Republics of Russia
Learn more about Republics of Russia
The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. The republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group of the republic that gives the republic the name is known as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, this nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.
 Constitutional status
Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language (Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia) and have their own constitution. Other federal subjects, such as krais (territories) and oblasts (provinces), do not have this right. The chief executive of a republic has the title of president.
The level of actual autonomy granted to such political units varies but is generally quite extensive. The parliamentary assemblies of such republics have often enacted laws at odds with the federal constitution, and the republics' executives tend to be very powerful. However, this autonomy has been lessened considerably under Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, President of the Russian Federation since 2000, who seeks to impose supremacy of the federal constitution.
The establishment of seven large "federal districts" above the regions and republics of Russia, with presidentially appointed governors overseeing the republics' activities, has strengthened the rule of law, and respect for the constitution, in the republics. In addition, Putin has strengthened the position of the republics' legislatures and weakened the executives. The executive heads of republics are now appointed by the President of Russia himself, but the President's nomination must be acceptable to the republic's parliament.
There is some sort of secessionist movement in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. However, there is strong support for secession among Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, and Chechens. This desire for secession is, however, greatly complicated by the extent to which other ethnic groups reside in their titular republics (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Sakha). (As a result of the Chechen Wars, very few non-Chechens now reside in Chechnya).
 Former "Autonomous Republics"
Autonomous republics were formerly a type of nominally constitutent unit within the Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union. Today, the title is sometimes incorrectly used for the republics of Russia, since they were formerly Autonomous Republics of the USSR under the Soviet system. However, the 1993 Russian Constitution which established the Russian Federation declared them simply "republics." They could resonably be referred to as autonomous republics, but they do not bear the title "autonomous republic."
 List of republics of Russia
|Image:Republics of Russia.png|
|Republic||Continent||Titular Nationality1||Titular Nationality in Republic's Population||Titular Nationality: Language Group||Titular Nationality: Main Religion||Ethnic Russians in Republic's Population||Population4|
|Adygea (Адыгея)||Europe||Adyghe||23%||Caucasian||Sunni Islam||66%||450,000|
|Altai (Алтай)||Asia||Altay||31%||Turkic||Burkhanism, Lamaism, Shamanism||57%||200,000|
|Bashkortostan (Башкортостан)||Europe||Bashkir||28%||Turkic||Sunni Islam||39%||4,000,000|
|Buryatia (Бурятия)||Asia||Buryat||24%||Mongolic||Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism")||69%||1,100,000|
|Chechnya (Чеченская Республика)||Europe||Chechen2||between 70% and 98%||Caucasian||Sunni Islam||unknown7||unknown7|
|Chuvashia (Чувашская Республика)||Europe||Chuvash||68%||Turkic||Russian Orthodoxy||27%||1,400,000|
|Dagestan (Дагестан)||Europe||10 indigenous nationalities3||80%||Caucasian,Turkic5||Sunni Islam||12%||1,900,000|
|Ingushetia (Ингушетия)||Europe||Ingush2||77%||Caucasian||Sunni Islam||1%||470,000|
|Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика)||Europe||Kabard, Balkars||66% (Kabardin 55%, Balkars 11%)||Caucasian,Turkic||Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodoxy6||25%||790,000|
|Kalmykia (Калмыкия)||Europe||Kalmyk||53%||Mongolic||Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism")||33%||320,000|
|Karachay-Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская Республика)||Europe||Karachai, Cherkess||50% (Karachai 39%, Cherkess 11%)||Turkic, Caucasian||Sunni Islam||42%||430,000|
|Karelia (Карелия)||Europe||Karelians (related to Finns)||11%||Finno-Ugric||Russian Orthodoxy||72%||800,000|
|Khakassia (Хакас(с)ия)||Asia||Khakas||12%||Turkic||Russian Orthodoxy||80%||580,000|
|Komi (Коми)||Europe||Komi people||~25%||Finno-Ugric||Russian Orthodoxy||58%||1,200,000|
|Mari El (Марий Эл)||Europe||Mari||43%||Finno-Ugric||Russian Orthodoxy||48%||760,000|
|Mordovia (Мордовия)||Europe||Mordvin||36%||Finno-Ugric||Russian Orthodoxy||56%||960,000|
|North Ossetia-Alania (Северная Осетия-Алания)||Europe||Ossetian||53%||Iranian||Russian Orthodoxy, Sunni Islam||30%||650,000|
|Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия))||Asia||Yakut||45%||Turkic||Russian Orthodoxy, Shamanism||41%||1,100,000|
|Tatarstan (Татарстан) (also called Tataria or Tartary)||Europe||Tatar||52%||Turkic||Sunni Islam||39%||3,700,000|
|Tyva (Тыва)||Asia||Tuvans||77%||Turkic||Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism"), Shamanism||20%||310,000|
|Udmurtia (Удмуртская Республика)||Europe||Udmurts||31%||Finno-Ugric||Russian Orthodoxy||59%||1,600,000|
bg:Републики в състава на Руската федерация es:Repúblicas de Rusia eu:Errusiako errepublikak fa:جمهوریهای روسیه fr:Républiques de Russie ko:러시아의 공화국 hr:Ruske republike id:Republik di Rusia it:Repubbliche della Russia he:רפובליקות של רוסיה mk:Руски републики nl:Autonome Republieken van Rusland no:Russlands republikker pl:Republiki w Federacji Rosyjskiej pt:Repúblicas da Rússia ro:Republicile Rusiei ru:Республики Российской Федерации sv:Rysslands delrepubliker tg:Ҷумҳуриҳои Русия zh:俄罗斯自治共和国