Learn more about Queen regnant
A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. This is in contrast with a queen consort, who is merely the spouse of a reigning king, and on her own has no official powers of state.
Technically, a king may also be a "king regnant" or a "king consort" - but this distinction is unusual and, for example, has been used only twice in the history of the British and its predecessor monarchies. In all current monarchies that allow for a Queen regnant to take the Throne, the husband of such Queen is not titled King, generally ranking as a prince, often with the style "Prince Consort". The husband of Mary I of England and Ireland and the second husband of Mary I, Queen of Scots were both created king consorts of their wives' realms, but they were not liked, and the marriages were short. The husband of Mary II, Queen of England and Ireland, and Queen of Scots, was named king regnant co-sovereign with her, as William III of England, II of Scots, and I of Ireland - but this was the only occasion of co-sovereignty, at least officially. Thereafter, the husbands of queens regnant in Britain have been informally styled princes consort (the formal title "Prince Consort," however, being reserved by history to Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria).
Accession of queens regnant occurs as a nation's order of succession permits. Methods of succession (to kingships, tribal chiefships, etc.) include nomination (the sitting monarch or a council names an heir), primogeniture (children of a monarch or chief, in order of birth, eldest to youngest), and ultimogeniture (children in order of birth, youngest to eldest). The scope of succession may be patrilineal, matrilineal or both; or, rarely (usually only when necessary), open to general election. Right of succession by gender may be open to men and women, limited to men only, or limited to women only.
The most typical succession from the Late Middle Ages through to the 20th century was male primogeniture with secondary female primogeniture. That is, the sons of the king succeeded in order of their birth, and then the daughters after the sons. Many realms historically forbade succession by women, however, in obedience to the Salic law; and some still do.
For example, the King of the Netherlands used to be Grand Duke of Luxembourg. But when the last Dutch king died in 1890 and was succeeded by his daughter, obedience to the Salic law prevented Luxembourg from accepting her as Grand Duchess in her own right. Similarly, when Victoria ascended to the throne of the United Kingdom, she did not also become Queen of Hanover.
In the waning days of the Twentieth Century, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands amended their acts of succession to primogeniture with no gender preference. In some cases, the change does not take effect until the generation following the current generations in existence - to avoid dispossessing people who were already in the succession in a particular position.
 List of queens regnant
 Scotland / England / Great Britain / UK / Commonwealth
- Matilda (or Maud) of England (never reigned 1141) – deposed. Styled herself "Lady of the English." (although Queen of the English was not unknown) She was named heir by her father Henry I of England upon securing the loyalty of nobles of the realm, but Count Stephen of Blois contradicted his promise after the king's death and made himself King of England instead of Maud/Matilda. Civil war ensued and was ended when the crown was secured to Maud/Matilda's son, Henry II of England, who became the first king of the House of Plantagenet.
- Margaret, the Maid of Norway (heir March 19, 1286 – September 26, 1290). She was the daughter of Eirik II of Norway and Margaret, daughter of Alexander III. She died on the sea journey to Scotland before being inaugurated.
- Mary I, Queen of Scots (reigned December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567). She became queen when she was six days old, was crowned at age 5, and promptly engaged to the Dauphin of France - the future Francis II.
- Lady Jane Grey (reigned July 10 – July 19, 1553) – Her cousin Edward VI of England appointed her successor by removing his older half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth from the order of succession as illegitimates. This decision had not been approved by Parliament and was open to questions of its legality. Mary was the heir according to the will of their father Henry VIII of England and was elevated to the throne through revolt. Nevertheless, Jane is sometimes considered England's first queen regnant. She is called "The Nine Days Queen."
- Mary I of England (reigned July 19, 1553 – November 17, 1558). Elevated to the throne in accordance with Henry VIII's will. Reckoned the first or second queen regnant and subsequent years of her reign as though Jane had never been Queen.
- Elizabeth I of England (term November 17, 1558 – March 24, 1603). The other sister Edward VI attempted to remove from the order of succession. Succeeded her childless older half-sister. Also died childless.
- Mary II of England/Mary II, Queen of Scots (reigned February 13/April 11, 1689 – December 28, 1694). Co-reigned with her husband William III; they were given the throne by Parliament after the same deposed James II during the so-called Glorious Revolution of 1688.
- Anne, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland; later, Queen of Great Britain and Queen of Ireland (reigned March 8, 1702 – August 1, 1714).
- Victoria of the United Kingdom (reigned June 20, 1837 – January 22, 1901).
- Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (current monarch since February 6, 1952).
- Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (reigned November 23, 1890 – September 4, 1948)
- Juliana of the Netherlands (reigned September 4, 1948 – April 30, 1980)
- Beatrix of the Netherlands (reigned April 30, 1980 – present).
- Margaret of Sweden (1389 – 1412)
- Christina of Sweden (1632 – June 5, 1654)
- Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (November 30, 1718 – February 29, 1720)
- Margaret I, Queen of Denmark (1375 – 1412), Queen of Norway (1388 – 1412), Regent of Sweden (1389 – 1412)
- Margaret II (1972 – present)
- Isabella of Castile
- Joanna of Castile, reputedly mad after the death of her husband, she was effectively deposed by her father, King Ferdinand of Aragon, who ruled Castile as her regent until his death; then her son, Charles, who was named King of Aragon (which followed the Salic Law) ruled as regent for his mother until her death. On Charles' abdication, his son, Philip, became the first monarch of the now united Kingdom of Spain.
- Isabella II of Spain
Jadwiga of Poland
- Seri Ratu Niharsyah the Sultana of Samudera Pasai.
- Seri Ratu Ta'jul Alam Shah the Sultana of Atjeh (Aceh) Darussalam. Formerlly known as Puteri Seri Alam the Daughter of The Great Sultan Iskandar Muda, and wife of Sultan Iskandar Thani. She ruled Atjeh for nearly 36 years.
- Seri Ratu Keumalat Shah the god daughter of Ratu Ta'jul Alam.
- Seri Ratu Inayat Shah The god daughter of Ratu Ta'jul Alam.
- Nitocris (disputed).
- Cleopatra I of Egypt.
- Cleopatra II of Egypt.
- Cleopatra III of Egypt.
- Cleopatra IV of Egypt.
- Cleopatra V of Egypt.
- Cleopatra VI of Egypt.
- Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
- Wu Zetian (term 690-705) - the queen of Tang Gaozong, the mother of Tang Zhongzong and Tang Ruizong, established Zhou Dynasty(also known as Second Zhou) after dismissing her sons being the emperor
- Empress Suiko
- Empress Kogyoku (reigned a second time as Empress Saimei)
- Empress Jito
- Empress Gemmei
- Empress Gensho
- Empress Koken (reigned a second time as Empress Shotoku)
- Empress Meisho
- Empress Go-Sakuramachi
 See also
- Queen consort
- Order of succession
- The consequences of a reluctance to be ruled by a Queencs:Seznam vládnoucích žen