Prospect Park (Brooklyn)

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For other uses, see Prospect Park.

Prospect Park is a 585[1] acre (2.1 km²) public park in Brooklyn, New York located between Park Slope, Kensington, Windsor Terrace and Flatbush Avenue, Grand Army Plaza and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden and seven blocks north east of Green-Wood Cemetery. It is run and operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux after they completed Manhattan's Central Park. Attractions include the Long Meadow, a ninety acre (36 ha) meadow thought to be the largest meadow in any U.S. park; the Picnic House which houses offices and a hall that can accommodate parties with up to 175 guests; Litchfield Villa, the historic home of the previous owners of the southern part of Park; Prospect Park Zoo; a large nature conservancy; the only urban Audubon Center & Visitor Center at the Boathouse; Brooklyn's only lake, covering 60 acres (24 ha); the Prospect Park Bandshell that hosts free outdoor concerts in summertime; and various sports and fitness activities including seven baseball fields. There is also a private Quaker cemetery on the grounds of the Park in an area known as Quaker Hill. (Actor Montgomery Clift is interred there.)

Image:Long-Meadow-Panorama-M01.jpg
The Long Meadow's grass stretches wide for relaxation and recreation

Contents

[edit] History of Prospect Park

Image:Battle-Pass-1792.jpg
The Battle Pass area, an etching circa 1792

Originally the terminal moraine and outwash plain of the receding glaciers of the ice age, the area around the Park was the site of the Battle of Long Island during the U.S. Revolutionary War and became known as Battle Pass where the highest point known as Prospect Hill jutted up approximately 200 feet (60 m) from sea level. In the nineteenth century the Park was mostly farm land; the cost of acquiring the Park land by the City of Brooklyn was upwards of $4 million. The actual cost of construction of the Park amounted to more than $5 million. Originally the Park was to straddle Flatbush Avenue and go past the later built Eastern Parkway. Planning of the Park was originally begun before the American Civil War in 1860 but stopped during the war. After the war in 1865 Olmsted and Vaux were hired and Vaux convinced the city that more lands to the east and nearer to Green-Wood Cemetery should be purchased including the area of the park known as Nethermead and the farm land where Prospect Lake was built.

[edit] The Artistic Vision of Olmsted and Vaux

Image:ProspectParkEntrance.jpg
One of the beautifully architected Prospect Park entrances

As a work of engineering and landscaping Prospect Park was so revolutionary in its time that some considered the Park a work of art in itself; others were critical of the ideas of Olmsted and Vaux as they were seen as breaking with European traditions. Olmsted and Vaux literally engineered the Park to recreate wild nature as they had experienced in photographically documented trips across the United States. Breaking ground in June, 1866,<ref name"Lancaster"> Lancaster, Clay (1972). Handbook of Prospect Park. Long Island University Press, 51 - 52. ISBN 0-913252-06-9.</ref> they created the large Long Meadow out of land that was filed with lowland peat bogs, they moved and planted trees, hauled topsoil and created a vast mowed turf with specifically placed trees (which have been recently been replanted to bring back the original design). Large swathes of trees were planted around the perimeter of the Park to create a buffer zone between the surrounding urban landscape so that the Park could be a true rural oasis away from the hustle and bustle of the city of Brooklyn. When still under construction, Olmsted and Vaux opened the park to the public on October 19, 1867. <ref name="Eagle"> "Prospect Park", Brooklyn Daily Eagle, I. Van Anden, 1867-10-21, p. 2. Retrieved on 2006-06-24.</ref> Work continued for another six years until it was substantially complete in 1873, though certain facets of the original design were never undertaken. With the financial panic of 1873, Olmsted and Vaux were obliged to cease significant operations in the park and dissolved their partnership.<ref name="Lancaster">Lancaster, p 66 </ref>

Image:Prospect-Park-Riders-01.jpg
Horse riders on the Bridle Path in Prospect Park, 1912. Photo by Charles D. Lay

In designing the watercourse Olmstead and Vaux also took advantage of the pre-existing glacier formed kettle ponds and lowland outwash plains. A winding naturalistic stream channel with several ponds feeds a sixty acre (24 ha) lake. They crafted the watercourse to include a steep, forested Ravine — perhaps their greatest masterpiece of landscape architecture — all with significant river edge flora and fauna habitats. This was all done to give the urban dweller a "sub-conscious" experience of nature within the city as Olmsted believed it was possible and necessary to provide such nourishment for the general public in the overwhelming urban environments of his time.

[edit] The Prospect Park Watercourse

Perhaps the most fascinating of Olmsted and Vaux's creations is the Prospect Park watercourse. All the waterways and lakes in Prospect Park were man-made. Originally engineered by Olmstead and Vaux to be a vast nature preserve recreating American wilderness areas as an oasis for urban residents, by the mid-twentieth century these landscaped waterways fell into a state of terrible disrepair. In 1994 the Prospect Park Alliance launched a 25-year, $43 million restoration project for the watercourse.

If one follows the water from its source the water in Prospect Park takes us on a course starting at the top of Fallkill Falls into Fallkill Pool past the Fallkill Bridge through the recently restored Upper Pool and Lower Pool, where migratory birds rest and marsh and other water plants can be found. Past the Esdale Bridge through Ambergill Pond one enters into a tree covered area then on to the smaller Ambergill Falls through Rock Arch Bridge past the gorge area called The Ravine. The design called for the trickle of water to be heard throughout the forest and this effect lasts on to the Nethermead Arches through the Binnen Water where a variety of waterlilies can be found. The watercourse then moves on to the Music Pagoda Bridge where performances of music were often given.

Image:ProspectPark-Lake&Boathouse-01.jpg
A boat on the water near the Boathouse, c. 1900s

The waters then cascade beneath the Binnen Bridge to the Lullwater, upon the East bank of which stands the once again operative Boathouse (now Audubon Center & Visitor Center), and then under the Lullwater Bridge around the Peninsula — an area that is a sanctuary for birds where wild meadows can be found. Moving under the large Terrace Bridge the waters move to their final destination, entering into the sixty acre (24 ha) artificially built Prospect Lake that includes several islands. Once severely polluted, Prospect Lake is now home to over 20 species of fish and hosts an annual fishing contest; now, again, boats of visitors once more move across the Lake in Paddle Boats and the Independence, a replica of the original electric launch which took day-trippers around the Lake a century ago.

This trip along the watercourse demonstrates the revolutionary approach of Olmsted and Vaux in their re-creation of various types of natural water formations; not only did they plant a variety of trees, bushes and other plants, but they moved rocks, boulders and earth to recreate a variety of natural environments for the pleasure and stimulation of Brooklyn’s nineteenth century urban dwellers.

Image:Historic-Map-Prospect-Park-vs.jpg
A map of the Park, circa 1880s

[edit] The Ravine District

With the watercourse moving through it a 146 acre (59 ha) section of the Park's interior that is the center of Brooklyn's only forest is known as the Ravine District. Olmsted and Vaux saw the Ravine as the heart of Prospect Park and the centerpiece of mountainous tableaux similar to the Adirondack Mountains. As of 2003 the Ravine has been partially restored and the restored section is open to the public. The perimeter of the area is a steep narrow 100 foot (30 m) gorge. Still recovering from decades of overuse that caused soil compaction and erosion, the Ravine and surrounding woodlands have been undergoing restorations since 1996. The watercourse goes through the Ravine leading to the Boathouse which was designed by the famed architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White and was one of the most fashionable destinations in the Park in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. As the Park decayed, this historically significant structure was in peril of destruction; luckily, the Boathouse was saved in the 1980s by the then New York Mayor Edward Koch and has been completely restored and refurbished; now housing the Audubon Society's only urban interpretive center in the United States.

[edit] Robert Moses and Prospect Park

During the twentieth century a variety of innovations were introduced by Robert Moses into Prospect Park, including a variety of playgrounds for children; he also supervised the building of the Prospect Park Bandshell near the statue of the Marquis de la Fayette on Ninth Street and Prospect Park West. However the landscaping of the interior of the Park continued to hide the original plan of Olmsted and Vaux as soil erosion and lack of maintenance caused the landscaping to deteriorate. In the 1990s a new volunteer and privately controlled non-profit organization was founded to help revitalize the Park; to date the Prospect Park Alliance has begun the work of transforming the Park back to its original state.

Image:ProspectPark2003.jpg
A snowy day in the park, February 2003

[edit] Recreation

The Prospect Park Women's Softball League has been playing softball games on summer evenings in Prospect Park for over 23 years. Horseback riders from Kensington stables are often seen on paths in the park. Paddleboating is open to the public on the lake. The Bandshell hosts frequent concerts, most notably the Celebrate Brooklyn! Performing Arts Festival, a series of summer concerts founded in 1979.

[edit] Traffic v. recreation

A contentious debate is underway in city government concerning the role of automobile traffic in the park. One side argues that if the ability of cars to use Prospect Park as a thoroughfare were reduced, traffic on either side of the park would be increased. The other side argues that the park is designed to be a haven from the type of city stress that automobiles represent, and that having them use the park sacrifices the safety of those using the park for recreation. Current (fall 2004) regulations state that automobile traffic is allowed to use the park only 7-9 a.m. and 5-7 p.m. on weekdays. While these are an increase of car-free hours from the past, they leave automobiles in the park at rush hour, the precise time when cyclists, runners, walkers and other park users would otherwise be most likely to use the park. A similar debate is underway concerning Central Park. See link below.

[edit] Youth Baseball

The Prospect Park baseball fields are spanning 9th-15th street in the park. There are seven fields. 2 are major league sized fields used for the older age groups. The other 5 are slightly smaller, for younger children; typically 8-12 year olds. The youngest children play on the grass.

[edit] External links

[edit] Notes

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Prospect Park (Brooklyn)

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