Pop music

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Pop music
Stylistic origins: A variety of influences, especially rock and roll, R&B and dance
Cultural origins: 1950s United States / 1950s Britain
Typical instruments: Electric guitar, Bass guitar, Drums, Keyboard, Synthesizers
Mainstream popularity: Continuous worldwidely from 1950s

<tr><th align="center" bgcolor="#87CEEB" colspan=2 valign="top"><font color="{{{bgcolor|}">Subgenres</font></th></tr>}">Subgenres</th></tr>}} }}<tr><td align=center colspan="2" valign="top">Bubblegum pop - Traditional pop music</td></tr><tr><th align="center" bgcolor="#87CEEB" colspan=2 valign="top"><font color="{{{bgcolor|}">Fusion genres</th></tr>}}<tr><td align=center colspan="2" valign="top">Pop punk - Pop rap - Power pop</td></tr><tr><th align="center" bgcolor="#87CEEB" colspan=2 valign="top"><font color="{{{bgcolor|}">Regional scenes</th></tr>}}<tr><td align=center colspan="2" valign="top">Asia: Cantopop, Mandarin pop, Indi-pop, J-pop, K-pop, String (Thai pop) - Europe: Europop, Austropop, Britpop, Nederpop - Americas: United States, Música Popular Brasileira</td></tr><tr><th align="center" bgcolor="#87CEEB" colspan=2 valign="top"><font color="{{{bgcolor|}">Other topics</th></tr>}}<tr><td align=center colspan="2" valign="top">Pop culture - Boy band - Girl group</td></tr>

Pop music is a genre of popular music distinguished from classical or art music and from folk music <ref>*Frith, Simon (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock, p.94. ISBN 0-521-55660-0 .</ref>. The term indicates specific stylistic traits, but the genre also includes elements of rock, hip hop, dance, and country, making it a flexible category. The expression "pop music" may also be used to refer to particular subgenres (within the pop music genre) that are in some cases referred to as soft rock and pop/rock. The pop music genre also often involves mass marketing and consumer-driven efforts by major record companies, which makes it an often scorned genre by non-mainstream musicians.

The average consumer of pop music is often understood to be in his or her teenage years, making it an important mediator of youth culture. Partly because youth culture itself is an object of social concern, pop music has historically been the source of numerous moral panics, especially as many of the styles that influence it trickle up from minority groups (racial, ethnic, sexual or class-based) about which the dominant class holds negative stereotypes. In addition, many parents view explicit lyrics as gateways to sin, blaming pop music for increases in drug use, teen pregnancy, and violence. As a result, some conservative groups forbid children from attending social gatherings in which pop music may be played.

In addition, pop music stars can be controversial role models for teens; older generations tend to over-emphasize the stars' influences on teens' lives and make unfounded generalizations about entire groups of people based on pop stars' behavior. For example, when Kurt Cobain (lead singer of Nirvana) committed suicide, he was widely portrayed as representative of the hopelessness of Generation X. Also, when Britney Spears and Madonna kissed on stage in concert, some people speculated that this behavior may cause an increase in lesbian experimentation among teenage girls. Such generalizations are fallacious both in terms of the general sphere of influence of a particular star and in terms of perceived causality for teen behavior and identities.


[edit] History of pop music

[edit] 1890s through 1920s

The dance music element of pop music can be traced back to Ragtime, which was initially popular in African American communities, and mainly disseminated through sheet music and player pianos. Ragtime turned into Swing, an early form of Jazz that was enjoyed as much for its danceability as its mutability. Both of these forms originated in African American communities, and spread to white communities especially through venues that would hire black performers. Like Rock’n’roll, widespread popularity in white communities to some extent did not take off until white performers could be found to perform it, and certain stylistic elements of it toned down. The crossing of race-based social boundaries around race, for ragtime, swing, and later Rock’n’Roll, was the source of many moral panics inspired by pop music.

[edit] 1930s and 1940s

Styles influencing the later development of pop include the Blues, also originating in African-American communities, (for example, electric guitar Blues in Chicago), and Country coming also from "hillbilly music" of poor folk, white and black (Sun Records in Tennessee), which blended to become early Rock and Roll.

[edit] 1950s

Early Western Pop music artists include Tommy Steele, Marty Wilde, Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Bobby Darin, Bobbejaan Schoepen, and Peggy Lee, but other artists like Bill Haley and his Comets, Fats Domino and Elvis Presley became popular with the younger generation.

In Iran, before the emergence in the early 1950s of Vigen Derderian, the music industry was dominated by Persian classical singers.Then Vigen, known as the "Sultan of pop", ushered in a revolution that coincided with the emergence of a new, western-influenced middle class.<ref>Vigen Derderian: Pop idol of a musical revolution in Iran</ref>

[edit] 1960s

Western Pop music teen idols of the 1960s included Cliff Richard, Sandy Shaw, Lulu, The Rolling Stones, The Small Faces, Gene Pitney, and The Shadows. Other pop musicians included Carole King, Neil Diamond, Burt Bacharach, Aretha Franklin, Isley Brothers, Ray Charles, Stevie Wonder, The Supremes, Marvin Gaye, Bob Dylan, and Simon and Garfunkel, and some of The Beatles' repertoire. Sonny Bono & Cher are considered the Hippie Icons of the 1960's.

In 1960s Iranian most famous female pop singer ever, Googoosh, found reputation by taking part in various international music festivals. She won the first prize and golden record for her French numbers, "Retour de la vie" and "J'entends crier Je t'aime", at the Cannes Festival in 1971. Her recording of twelve songs in Italian and Spanish for the Sanremo Music Festival in 1973 became an overnight success. She also won first prize at the Carthage Music Festival in 1972 and was honored with the first medal of arts of Tunisia in the same year. Her Spanish song titled "Desde Hacies Tiempo" was an immediate hit in South America in 1973.

In 1962, the first Western popular melody with Turkish lyrics was released, İlham Gencer's "Bak Bir Varmış Bir Yokmuş" (Look Once Upon A Time) <ref>Translations kindly provided by Ali Yildirim.</ref>

[edit] 1970s

ABBA was a swedish disco band during the 70's.

A proliferation of new sounds from the disco era included ABBA, the BeeGees and the piano-based pop of Billy Joel and Elton John, the country stylings of the Eagles, and the rock-influenced pop of Rod Stewart, Steely Dan, and Fleetwood Mac. Other important pop musicians include Queen, Cat Stevens, The Carpenters, Jackson Five, The Miracles, Roberta Flack, Carly Simon, Cher, Stevie Wonder, Earth, Wind and Fire, KC and the Sunshine Band and Donna Summer.

In Turkey, pop music became very popular in the 1970s with female stars such as Sezen Aksu, Nazan Öncel and Ajda Pekkan reaching superstar status domestically.

[edit] 1980s

Cover of Michael Jackson's Thriller, which became the best-selling album of all time, with sales of 104 million.

Notable highlights for pop music in the 1980s are Michael Jackson's second Epic label release, Thriller, which went on to become the best-selling album of all time. Michael Jackson was the most successful artist of the 80s, spanning nine #1 singles only in the United States during that decade, and selling over 140 million copies with only two albums — Thriller, and its follow-up Bad. Since the early nineties Jackson is sometimes referred to as "The King of Pop". Madonna is considered "The Queen of Pop". Other top-selling artists included Cher, Prince, Gloria Estefan, Tiffany, Kylie Minogue, Janet Jackson, Olivia Newton-John, Duran Duran, The Go-Go's, The Police, Tears for Fears, Cyndi Lauper, Whitney Houston, Juice Newton, Phil Collins, Laura Branigan, Talking Heads, Eurythmics, The Bangles, Hall & Oates, George Michael, Rick Springfield and Culture Club. The late 1980s saw the rise of Roxette.

[edit] 1990s

Among the most successful pop acts of the 1990s were R&B-influenced pop acts such as Mariah Carey, Boyz II Men, Celine Dion, Michael Bolton, En Vogue, Salt N Pepa, Brandy, and TLC. Non-R&B artists such as Cher, Michael Jackson, Madonna, Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Sheryl Crow, Eric Clapton, Jewel, and Tori Amos were also phenomenonally successful during that decade. Eric Clapton was old, but massive hits like Change The World and Tears In Heaven, made him even more famous.

The 1990s and 21st century were marked by a resurgence of boy band and girl group trends. The U.S. had New Edition, New Kids on the Block (in the late '1980s and early '1990s), followed by the Backstreet Boys, Hanson,*NSYNC and the huge pop girl band phenomenon the Spice Girls. Towards the turn of the millennium, the "pop princesses" appeared such as Jessica Simpson, Robyn, Mandy Moore, Britney Spears, and Christina Aguilera. From the UK came the likes of Take That, Blue and Spice Girls, while Australia had Kylie Minogue and Savage Garden. Irish boy bands during this period included Boyzone and Westlife. 1999 saw the rise of the Latin pop explosion with Ricky Martin at the forefront, followed by Jennifer Lopez, Shakira, Enrique Iglesias, Paulina Rubio, and Marc Anthony.

[edit] 2000s

In the 2000s, hip-hop blended in with pop music, paving the way for the multi-platinum successes of artists like Nelly, Eminem, 50 Cent, Ludacris, Ciara, Beyoncé Knowles, Justin Timberlake, Nelly Furtado, and the Pussycat Dolls, are thought to be pop artists, but lack a key element, and therefore fall under the hip hop genre.

90s artists, such as Mariah Carey presented comeback albums that continued to make them rule the music charts and keep their titles the way Madonna kept hers thanks to her Confessions on a Dance Floor album. Early in the decade Kylie Minogue had what was considered to be pop music, with hits such as Spinning Around and Can't Get You Out Of My Head. Other trends included Teen pop acts such as Disney Channel star Hilary Duff and Lindsay Lohan, dance/pop/rock group Jump 5 being featured in various Disney and non-disney movie soundtracks (eg. Ella Enchanted, Sleepover, The Lizzie McGuire Movie). Jump 5 have multi-platinum and gold record sales and nine albums currently released. Reggaeton style music such as Pitbull, and "pop punk" music, such as Avril Lavigne and Good Charlotte. A few winners of reality television shows such as Kelly Clarkson of American Idol and Will Young of Pop Idol had multi-platinum lemar.

In the Arab world, familiar pop stars include Cheb Khaled, Cheb Mami and Samira Said (famous for her 2003 album Youm Wara Youm).

[edit] Sound and themes

Pop music generally uses a simple, memorable melody and may use stripped-down rhythms. The songs are often about love or dancing. It is considered to be the most popular genre of music today.

Music videos and live performances are often used for exposure in the media, and artists may have extravagant stage shows and use choreographed dancing. Pop followed by dancing.

[edit] See also

[edit] References


[edit] External links

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Pop music

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