Republics of Russia

Learn more about Republics of Russia

Jump to: navigation, search

The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. The republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group of the republic that gives the republic the name is known as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, this nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.

[edit] Constitutional status

Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language (Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia) and have their own constitution. Other federal subjects, such as krais (territories) and oblasts (provinces), do not have this right. The chief executive of a republic has the title of president.

The level of actual autonomy granted to such political units varies but is generally quite extensive. The parliamentary assemblies of such republics have often enacted laws at odds with the federal constitution, and the republics' executives tend to be very powerful. However, this autonomy has been lessened considerably under Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, President of the Russian Federation since 2000, who seeks to impose supremacy of the federal constitution.

The establishment of seven large "federal districts" above the regions and republics of Russia, with presidentially appointed governors overseeing the republics' activities, has strengthened the rule of law, and respect for the constitution, in the republics. In addition, Putin has strengthened the position of the republics' legislatures and weakened the executives. The executive heads of republics are now appointed by the President of Russia himself, but the President's nomination must be acceptable to the republic's parliament.

There is some sort of secessionist movement in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. However, there is strong support for secession among Tatars, Bashkirs, Yakuts, and Chechens. This desire for secession is, however, greatly complicated by the extent to which other ethnic groups reside in their titular republics (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Sakha). (As a result of the Chechen Wars, very few non-Chechens now reside in Chechnya).

[edit] Former "Autonomous Republics"

Autonomous republics were formerly a type of nominally constitutent unit within the Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union. Today, the title is sometimes incorrectly used for the republics of Russia, since they were formerly Autonomous Republics of the USSR under the Soviet system. However, the 1993 Russian Constitution which established the Russian Federation declared them simply "republics." They could resonably be referred to as autonomous republics, but they do not bear the title "autonomous republic."

[edit] List of republics of Russia

Image:Republics of Russia.png
  1. Adygea
  2. Altai
  3. Bashkortostan
  4. Buryatia
  5. Dagestan
  6. Ingushetia
  7. Kabardino-Balkaria

8. Kalmykia
9. Karachay-Cherkessia
10. Karelia
11. Komi
12. Mari El
13. Mordovia
14. Sakha (Yakutia)

15. North Ossetia-Alania
16. Tatarstan
17. Tuva
18. Udmurtia
19. Khakassia
20. Chechnya
21. Chuvashia

RepublicContinentTitular Nationality1Titular Nationality in Republic's PopulationTitular Nationality: Language GroupTitular Nationality: Main ReligionEthnic Russians in Republic's PopulationPopulation4
Adygea (Адыгея) Europe Adyghe 23% Caucasian Sunni Islam 66% 450,000
Altai (Алтай) Asia Altay 31% Turkic Burkhanism, Lamaism, Shamanism 57% 200,000
Bashkortostan (Башкортостан) Europe Bashkir 28% Turkic Sunni Islam 39% 4,000,000
Buryatia (Бурятия) Asia Buryat 24% Mongolic Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism") 69% 1,100,000
Chechnya (Чеченская Республика) Europe Chechen2 between 70% and 98% Caucasian Sunni Islam unknown7 unknown7
Chuvashia (Чувашская Республика) Europe Chuvash 68% Turkic Russian Orthodoxy 27% 1,400,000
Dagestan (Дагестан) Europe 10 indigenous nationalities3 80% Caucasian,Turkic5 Sunni Islam 12% 1,900,000
Ingushetia (Ингушетия) Europe Ingush2 77% Caucasian Sunni Islam 1% 470,000
Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская Республика) Europe Kabard, Balkars 66% (Kabardin 55%, Balkars 11%) Caucasian,Turkic Sunni Islam, Russian Orthodoxy6 25% 790,000
Kalmykia (Калмыкия) Europe Kalmyk 53% Mongolic Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism") 33% 320,000
Karachay-Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская Республика) Europe Karachai, Cherkess 50% (Karachai 39%, Cherkess 11%) Turkic, Caucasian Sunni Islam 42% 430,000
Karelia (Карелия) Europe Karelians (related to Finns) 11% Finno-Ugric Russian Orthodoxy 72% 800,000
Khakassia (Хакас(с)ия) Asia Khakas 12% Turkic Russian Orthodoxy 80% 580,000
Komi (Коми) Europe Komi people ~25% Finno-Ugric Russian Orthodoxy 58% 1,200,000
Mari El (Марий Эл) Europe Mari 43% Finno-Ugric Russian Orthodoxy 48% 760,000
Mordovia (Мордовия) Europe Mordvin 36% Finno-Ugric Russian Orthodoxy 56% 960,000
North Ossetia-Alania (Северная Осетия-Алания) Europe Ossetian 53% Iranian Russian Orthodoxy, Sunni Islam 30% 650,000
Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия)) Asia Yakut 45% Turkic Russian Orthodoxy, Shamanism 41% 1,100,000
Tatarstan (Татарстан) (also called Tataria or Tartary) Europe Tatar 52% Turkic Sunni Islam 39% 3,700,000
Tyva (Тыва) Asia Tuvans 77% Turkic Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism"), Shamanism 20% 310,000
Udmurtia (Удмуртская Республика) Europe Udmurts 31% Finno-Ugric Russian Orthodoxy 59% 1,600,000
Notes:
  1. Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and Dagestan have more than one titular nationality.
  2. The former Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic had two titular nationalities until it was divided into the two Republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia in 1991.
  3. The ten indigenous nationalities of Dagestan are: Aguls, Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, and Tsakhurs.
  4. All population numbers in this table are to two significant figures.
  5. Balkars, Karachai, Kumyks and Nogais are Turkic peoples and Aguls, Avars, Cherkess, Dargins, Laks, Lezgins, Rutuls, Tabasarans, and Tsakhurs are Caucasian
  6. Kabardin and a majority of Balkars are Muslims, but a some Balkars are Russian Orthodox
  7. The Chechen Wars have resulted in much refugee emigration, making accurate population figures for Chechnya impossible. Many supposed "residents of Chechnya" in fact reside elsewhere, for the most part in Ingushetia[citation needed]. In the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR, Russians comprised 23% of the population, and Chechens—58%.
Administrative divisions of Russia Image:Flag of Russia.svg
Federal subjects
Republics Adygea | Altai | Bashkortostan | Buryatia | Chechnya | Chuvashia | Dagestan | Ingushetia | Kabardino-Balkaria | Karelia | Khakassia | Komi | Kalmykia | Karachay-Cherkessia | Mari El | Mordovia | North Ossetia-Alania | Sakha | Tatarstan | Tuva | Udmurtia
Krais Altai | Khabarovsk | Krasnodar | Krasnoyarsk1 | Perm | Primorsky | Stavropol
Oblasts Amur | Arkhangelsk | Astrakhan | Belgorod | Bryansk | Chelyabinsk | Chita | Irkutsk2 | Ivanovo | Kaliningrad | Kaluga | Kamchatka3 | Kemerovo | Kirov | Kostroma | Kurgan | Kursk | Leningrad | Lipetsk | Magadan | Moscow | Murmansk | Nizhny Novgorod | Novgorod | Novosibirsk | Omsk | Orenburg | Oryol | Penza | Pskov | Rostov | Ryazan | Sakhalin | Samara | Saratov | Smolensk | Sverdlovsk | Tambov | Tomsk | Tula | Tver | Tyumen | Ulyanovsk | Vladimir | Volgograd | Vologda | Voronezh | Yaroslavl
Federal cities Moscow | St. Petersburg
Autonomous oblast Jewish
Autonomous okrugs Aga Buryatia | Chukotka | Evenkia1 | Khantia-Mansia | Koryakia3 | Nenetsia | Taymyria1 | Ust-Orda Buryatia2 | Yamalia
  1. On January 1, 2007, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs will be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai.
  2. On January 1, 2008, Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug will be merged into Irkutsk Oblast.
  3. On July 1 2007, Kamchatka Oblast and Koryak Autonomous Okrug will merge to form Kamchatka Krai.
Federal districts
Central | Far Eastern | Northwestern | Siberian | Southern | Urals | Volga
ar:جمهوريات روسيا

bg:Републики в състава на Руската федерация es:Repúblicas de Rusia eu:Errusiako errepublikak fa:جمهوری‌های روسیه fr:Républiques de Russie ko:러시아의 공화국 hr:Ruske republike id:Republik di Rusia it:Repubbliche della Russia he:רפובליקות של רוסיה mk:Руски републики nl:Autonome Republieken van Rusland no:Russlands republikker pl:Republiki w Federacji Rosyjskiej pt:Repúblicas da Rússia ro:Republicile Rusiei ru:Республики Российской Федерации sv:Rysslands delrepubliker tg:Ҷумҳуриҳои Русия zh:俄罗斯自治共和国

Republics of Russia

Views
Personal tools
what is world wizzy?
  • World Wizzy is a static snapshot taken of Wikipedia in early 2007. It cannot be edited and is online for historic & educational purposes only.