Pope Leo XIII

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Birth name Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaelle Luigi Pecci
Papacy began February 20, 1878
Papacy ended July 20, 1903
Predecessor Pius IX
Successor Pius X
Born March 2, 1810
Carpineto Romano, Italy
Died July 20, 1903
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Other Popes named Leo

Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. He is known as the "Pope of the Working Man". Born in Carpineto Romano, Italy, he received his doctorate in theology in 1836 and doctorates of civil and Canon Law in Rome also. He was appointed domestic prelate to the pope in 1837. He was ordained on 31 December 1837. He became titular archbishop of Damietta in 1843 and apostolic nuncio to Belgium on 28 January 1843. He was named papal assistant in 1843. Pecci first achieved note as the popular and successful Archbishop of Perugia from 1846 till 1877, which led to his appointment as a Cardinal in 1853. Later, he was appointed as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, a position he held until his election as Pope. Leo XIII worked to encourage understanding between the Church and the modern world. He firmly re-asserted the Scholastic doctrine that science and religion co-exist, and required the study of Thomas Aquinas. [1] Although he had stated that it "is quite unlawful to demand, defend, or to grant unconditional freedom of thought, or speech, of writing or worship, as if these were so many rights given by nature to man," he did open the Vatican Secret Archives to qualified researchers, among whom was the noted historian of the Papacy Ludwig von Pastor. Leo XIII was also the first Pope to come out strongly in favour of the French Republic, upsetting many French monarchists, but his support for democracy did not necessarily imply his acceptance of egalitarianism: "People differ in capacity, skill, health, strength; and unequal fortune is a necessary result of unequal condition. Such inequality is far from being disadvantageous either to individuals or to the community." (Rerum Novarum, 17 [2]) His relations with the Italian state were less progressive; Leo XIII continued the Papacy's self-imposed incarceration in the Vatican stance, and continued to insist that Italian Catholics should not vote in Italian elections or hold elected office.

Styles of
Pope Leo XIII
Image:Emblem of the Papacy.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style none


[edit] Beatification and canonizations

He beatified Saint Gerard Majella in 1893 and Saint Edmund Campion in 1886.

He canonized the following saints:

In 1881: Clare of Montefalco (d. 1308), John Baptist de Rossi (1696-1764),and Lawrence of Brindisi (d. 1619)

In 1883: Benedict Joseph Labre (1748-1783)

In 1888: Seven Holy Founders of the Servite Order, Peter Claver (1561-1654), John Berchmans (1599-1621), and Alphonsus Rodriguez (1531-1617)

In 1890: Blessed Giovenale Ancina (1545-1604)

In 1897: Anthony M. Zaccaria (1502-1539) and Peter Fourier of Our Lady (1565-1640)

In 1900: John Baptist de la Salle (1651-1719) and Rita of Cascia (1381-1457)

[edit] Papal teachings and publications

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Important Documents

Rerum Novarum (1891)
Stone Lectures (Princeton 1898)
Graves de Communi Re (1901)
Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
Laborem Exercens (1981)
Sollicitudi Rei Socialis (1987)
Centesimus Annus (1991)

Important Figures

Thomas Aquinas · John Calvin
Pope Leo XIII · Abraham Kuyper
Maritain · Adenauer · De Gasperi
Pope Pius XI · Schuman
Pope John Paul II · Kohl

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One of the Papal Tiaras given to Pope Leo XIII during his reign.

He is most famous for his social teaching, in which he argued that both capitalism and communism are flawed. His encyclical Rerum Novarum focused on the rights and duties of capital and labor, and introduced the idea of subsidiarity into Catholic social thought.

In his 1893 encyclical Providentissimus Deus, Leo gave new encouragement to Bible study while warning against rationalist interpretations which deny the inspiration of Scripture:

"For all the books which the Church receives as sacred and canonical, are written wholly and entirely, with all their parts, at the dictation of the Holy Ghost: and so far is it from being possible that any error can co-exist with inspiration, that inspiration not only is essentially incompatible with error, but excludes and rejects it as absolutely and necessarily as it is impossible that God Himself, the supreme Truth, can utter that which is not true." (Providentissimus Deus)

The 1896 bull Apostolicae Curae declared the ordination of deacons, priests, and bishops in Anglican churches (including the Church of England) invalid, while granting recognition to ordinations in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches although they were considered illicit.

His 1899 apostolic letter Testem Benevolentiae condemned the heresy called Americanism.

[edit] List of Encyclicals

(Please note: Pope Leo XIII wrote several encyclicals on some of the same or similar subjects; it is not a confusion of information)

[edit] Trivia

  • Leo XIII was the oldest Pope at the time of his passing. He was 93 years old.
Pope Leo XIII wearing his Papal Tiara.
  • Leo XIII approved the foundation of a Catholic university in the United States in 1887, which became The Catholic University of America.
  • At the time of his death, Leo XIII was the second-longest reigning Pope, exceeded only by his immediate predecessor, Pius IX (unless one counts St. Peter as having reigned from the time that Jesus is said to have given him "the keys to the kingdom" until his death, rather than from his arrival in Rome). Leo XIII's regnal length was subsequently exceeded by that of Pope John Paul II on March 14, 2004. (1978–2005).

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • O'Reilly, Bernard. Life of Leo XIII - From An Authentic Memoir - Furnished By His Order. 1887. New York: Charles L. Webster & Company.
  • Quardt, Robert. Der Meisterdiplomat. 1964 Kevelaer,Germany: Verlag Butzon & Bercker. Translated by Ilya Wolston. The Master Diplomat - From the Life of Leo XIII. New York: Alba House.

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Preceded by:
Filippo De Angelis
Succeeded by:
Camillo di Pietro
Preceded by:
Pius IX
Succeeded by:
Pius X
bg:Лъв XIII

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Pope Leo XIII

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