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Central market near Nativity Cathedral.

Rostov-on-Don (Russian: Росто́в-на-Дону́, Rostov-na-Donu) is the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia, located on the Don River, just 46 km from the Sea of Azov. Its geographical location is 47°14′N 39°42′E. Population: 1,012,300 (2003 est.); 1,068,267 (2002 Census).


[edit] History

The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais, of the Genoese fort Tana, and of the Turkish fortress Azov. (See the article on Azov for detailed information on those settlements.)

Rostov-on-Don was in essence established in 1749, as a customs house was built on the Don, and soon a large fortress followed. It was named after Saint Dimitry of Rostov, a newly-glorified bishop from the old Northern town Rostov the Great. As Azov gradually declined, a settlement near the new fortress superseded it in importance as a chief commercial centre of the region. In 1796 this settlement received town rights and was renamed Rostov-on-Don, in order to distinguish it from its ancient namesake.

Image:Rostov Obl Adm.JPG
The building of the administration of Rostov Oblast and the monument of the Red Army
Image:Fountain Rostov on Don1.jpg
Fountain in park of Revolution

The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. With such a good geographical position, the city grew rapidly. As the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia, it was a bone of contention between the Whites and the Bolsheviks during the Civil War. By 1928, the regional government was moved from the old Cossack capital Novocherkassk to Rostov, which also engulfed the nearby Armenian town of Nor Nakhijevan.

In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov's principal landmarks - St Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St George Cathedral in Nakhichevan (1783-1807). Much of the city was reduced to rubble by the German forces who occupied it thrice - in 1918, 1941 and 1942. Nowadays, the most conspicuous feature of the downtown is the enormous Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860-87), designed by Konstantin Thon.

The city was also the home of Russia's most notorious serial killer Andrei Chikatilo (though he was not actually born there).

Rostov-on-Don has experienced considerable economic growth in recent years, as the Russian economy recovers nationwide. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed from a place thrown back in time by the collapse of communism into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub.

[edit] Education

Public educational institutions include Rostov State University and Don State Technical University, while the major private university is the Institute of Management, Business and Law. Along with higher education institutions can also be found in Rostov a french cultural center (Alliance francaise) [1], a British Council and German Goethe Institut, DAAD and Bosch foundation.

Rostov Economic State University 'RINH' is very famous University in Rostov-on-Don which includs 5 Institutes as Finance, IT and Management, National and World Economy, Marketing and Commerce, Account and Economics, Law, Linguistics and Journalism and 9 filials. This University has a President Programme. [[2]]

[edit] Sport

Two professional football clubs are based in Rostov-on-Don. FC Rostov play in the Russian Premier League and SKA are in the Second Division. In the Russian Basketball Super League, Rostov is represented by Lokomotiv.

[edit] Sister cities

The city is twinned with:

[edit] External links

Image:Coat of Arms of Rostov oblast.png Cities and towns in Rostov Oblast Image:Flag of Russia.svg
Administrative center: Rostov-on-Don

Aksay | Azov | Bataysk | Belaya Kalitva | Donetsk | Gukovo | Kamensk-Shakhtinsky | Novocherkassk | Novoshakhtinsk | Konstantinovsk | Krasny Sulin | Millerovo | Morozovsk | Proletarsk | Salsk | Semikarakorsk | Shakhty | Taganrog | Tsimlyansk | Volgodonsk | Zernograd | Zverevo

bg:Ростов на Дон

br:Rostov-war-Don ca:Rostov del Don cs:Rostov na Donu de:Rostow am Don et:Rostov Doni ääres es:Rostov del Don eo:Rostov-na-Donu fr:Rostov-sur-le-Don ko:로스토프나도누 id:Rostov na Donu lv:Rostova pie Donas lt:Rostovas prie Dono nl:Rostov aan de Don ja:ロストフ・ナ・ドヌ pl:Rostów nad Donem ro:Rostov-pe-Don ru:Ростов-на-Дону sk:Rostov nad Donom sr:Ростов на Дону fi:Rostov-na-Donu sv:Rostov-na-Donu uk:Ростов-на-Дону zh:顿河畔罗斯托夫


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