Racialism

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Racialism is an emphasis on race or racial considerations[1].

Sometimes the term racialism refers to the belief in the existence and significance of racial categories. In racial separatist ideologies, the term is used to emphasise perceived social and cultural differences among races. Although the term is sometimes used in contrast to racism, it can also be used synonymously with racism. Racialists often cite controversial academic works such as Race, Evolution and Behavior by J. Philippe Rushton, IQ and the Wealth of Nations by Richard Lynn, and The Bell Curve by R.J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray.

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[edit] Distinguishing from racism

While the term racism often refers to individual attitudes and institutional discrimination, racialism usually implies the existence of a social or political movement that promotes a theory of racism. Supporters of racialism claim that racism implies racial supremacism and a harmful intent, whereas racialism indicates a strong interest in matters of race without these connotations. They say their focus is on racial pride, identity politics, or racial segregation. Organisations such as NAAWP insist on these distinctions, and claim that they vehemently oppose state sponsored racism.

The relationship between the two concepts is expressed at length by Kwame Anthony Appiah in his book In My Father's House (1992):

...the view – which I shall call racialism – that there are heritable characteristics, possessed by members of our species, which allow us to divide them into a small set of races, in such a way that all the members of these races share certain traits and tendencies with each other that they do not share with members of any other race.

Pierre-André Taguieff (1987) has used the word racialism as a perfect synonym of scientific racism, to distinguish it from popular racism. He argues that racialism is racism which claims to be scientifically founded. Arthur Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55) is an example of such racialism. Human zoos have been an important component of both popular racism and racialism. It popularized colonialism to the masses and was a subject of curiosity for anthropology and anthropometric studies, until at least the 1930s.

W.E.B. DuBois argues that racialism is the philosophical belief that differences between the races exist, be they biological, social, psychological, or in the realm of the soul. He argues that racism is using this belief to push forward the argument that one's particular race is superior to the others. Kwame Anthony Appiah summarises Dubois' position in his book In My Father's House, chapter 3. Molefi Kete Asante criticises DuBois for this racialism in "The Afrocentric Idea".

[edit] Advocates of racialism

Nazi Germany had a policy of racialism with its concept of "Großdeutschland" (Greater Germany), alongside anti-Semitism and anti-Communism. Malaysia promoted racialism with its policy of "Ketuanan Melayu" or Malay Supremacy, alongside its concept of Bumiputra (Sons of the Soil)

In the United States in the 2000s, the term racialism has been appropriated by white separatist and white supremacist groups such as Christian Identity,<ref>Militias march on, retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref> Aryan Nations<ref>Approving uses of the term were found on Aryan Nations website, retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref>, the American Nazi Party<ref>Approving uses of the term were found on American Nazi party website, retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref>, and White Aryan Resistance.<ref>Approving uses of the term were found on White Aryan Resistance website, retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref>

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] References

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[edit] Bibliography

  • Paul C. Taylor (2000) - Appiah's Uncompleted Argument: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race. (philosopher K. Anthony Appiah) : An article from: Social Theory and Practice ISBN B0008HB770
  • Kwame Anthony Appiah (1993) - In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture - ISBN 0-19-506852-1
  • Kennedy, Paul and Nicholls Anthony (eds.) Nationalist and racialist movements in Britain and Germany before 1914 (Saint Antony's College Press, 1981).
  • Dobratz, Betty A. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States (Twayne Publishers, NY, 1997).
  • Melvern, Linda. Conspiracy to murder: The Rwanda genocide (Verso, London, 2004).
  • Snyder, Louis L. The Idea of Racialism: Meaning and History. (Princeton, NJ, 1962).
  • Stokes, Geoffrey (ed.). The Politics of Identity in Australia. See: John Kane, "Racialism and democracy" (Cambrdige University Press, 1997).
  • Arter, David. "Black Faces in the Blond Crowd: Populist Racialism in Scandinavia", Parliamentary Affairs, July 1992, vol. 45:3, pp. 357-372.
  • Odocha O. Race and racialism in scientific research and publication in the Journal of the National Medical Association. (National Library of Medicine, 2000).
  • Zubaida, Sami (ed.). Race and Racialism (Tavistock, London, 1970).
  • Racial Identity, the Apartheid State, and the Limits of Political Mobilization and Democratic Reform in South Africa: The Case of the University of the Western (Teachers College, Columbia University, 2003).
  • Thompson, Walter Thomas. James Anthony Froude on Nation and Empire: A Study in Victorian Racialism (Taylor & Francis, London, 1998).
  • UNESCO General Conference. Declaration of Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War (University of Hawaii, 1978).bg:Расиализъм

de:Rassentheorien es:Racialismo fr:Racialisme ko:인종본질주의

Racialism

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