Romanos IV

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Image:Romanos et Eudoxie.JPG
Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa.

Romanos IV Diogenes or Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071.

Contents

[edit] Ascension to the throne

Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes and a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family. He had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of conspiracy to seize the throne from the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the empress regent, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, whom he so fascinated that she granted him a free pardon and married him on January 1, 1068.

[edit] Campaigns against the Turks

With this Romanos IV Diogenes became the senior emperor alongside Michael VII, Konstantios Doukas, and Andronikos Doukas. After his coronation he carried on three successful campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, whom he drove beyond the Euphrates in 1068–1069. In 1071 Romanos IV prepared a large-scale expedition against the Seljuk stronghold of Manzikert. Although his forces were numerous, they were not equally well-trained and contained various mercenary units.

[edit] Battle of Manzikert and capture by Alp Arslan

After initial successes in his campaign, Romanos IV fought in the Battle of Manzikert on August 26, 1071. He became isolated from the bulk of his army, which turned to flight, believing that the emperor had been killed. The disorderly withdrawal of the Byzantine army allowed the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan to capture Romanos IV and inflict a disastrous defeat on his forces.

Romanos IV was treated with respect by his captor, who at first had difficulty believing the dusty and tattered warrior brought before him was the Roman Emperor. But then he treated him with extreme kindness, never saying a cruel word to him in the Emperor's eight day stay in his camp, and who then released him in exchange for a treaty and the promise of a hefty ransom.

Gibbon in "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" recorded that Alp Arslan and Romanos IV Diogenes had a most interesting conversation at their meeting. According to Gibbon, when the Sultan asked the Emperor what he should do with him, the Emperor replied "if you are cruel, you will take my life; if you listen to pride, you will drag me at your chariot wheels; if you consult your interest, you will accept a ransom and restore me to my country." When the Sultan asked the Emperor what treatment he could have expected had he been the one vanquished, the Emperor's fierce nature made him reply ""Had I vanquished, I would have inflicted on thy body many a stripe." Gibbon records the Sultan then lecturing the Emperor on Christian forgiveness, and then nobly declared he would not follow an example, the Emperor's, which he abhorred. He then forgave the Emperor, gave him generous terms, put him in a robe reserved for Seljuk royalty, loaded him with presents, and set him free. [1] Norwich states in "Byzantium: The Apogee" that some form of this famous conversation has been recorded by every chronicler of the period and the battle. A full account of this conversation is also preserved in Scylitzes (842, p. 700). The Sultan asked Romanus what he would have done if the Romans had won and the Turkish ruler had been captured. The emperor, without any dissimulation, replied, "I would have flogged you to death!" "But I," said Arslan, "will not imitate you. I have been told that your Christ teaches gentleness and forgiveness of wrong. He resists the proud and gives grace to the humble." [2] Matthew of Edessa, an Armenian historian, also recorded this conversation between Emperor and Sultan.

[edit] Betrayal by his own people

In the meantime the opposition against Romanos IV decided to exploit the situation. The Caesar John Doukas and Michael Psellos relegated Eudokia to a monastery and easily prevailed upon Michael VII to declare Romanos IV deposed. Before Romanos could gather support, he was attacked and defeated by Constantine and Andronikos Doukas, the sons of the Caesar John Doukas. Besieged by Andronikos Doukas in a fortress in Cilicia, Romanos surrendered after a promising to resign his claims to the throne and enter a monastery. While being brought back to Constantinople, Romanos was nevertheless blinded (June 29, 1072) and was sent into exile to the island of Proti. His blinding was carried out so brutally that he soon died because of the injury and subsequent infection.

It was during his reign that the forces of Robert Guiscard captured Bari in 1071, and the Byzantine Empire lost its last holdings in Italy. Unable to stem this process, Romanos IV had turned his attention to affairs in the east.

[edit] Family

By his first wife Anna, a daughter of Alusian of Bulgaria, Romanos IV Diogenes had at least one son:

  • Constantine Diogenes, who died before 1068

By his second wife, the Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he had:

  • Nikephoros Diogenes
  • Leo Diogenes

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] External links

Preceded by:
Michael VII
Byzantine Emperor
1068–1071
Succeeded by:
Michael VII
cs:Roman IV. Diogenes

de:Romanos IV. el:Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης es:Romano IV Diógenes fr:Romain IV gl:Romano IV Dióxenes it:Romano IV di Bisanzio he:רומאנוס הרביעי ka:რომანოზ IV (ბიზანტია) hu:IV. Romanosz nl:Romanus IV van Byzantium ja:ロマノス4世ディオゲネス pl:Roman IV Diogenes pt:Romano IV sk:Roman IV. fi:Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanos IV

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