Rurik

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For the ships, see Rurik (1892) and Rurik (1906).

Rurik or Riurik (Russian: Рюрик, Old East Norse Rørik, meaning "famous ruler") (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod.

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[edit] Name

Riurik is the Slavic rendering of the same Germanic name as the modern English Roderick, or Spanish and Portuguese Rodrigo. In old Germanic languages it had forms such as Hrodric (Old High German) and Hroðricus (Old English). In Old Norse, Hrœrekr (Norway, Iceland) and Hrørīkr or Rørik (Denmark, Sweden), from which Riurik is derived. The name also appears in Beowulf as Hrēðrīk[1].

[edit] History

There is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Veses and Krivichs "…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.

Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow in Novgorod Oblast, reminiscent of the mounds at Old Uppsala. Intricately defended against looting, it remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik's Grave.

[edit] Disputed origin

Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.

According to the Primary Chronicle Rurik was one of the Rus, a Varangian tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, English and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-9th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland.

Image:Prizvanievaryagov.jpg
Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus arrive in Ladoga.

Some Slavic historians argue that the account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by a pro-Scandinavian chronicler from a hypothetical Norse document. For instance, the Primary Chronicle states that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineus and Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of Beloozero and Izborsk, respectively. Instead of connecting Sineus to Signjotr and Truvor to Torvald, they suggest that the chronicler read a hypothetical Scandinavian document and misinterpreted the Norse words 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) as the names of Rurik's brothers: Sineus and Truvor.

There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. He went so far as to name his mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim. Those who assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle.

[edit] Hrörek of Dorestad

The only Hrörek described in Western chronicles was Roerik of Dorestad, a konung from the royal house of Haithabu. Since the 19th century, there have been attempts to identify him with the Viking prince Rurik of Russian chronicles.<ref>Rurik's identification with Hrörek was propagated by Boris Rybakov and Anatoly Kirpichnikov (see А.Н. Кирпичников: Сказание о призвании варягов. Анализ и возможности источника // Первые скандинавские чтения. - СПб., 1997. - С. 7-18). Alexander Nazarenko objects to this identification (see Nazarenko A., Rjurik и Riis Th., Rorik // Lexikon des Mittelalters. VII. - Munchen, 1995. - P. 880, 1026.)</ref>

Roerik of Dorestad [2] was born about 810/820 to Ali Anulo, 9th King of Haithabu. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from the Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestad in 850, captured Haithabu in 857 and looted Bremen in 859. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears from the Western sources for a considerable period of time. And at that very moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod.

Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 he is already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879.

[edit] Notes and references

<references/>

Preceded by:
none
Prince of Novgorod Succeeded by:
Oleg
bg:Рюрик

cs:Rurik da:Rurik de:Rurik et:Rjurik es:Rurik fo:Rørekur fr:Riourik ko:류리크 it:Rurik la:Ruricus nl:Rurik ja:リューリク no:Rurik pl:Ruryk ru:Рюрик I Новгородский sk:Rurik I. (Kyjevská Rus) fi:Rurik sv:Rurik uk:Рюрик zh:留里克

Rurik

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