service

  • Main Office of the Interior for Transport and Special Transportation
  • Office for Passports and Visas
  • Migration Control Office
  • External Labour Migration Department
  • Legal Office
  • Office for Crisis Situations
  • Office for Resource Provisions
  • Finance and Economy Office

4. Logistical Service

  • Office for Material and Technical Support
  • Finance and Economy Department
  • Medical Office
  • Office for Communication and Automation
  • Office for Capital Construction
  • Co-ordination Office of Logistical Service
  • General Services Office

5. Independent Divisions

  • Office of Affairs - the Secretariat
  • Main Office for Internal Security
  • Control and Auditing Office
  • Internal Troops General Headquarters
  • MVD Inquiry Committee
  • Forensic Expertise Center
  • Main Office for Organization and Inspection - The MVD Inspector General
  • Main Office for Special Technical Actions - OSNAZ, OMON , SOBR/OMSN
  • Main Office for (Special) Investigations
  • National Central Bureau for Interpol
  • Mobilization Training Office
  • Main Center for Information
  • Main Legal Office
  • Office for International Co-operation
  • Office for Information Regional Contacts

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

Police Forces of Russia
Federal level: MVD | FSB | FPS | OMON
Regional level: Militsiya
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Image:Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federal Ministries Image:Flag of Russia.svg
Capital: Moscow

Ministry of Extraordinary Situations | Russian Ministry of Education | Federal Atomic Energy Agency | Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs | Russian Council of Ministers


es:MVD fr:Ministerstvo Vnutrennih Del ja:ロシア内務省 pl:Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych ZSRR ru:Министерство внутренних дел России

Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs

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