Learn more about Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. As a technique of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis seeks to discover connections among the unconscious components of patients' mental processes. The analyst's goal is to help liberate the patient from unexamined or unconscious barriers of transference and resistance, that is, past patterns of relating that are no longer serviceable or that inhibit freedom.
Psychoanalysis was devised in Vienna in the 1890s by Sigmund Freud, a neurologist interested in finding an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. As a result of talking with these patients, Freud came to believe that their problems stemmed from culturally unacceptable, thus repressed and unconscious, desires and fantasies of a sexual nature. As his theory developed, Freud developed and cast aside a myriad of different frameworks to model and explain the phenomena he encountered in treating his patients.
Prominent current schools of psychoanalysis include:
- Analytical psychology, which has a more spiritual approach;
- Interpersonal psychoanalysis, which accents the nuances of interpersonal interactions; and
- Relational psychoanalysis, which combines interpersonal psychoanalysis with object-relations theory.
- Modern psychoanalysis, a body of theoretical and clinal knowledge developed by Hyman Spotnitz and his colleagues, extended Freud's theories so as to make them applicable to the full spectrum of emotional disorders. Modern psychoanalytic interventions are primarily intended to provide an emotional-maturational communication to the patient, rather than to promote intellectual insight.
Although these schools have dramatically different theories, most of them continue to stress the strong influence of self-deception and the influence a person's past has on their current mental life.
Today psychoanalytic ideas are embedded in the culture, especially in childcare, education, literary criticism, and in psychiatry, particularly medical and non-medical psychotherapy. Though there is a mainstream of evolved analytic ideas, there are groups who more specifically follow the precepts of one or more of the later theoreticians.
The basic method of psychoanalysis is the transference and resistance analysis of free association. The patient, in a relaxed posture, is directed to say whatever comes to mind. Dreams, hopes, wishes, and fantasies are of interest, as are recollections of early family life. Generally the analyst simply listens, making comments only when, in his or her professional judgment, an opportunity for insight on the part of the patient arises. In listening, the analyst attempts to maintain an attitude of empathic neutrality, a nonjudgmental stance designed to create a safe environment. The analyst asks that the analysand (patient) speak with utter honesty about whatever comes to awareness while interpreting the patterns and inhibitions that appear in the patient's speech and other behavior.
Many clinicians hold that psychoanalysis is not recommended in cases of serious psychological disruption, such as psychosis, suicidal depression, or severe untreated alcoholism. Such patients may be labeled "un-analyzable". More typical applications include treatment of clinical depression and personality disorders.
Some more recent forms of psychoanalysis seek to help patients gain self-esteem through greater trust of the self, overcome the fear of death and its effects on current behavior, and maintain several relationships that appear to be incompatible.
Currently, most psychoanalysts claim that analysis is most useful as a method in cases of neurosis and with character or personality problems. Psychoanalysis is believed to be most useful in dealing with ingrained problems of intimacy and relationship and for those problems in which established patterns of life are problematic. As a therapeutic treatment, psychoanalysis generally takes three to five meetings a week and requires the amount of time for natural or normal maturational change (three to seven years).
Analysis of previous randomised controlled trials have suggested that psychoanalytic treatment is more effective than the absence of treatment in specific psychiatric disorders. . Empirical research on the efficacy of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy has also become prominent among psychoanalytic researchers.
Research on psychodynamic treatment of some populations shows mixed results. Research by analysts such as Bertram Karon and colleagues at Michigan State University had suggested that when trained properly, psychodynamic therapists can be effective with schizophrenic patients. More recent research casts doubt on these claims. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) report argues in its Recommendaton 22 against the use of psychodynamic therapy in cases of schizophrenia, noting that more trials are necessary to verify its effectiveness. However, the PORT recommendation is based on the opinions of clinicians rather than on empirical data, and empirical data exists that contradicts this recommendation (link to abstract). A review of current medical literature in The Cochrane Library, (the updated abstract of which is available online) reached the conclusion that no data exist that demonstrate that psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in treating schizophrenia. Further data also suggest that psychoanalysis is not effective (and possibly even detrimental) in the treatment of sex offenders.
 Cost and length
The cost of psychoanalytic treatment ranges widely, from as low as ten dollars a session (with an analytic candidate in training at an institute) to over 250 dollars a session with a senior training analyst.
Length of treatment varies. Some psychodynamic approaches, such as Brief Relational Therapy (BRT), Brief Psychodynamic Therapy (BPT), and Time-Limited Dynamic Therapy (TLDP) limit treatment to 20-30 sessions. Full-fledged psychoanalysis, however, generally lasts longer, with an average of 5.7 years, according to a recent survey. Which treatment length is optimal depends on the individual's needs. Managed care has placed increased pressure on psychotherapy in general to restrict time devoted to patients.
Throughout the history of psychoanalysis, most psychoanalytic organizations have existed outside of the university setting, with a few notable exceptions.
Psychoanalytic training usually occurs at a psychoanalytic institute and may last approximately 4-10 years. Training includes coursework, supervised psychoanalytic treatment of patients, and personal psychoanalysis lasting 4 or more years.
An ongoing debate in professional psychoanalysis concerns the qualifications candidates must have to enter analytic training. Freud believed that applicants from the humanities and many nonmedical disciplines are as well prepared as physicians for psychoanalytic training.
The American Psychoanalytic Association, however, limited access to training to medical doctors until quite recently. Later, after extensive debates and legal battles, psychoanalytic training in most institutes was opened to nonmedical mental health professionals, such as psychologists and clinical social workers. Currently, access to training by applicants from nonclinical disciplines, such as literary studies and philosophy, is limited to a handful of institutes in the United States. By contrast, many or most institutes in Europe and Latin America admit candidates without formal clinical training.
Although the popularity of psychoanalysis was in decline during the 1980's and early 1990's, prominent psychoanalytic institutes have experienced an increase in the number of applicants in recent years. 
|Portal - History|
The theories distinctive of psychoanalysis generally include the following hypotheses:
- Human development is best understood in terms of changing objects of sexual desire.
- The psychic apparatus habitually represses wishes, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature, whereby they become preserved in one or more unconscious systems of ideas.
- Unconscious conflicts over repressed wishes have a tendency to manifest themselves in dreams, parapraxes ("Freudian slips"), and symptoms.
- Unconscious conflicts are the source of neuroses.
- Neuroses can be treated through bringing the unconscious wishes and repressed memories to consciousness in psychoanalytic treatment.
 The unconscious and psychic structures
The unconscious refers to that part of mental functioning of which subjects make themselves unaware. The psychoanalytic unconscious is similar to but not precisely the same as the popular notion of the subconscious. For psychoanalysis, the unconscious does not include all of what is not conscious. It does not include e.g., motor skills, but only what is actively repressed from conscious thought. It does include instances of automatic processing such as stereotypes and the effects of past relationships on the present.
For Freud, the unconscious was a depository for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes or desires, traumatic memories, and painful emotions put out of mind by the mechanism of psychological repression. However, the contents did not necessarily have to be solely negative. In the psychoanalytic view, the unconscious is a force that can only be recognized by its effects—it expresses itself in the symptom.
The ego, super-ego, and id are the divisions of the psyche according to Freud's later "structural theory". The id contains "primitive desires" (hunger, rage, and sex), the super-ego contains internalized norms, morality and taboos, and the ego mediates between the two and may include or give rise to the sense of self.
 Roots of neurosis
In his earliest writings on the subject, Freud theorized that all neuroses were rooted in childhood sexual abuse (the so-called seduction theory). Later, Freud came to abandon or de-emphasize this hypothesis, emphasizing instead the importance of unconscious fantasy as the cause of neurosis, particularly fantasy structured according to the Oedipus complex.
The Oedipus complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud to explain the origin of certain neuroses in childhood. It is defined as a male child's unconscious desire for the exclusive love of his mother. This desire includes jealousy towards the father and the unconscious wish for that parent's death. The idea is based on the Greek myth of Oedipus, who unwittingly kills his father Laius and marries his mother Jocasta.
Freud revisited the Oedipal territory in the final essay of Totem and Taboo. There, he combined one of Charles Darwin's more speculative theories about the arrangements of early human societies (a single alpha-male surrounded by a harem of females, similar to the arrangement of gorilla groupings) with the theory of the sacrifice ritual taken from William Robertson Smith located the origins of totemism in a singular event, whereby a band of prehistoric brothers expelled from the alpha-male group returned to kill their father, whom they both feared and respected. In this respect, Freud located the beginnings of the Oedipus complex at the origins of human society, and postulated that all religion was in effect an extended and collective form of guilt and ambivalence to cope with the killing of the father figure (which he saw as the true original sin).
 The life and death instincts
Freud believed that humans were driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (Eros) (incorporating the sex drive) and the death drive (Thanatos). Freud's description of Eros/Libido included all creative, life-producing drives. The death drive (or death instinct) represented an urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm, or, ultimately, of non-existence. The presence of the death drive was only recognized in his later years, and the contrast between the two represents a revolution in his manner of thinking.
 Post-Freudian schools
- Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. Internal objects are internalized versions of external objects, primarily formed from early interactions with the parents. According to object-relations theory there are three fundamental "affects" that can exist between the self and the other - attachment, frustration, and rejection. These affects are alleged to be universal emotional states that are major building blocks of the personality. Object relations theory was pioneered in the 1920's by the Austrian psychoanalyst Otto Rank, in the 1930's by Melanie Klein and in the 1940's and 50's by Ronald Fairbairn, D.W. Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, Heinz Kohut, Margaret Mahler and others.
- Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patient's interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. Sullivan argued that patients keep many aspects of interpersonal relationships out of their awareness by selective inattention. He felt that it to be important for psychotherapists to conduct a detailed inquiry into patient's interactions with others so that patients would become optimally aware of their interpersonal patterns.
 Modern Adaptations
 Cultural Adaptations
Psychoanalysis can be adapted to different cultures, as long as the therapist or counseling understands the client’s culture. For example, Tori and Blimes found that defense mechanisms were valid in a normative sample of 2,624 Thais. The use of certain defense mechanisms was related to cultural values. For example Thais value calmness and collectiveness (because of Buddhist beliefs), so they were low on regressive emotionality. Psychoanalysis also applies because Freud used techniques that allowed him to get the subjective perceptions of his patients. He takes an objective approach by not facing his clients during his talk therapy sessions. He met with his patients where ever they were, such as when he used free association—where clients would say whatever came to mind without self-censorship. His treatments had little to no structure for most cultures, especially Asian cultures. Therefore, it is more likely that Freudian constructs will be used in structured therapy (Thompson, et al., 2004). In addition, Corey postulates that it will be necessary for therapist to help clients develop a cultural identity as well as an ego identity. Since Freud has been criticized for not accounting for external/societal forces, it seems logical that therapists or counselors using his premises will work with the family more. Psychoanalytic constructs fit with constructs of other more structured therapies, and Firestone (2002) thinks psychotherapy should have more depth and involve both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches. For example, Corey states, that Ellis, the founder of Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) would allow his clients to experience depression over a loss, such an emotion would be rational—often people will be irrational and deny their feelings.
 Adaptations for Age and Managed Care
 Play Therapy for different ages
Psychoanalytic constructs can be adapted and modified to both age and managed care through the use of play therapy such as art therapy, creative writing, storytelling, bibliotherapy, and psychodrama. In the 1920’s, Anna Freud (Sigmund Freud’s daughter) adapted psychoanalysis for children through play. Using toys and games, she was able to enhance relationship with the child—Freud has been criticized for his, objective and disengaged, approach. When children play, they often engage in a make believe world where they can express their fears and fantasies, and they do so without censorship, so it resembles very much the technique of free association. Psychoanalytic play therapy allows the child and the counselor to access material in the unconscious, material that was avoided and forgotten. This material is re-integrated into the conscience, and the counselor is able to work with the child and the family to address the trauma or issue that was forgotten. With adults, the term art therapy is used, instead of play, however they are synonymous. The counselor simply adapts art therapy to the age of the client. With children, a counselor may have a child draw a portrait of his self, and then tell a story about the portrait. The counselor watches for re-occurring themes—regardless of whether it is with art or toys. With adults, the counselor may work one on one or in a group and have clients do various art activities like painting or clay to express themselves—toys here would not probably not be age appropriate, and children stop pretend play as they transition into adolescence. Since play is considered appropriate in Occidental (Western) culture, it allows people to deal with personal/social issues that they would normally avoid—it allows them to drop their defenses without anxiety and fear.
 Other play therapy techniques
Bibliocounseling involves selecting stories from books that children can identify with (similar issues). Through this story, a child will be more likely to not feel defensive and will work to find alternative solutions to problems. Storytelling is similar, the counselor may tell a story but not use a name, and instead he may address the child with each new sentence using his name. For example, He may say, “next, Eric, the little boy had dream about a mouse that was not like the other mice…” Play therapy for Managed Care Unlike traditional psychoanalysis, play therapy takes much shorter time span; which allow insurance companies to cover it for their clients. Even more, it provides more structure to the process allowing for specific measurable goals. Psychoanalytic theory will be applied in more preventative ways, such as educating parents on how to best meet the needs of the child and enhance the child’s development and growth. Lastly, more advocates may use homework assignments such as journal writing to save time (Thompson et al., 2004). Expressive Writing for Managed Care According to a book, review by Berman (2003) the writing cure provides an analysis of research that supports expressive writing as a way to integrate cognitions and work through trauma. People who write about traumatic events experience more self control. The Writing Cure offers new, cost-effective ways to treat clients; clients can even use expressive writing to work through their own personal/social issues.
Psychoanalysis has been criticized on a variety of grounds by Karl Popper, Adolf Grünbaum, Mario Bunge, Hans Eysenck, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Peter Medawar, Ernest Gellner, Frank Cioffi, Frederick Crews, Arthur Janov and others. Popper argues that it is not scientific because it is not falsifiable. Grünbaum argues that it is falsifiable, and in fact turns out to be false. Janov claims that psychoanalysis intellectualizes the feeling process which only strengthens defenses. The other schools of psychology have produced alternative methods of psychotherapy, including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, Gestalt therapy, primal therapy and person centered psychotherapy. Exchanges between critics and defenders of psychoanalysis have often been so heated that they have come to be characterized as the Freud Wars.
An important consequence of the wide variety of psychoanalytic theories is that different schools of psychoanalysis criticise each other. One consequence is that some critics offer criticism of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis while not rejecting other premise of psychoanalysis. Defender of psychoanalysis argue that many critics (such as feminist critics of Freud) have attempted to offer criticisms of psychoanalysis that were in fact only criticisms of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis. As the psychoanalytic researcher Drew Westen puts it, "Critics have typically focused on a version of psychoanalytic theory—circa 1920 at best—that few contemporary analysts find compelling...In so doing, however, they have set the terms of the public debate and have led many analysts, I believe mistakenly, down an indefensible path of trying to defend a 75 to 100-year-old version of a theory and therapy that has changed substantially since Freud laid its foundations at the turn of the century." link to Westen article On the other hand, those who criticise psychoanalysis on scientific basis tend to dismiss the entire subject as pseudo science.
 Scientific validity
An early and important criticism of psychoanalysis was that its theories were based on little quantitative and experimental research, and instead relied almost exclusively on the clinical case study method. In comparison, brief psychotherapy approaches such as behavior therapy and cognitive therapy have shown much more concern for empirical validation (Morley et al. 1999). Some even accused Freud of fabrication, including the famous and miraculous cure of Anna O. (Borch-Jacobsen 1996).
An increasing amount of psychoanalytic research from academic psychologists and psychiatrists who have worked to quantify and measure psychoanalytic concepts has begun to address this criticism. However, a survey of scientific research showed that while personality traits corresponding to Freud's oral, anal, Oedipal, and genital phases can be observed, they cannot be observed as stages in the development of children, nor it be confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences (Fisher & Greenberg, 1977, p399). However, these stages should not be viewed as crucial to modern psychoanalysis. What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. However, the idea of "unconscious" is also contested. Human behaviour can be observed while human psychology have to be guessed at. The idea of unconscious and the transference phenomenon have been widely researched and, it is claimed, to be validated in the fields of cognitive psychology and social psychology, though such claims are also contested. The recent development in neuroscience resulted in one side arguing that it have provided a biological basis for unconscious emotional processing in line with psychoanalytic theory while the other side arguing that such finding make psychoanalytic theory obsolte and irrelevant.
E. Fuller Torrey, considered by some to be a leading American psychiatrist, writing in Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists (1986) stated that psychoanalytic theories have no more scientific basis than the theories of traditional native healers, "witchdoctors" or modern "cult" alternatives such as est. In fact, an increasing number of scientists regard psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience (Cioffi, F. 1998). The widespread belief that Albert Einstein was a great admirer of Freud is erroneous, as A. H. Esterson noticed: in a letter to one of his sons in the early 1930s Einstein wrote that he was unconverted by Freud's writings and believed his methods dubious - even fraudulent (cited in "The Private Lives of Albert Einstein", by Roger Highfield and Paul Carter, p. 233).
Among philosophers, Karl Popper argued that Freud's theory of the unconscious was not falsifiable and therefore not scientific. Popper did not object to the idea that some mental processess could be unconscious but to investigations of the mind that were not falsifiable. In other words, if it were possible to connect every conceivable experimental outcome with Freud's theory of the unconscious mind, then no experiment could refute the theory.
Some proponents of psychoanalysis suggest that its concepts and theories are more akin to those found in the humanities than those proper to the physical and biological/medical sciences, though Freud himself tried to base his clinical formulations on a hypothetical neurophysiology of energy transformations. For example, the philosopher Paul Ricoeur argued that psychoanalysis can be considered a type of textual interpretation or hermeneutics. Like cultural critics and literary scholars, Ricoeur contended, psychoanalysts spend their time interpreting the nuances of language — the language of their patients. Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing. Ricoeur classified psychoanalysis as a hermeneutics of suspicion. By this he meant that psychoanalysis searches for deception in language, and thereby destabilizes our usual reliance on clear, obvious meanings.
 Controversy over efficacy
Psychoanalysts, for most of their history, have relied on the clinical case report as the chief method of evaluating the efficacy of treatment. In comparison, brief psychotherapy approaches such as behavior therapy and cognitive therapy have shown much more concern for empirical validation from broad-based studies modeled after randomized pharmaceutical trials. (see, e.g., Morley and al. 1999).
At least in the United States, psychoanalysis has usually been perceived as a form of insight-based therapy, with the goal of bringing unconscious thoughts or memories into consciousness. Some studies, however, throw doubt on whether insight is a necessary or sufficient means for improving a person's behavior or increasing their level of functioning (Fisher & Greenberg, 1977, pp411-412).
There is even a great controversy among psychologists as to whether repressed memories actually exist. The whole recovered memory movement, which has flourished in the United States in the last decade, is now highly criticized by the advocates of the false memory syndrome (Loftus & Ketcham, 1994).
 Theoretical criticism
Psychoanalysts have often complained about the significant lack of theoretical agreement among analysts of different schools. Many authors have attempted to integrate the various theories, with limited success. However, with the publication of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual much of this lack of cohesion has been resolved.
The philosopher Jacques Derrida incorporated certain aspects of psychoanalytic theory into his practice of deconstruction in order to question what he called the 'metaphysics of presence' or 'self-presence', the defining trait (for Derrida) of traditional metaphysics, namely its assumption that the meaning of utterances can be pinned down and made fully evident to consciousness, perhaps most evident in Descartes' conception of 'clear and distinct ideas'. Derrida is here influenced by Freud (among others such as Marx and Nietzsche.) For instance, Freud's insistence, in the first chapter of 'The Ego and the Id', that philosophers will recoil from his theory of the unconscious is clearly a forbearer to Derrida's understanding of metaphysical 'self-presence'. However, Derrida goes on to turn certain of these practices against Freud himself, in order (in Derrida's typical manner) to reveal tensions and contradictions in Freud's work which are nonetheless the very conditions upon which it can operate - its simultaneous conditions of possibility and impossibility. For instance, although Freud will define religion and metaphysics as a displacement of the identification with the father in the resolution of the Oedipal complex (e.g. in 'The Ego and The Id' and 'Totem and Taboo') Derrida will insist (for instance in 'The Postcard') that the prominence of the father in Freud's own analysis is at the same time indebted to and an example of the prominence given to the father in Western metaphysics and theology since Plato. Thus, (in a similar manner to that in which Levi-Strauss reads Freud's understanding of the Oedipal complex as but another version of the Oedipus myth,) Derrida understands Freud as remaining partly within that theologico-metaphysical tradition ('phallologocentrism' Derrida helpfully calls it) which Freud nonetheless criticizes. However, the purpose of Derrida's analysis is not to refute Freud per se, (which would only be to reaffirm traditional metaphysics) but rather to reveal an aporia (an undecidability) at the very heart of Freud's project. Such a 'deconstruction' (or indeed psychoanalysis) of Freud does tend to cast doubt upon the possibilty of delimiting psychoanalysis as a rigorous science. However in doing so it celebrates and pledges a critical alliegance to that side of Freud which emphasises the open-ended and improvisatory nature of psychoanalysis, and its (methodical and ethical) demand (for instance in the opening chapters of the 'Interpretaion of Dreams,') that the testimony of the analysand should be given prominence in the practice of analysis.
Psychoanalysis, or at least the dominant version of it, has been denounced as patriarchal or phallocentric by proponents of feminist theory.Other feminist scholars appreciate how Freud opened up society to female sexuality.
A few of the most influential psychoanalysts and theorists, philosophers and literary critics who were or are influenced by psychoanlaysis include Alfred Adler, Karl Abraham, Franz Alexander, Lou Andreas-Salomé, Jacob Arlow, Michael Balint, Therese Benedek, John Benjamin, Bruno Bettelheim, Edward Bibring Wilfred Bion, John Bowlby, Charles Brenner, Abraham A. Brill, Ruth Mack Brunswick, Helene Deutsch, Françoise Dolto, Kurt R. Eissler, Erik Erikson, Ronald Fairbairn, Pierre Fédida, Otto Fenichel, Sandor Ferenczi, Anna Freud, Sigmund Freud, Erich Fromm, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, Merton Gill, Andre Green, Ralph R. Greenson Heinz Hartmann, Edith Jacobson, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, Otto Kernberg, Paulina Kernberg, Melanie Klein, Heinz Kohut, G. Stanley Hall, Paula Heimann, Karen Horney, Luce Irigaray, Susan S. Isaacs, Julia Kristeva, Jacques Lacan, Jean Laplanche, Bertram D. Lewin, Hans Loewald, Rudolf Loewenstein, Margaret Mahler, Adolf Meyer, Donald Meltzer, Karl Menninger, Stephen A. Mitchell, Sandor Rado, Otto Rank, Theodor Reik, Joan Riviere, Herbert Rosenfeld, David Rapaport, Harold F Searles, Hanna Segal, Roy Schafer, Melitta Schmideberg, Sabina Spielrein, Rene Spitz, Daniel N. Stern, Robert J Stoller, Harry Stack Sullivan, Neville Symington, Viktor Tausk, Frances Tustin, Vamik Volkan, Donald Winnicott, and Slavoj Zizek.
- Jean Laplanche et J.B. Pontalis : "The Language of Psycho-Analysis", Editeur: W. W. Norton & Company, 1974, ISBN 0-393-01105-4
- John Kafka : "Multiple Realities in Clinical Practice", Publisher: Yale University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-300-04350-3
- Pierre Fédida: "Dictionary of Psychoanalysis", Publisher: French & European Pubns; 2nd edition 1988, Language: English, ISBN 0-8288-2215-8
- Berman, J. (2003). [Review of the book The writing cure: How expressive writing promotes health and well-being. [Electronic version]. Psychoanalytic psychology, 20(3), 575-578.
- Brenner, C. (1954). An elementary textbook of psychoanalysis.
- John Steiner : "Psychic Retreats" (...) relative peace and protection from strain when meaningful contact with the analyst is experienced as(...), Publisher: Routledge; 1993, ISBN 0-415-09924-2
- Corey, G. (2001). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Thompson Learning
- Hanna Segal : "The Work of Hanna Segal: A Kleinian Approach to Clinical Practice (Classical Psychoanalysis and Its Applications) " Publisher: Jason Aronson, 1993), ISBN 0-87668-422-3
- Seymour Fisher,, The Scientific Credibility of Freud's Theories and Therapy, Columbia University Press (October, 1985), trade paperback, ISBN 0-231-06215-X
- Sabina Spielrein : "Destruction as cause of becoming", 1993, ASIN B0006RF20A
- Robert Stoller : "Presentations of Gender" , Publisher: Yale University Press; edition 1992, ISBN 0-300-05474-2
- Edith Jacobson : "Depression; Comparative Studies of Normal, Neurotic, and Psychotic Conditions", Publisher: International Universities Press , 1976, ISBN 0-8236-1195-7
- Firestone, R.W. (2002). "The death of psychoanalysis and depth therapy." [Electronic version]. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training, 39(3), 223-232.
- Rene Spitz : "The First Year of Life: Psychoanalytic Study of Normal and Deviant Development of Object Relations", Publisher: International Universities Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8236-8056-8
- Otto Kernberg : "Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic", Publisher: Yale University Press; edition 1993, ISBN 0-300-05349-5
- Kramer, Peter D., Listening to Prozac: A Psychiatrist Explores Antidepressant Drugs and the Remaking of the Self ISBN 0-670-84183-8.
- Herbert A Rosenfeld: * "Impasse and Interpretation: Therapeutic and Anti-Therapeutic Factors in the Psycho-Analytic Treatment of Psychotic, Borderline, and Neurotic Patients", Publisher: Tavistock Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-422-61010-0
- Luhrmann, T.M., Of Two Minds: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry ISBN 0-679-42191-2.
- André Green : "Psychoanalysis: A Paradigm For Clinical Thinking" Publisher: Free Association Books, 2005, ISBN 1-85343-773-5
- Thomson, C.L, Rudolph L.B., & Henderson, D. (2004). Counseling children. (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Thompson.
- Tori, C.D. & Blimes, M. (Fall 2002). Cross-cultural and Psychoanalytic Psychology: The Validation of defense measure in an Asian population. [Electronic version]. Psychoanalytic psychology, 19(4), 701-421.
- Jose Bleger "Symbiosis and Ambiguity: The Psychoanalysis of Very Early Development", Publisher: Free Association Books, 1990, ISBN 1-85343-134-6
- Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction, by Anthony Elliott, an introduction that explains psychoanalytic theory with interpretations of major theorists 
- Harold F Searles : "Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects" , Publisher: International Universities Press, 1966, ISBN 0-8236-0980-4
- Heinz Kohut : "Analysis of the Self: Systematic Approach to Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders", Publisher: International Universities Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8236-8002-9
- The Psychoanalytic Movement: The Cunning of Unreason, by Ernest Gellner. A critical view of Freudian theory. ISBN 0-8101-1370-8
- Mitchell, S. & Black, M. (1995). Freud and Beyond: A History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought (ISBN 0-465-01405-4)
- Donald Meltzer "The Kleinian Development (New edition)", Publisher: Karnac Books; Reprint edition 1998, ISBN 1-85575-194-1
- Donald Meltzer : "Dream-Life: A Re-Examination of the Psycho-Analytical Theory and Technique" Publisher: Karnac Books, 1983, ISBN 0-902965-17-4
- Heinrich Racker : "Transference and Counter-Transference", Publisher: International Universities Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8236-8323-0
- Donald Winnicott : "Playing and Reality", Publisher: Routledge; edition 2005, ISBN 0-415-34546-4
- Walter Bromberg, M.D.
- "The Mind of Man: The Story of Man's Conquest of Mental Illness", 1938.
- "The The Mind of Man. A History of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis", 1954.
- "From Shaman to Psychotherapist: A History of the Treatment of Mental Illness", 1976.
 Critiques of psychoanalysis
- Borch-Jacobsen, M (1996). Remembering Anna O: A century of mystification. London, Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91777-8
- Cioffi, F. (1998). Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience. Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8126-9385-X
- Erwin, Edward, A Final Accounting: Philosophical and Empirical Issues in Freudian Psychology ISBN 0-262-05050-1
- Fisher S., Greenberg RP. (1977), The Scientific Credibility of Freud’s Theories and Therapy. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
- Fisher S, Greenberg RP. (1996), Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy. New York: John Wiley, 1996.
- Gellner, Ernest, The Psychoanalytic Movement: The Cunning of Unreason. A critical view of Freudian theory. ISBN 0-8101-1370-8
- Grünbaum, Adolf (1979), Is Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory Pseudo-Scientific by Karl Popper's Criterion of Demarcation?, "American Philosophical Quarterly", 16, Ap 79, s.131-141.
- Grünbaum, Adolf (1985) The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique ISBN 0-520-05017-7
- Janov, Arthur, "Grand Delusions." Chapter 8: Freud's theory as therapy: The talking cure that doesn't heal. 
- Loftus, EF & Ketcham, K. (1994) The Myth of Repressed Memory. NY: St. Martin's Press.
- Macmillan, Malcolm, and Frederick Crews, Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc ISBN 0-262-63171-7
- Morley S, Eccleston C, Williams A. (1999) Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy and behaviour therapy for chronic pain in adults, excluding headache. Pain. 1999 Mar;80(1-2):1-13.
- Webster R. (1995). "Why Freud was wrong ?", Basic Books, Harper Collins, NY NY. ISBN 0-465-09128-8
-  Skeptic's dictionary entry on psychoanalysis
-  Skeptic's dictionary entry on repressed memory
 External links
- PSY-LOG: The Psychoanalytic Web Directory
- A Glossary of Freudian Terms
- Abstracts of the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud
- The American Psychoanalytic Association
- Australian Psychoanalytical Society (component of IPA)
- Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
- Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research
- Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) of the American Psychological Association --- Outreach Program
- Essays about the pros and cons of psychoanalysis
- The International Association for Relational Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy
- International Journal of Psychoanalysis
- International Network of Freud Critics
- International Psychoanalytical Association
- International Psychoanalytical Studies Organization
- Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association online
- Lacan Dot Com
- London Centre for Psychotherapy
- Manhattan Institute for Psychoanalysis
- NYU Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis
- National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis
- New York Freudian Society
- The New York Psychoanalytic Society & Institute
- Psychoanalysis Downunder - online journal of APAS
- Psychoanalysis - Techniques and Practice - provides teachings on theory and practice of psychoanalysis, including online courses.
- PSYCHOMEDIA The First Italian Portal on Psychiatry Psychology Psychoanalysis Psychotherapy
- The San Fransisco Psychoanalytical Society and Institute
- The Seattle Psychoanalytic Society and Institute
- Sigmund Freud - Life and Work
- The Skeptic's Dictionary Entry on Psychoanalysis
- William Alanson White Institute
- website with links to many articles on psychoanalysis
 Online papers about psychoanalytic theory
- Benjamin, J. (1995). Recognition and destruction: An outline of intersubjectivity
- Boesky, D. (2005). Psychoanalytic controversies contextualized
- Boston Process of Change Study Group. (2005). The "something more" than interpretation
- Brenner, C. (1992). The mind as conflict and compromise formation
- Eagle, M. (1984). Developmental deficit versus dynamic conflict
- Gill, M. (1984). Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy: A revision
- Kernberg, O. (2000). Psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic psychotherapy and supportive psychotherapy: contemporary controversies
- Mitchell, Stephen A. (1984). Object relations theories and the developmental tilt
- Rubinstein, B. (1975). On the clinical psychoanalytic theory and its role in the inference and confirmation of particular clinical hypotheses
- Schwartz, Wynn (2001) Ordinary Language Essentials of Clinical Psychoanalytic Theory
 Online papers and links about psychoanalytic research
- Blatt, S. & Shahar, G. (2004). Psychoanalysis: With whom, for what, and how? Comparisons with psychotherapy
- Brakel, L. (2005). The psychoanalytic assumption of the primary process: Extrapsychoanalytic evidence and findings
- Fonagy, P.(1997). Attachment, the development of the self, and its pathology in personality disorders
- Freedman, N, Lasky, R., & Hurvich, M. (2001), Transformation Cycles as Organizers of Psychoanalytic Process: The Method of Sequential Specification
- Freud, Sigmund (1920). Dream Psychology: Psychoanalysis for Beginners
- Masling, J.(1999). An Evaluation of Empirical Research Linked to Psychoanalytic Theory
- Shaver, P. & Mikulincer, M. (2002). Attachment-Related Psychodynamics.
- Solms, M. (1999). The Interpretation of Dreams and the neurosciences
- Wallerstein,R.(2002). Psychoanalytic Therapy Research:An Overview
- Westen, D. (1999) The scientific status of unconscious processes: Is Freud really dead?
- Westen, D. Towards a clinically and empirically sound theory of motivation
- Wilczek, A. et al. (2005). Change after long term psychoanalytic psychotherapy
- Bulletin of the Psychoanalytic Research Society
- Psychoanalytic Research Consortium
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