Politics of Ecuador

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Ecuador
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Politics and government of
Ecuador



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Politics of Ecuador takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Ecuador is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The constitution of Ecuador provides for concurrent four-year terms of office for the president, vice president, and members of Congress. Presidents may be re-elected after an intervening term, while legislators may be re-elected immediately. Citizens must be at least 18 years of age to vote. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65 and optional for other eligible voters.

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[edit] Political conditions

Ecuador's political parties have historically been small, loose organizations that depended more on populist, often charismatic, leaders to retain support than on programs or ideology. Frequent internal splits have produced extreme factionalism. However, a pattern has emerged in which administrations from the center-left alternate with those from the center-right. Although Ecuador's political elite is highly factionalized along regional, ideological, and personal lines, a strong desire for consensus on major issues often leads to compromise. Opposition forces in Congress are loosely organized, but historically they often unite to block the administration's initiatives and to remove cabinet ministers.

Constitutional changes enacted by a specially elected National Constitutional Assembly in 1998 took effect on August 10, 1998. The new constitution strengthens the executive branch by eliminating mid-term congressional elections and by circumscribing Congress' power to challenge cabinet ministers. Party discipline is traditionally weak, and routinely many deputies switch allegiance during each Congress. However, after the new Constitution took effect, the Congress passed a code of ethics which imposes penalties on members who defy their party leadership on key votes.

Beginning with the 1996 election, the indigenous population abandoned its traditional policy of shunning the official political system and participated actively. The indigenous population has established itself as a significant force in Ecuadorian politics, as shown by the selection of indigenous representative Nina Pacari, who led the indigenous political party, Pachakutik, as second vice president of the 1998 Congress.

A presidential election was held on 15 October 2006 and did not produce a conclusive winner. On November 26, 2006 Rafael Correa defeated Alvaro Noboa in a run-off election, or second and final round. Correa won with 56.8% of the vote. (These two men were, of course, the highest recipients of votes in the October 15 election.) <ref>"Ecuador Exit Polls Show Correa Wins Presidential Vote (Update2)" Bloomberg </ref>

[edit] Judicial branch

New justices of the Supreme Court are elected by the sitting members of the court. A bare majority of Congress, acting in a special session called by former President Lucio Gutiérrez in December, 2004, ousted 27 of the 31 justices and replaced them with new members chosen by Congress, notwithstanding the lack of any provisions permitting impeachment of Supreme Court justices by Congress and the specific provisions giving the Court the power to select new members. Earlier, in November 2004, Congress replaced the majority of judges on the country’s Electoral Court and Constitutional Court by a similar process.

[edit] Executive branch

Image:Alfredo Palacio.jpg
Current President of Ecuador, Alfredo Palacio
Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Alfredo Palacio April 20 2005
Vice President Alejandro Serrano April 20 2005

The president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); Lucio Gutiérrez was dramatically removed by an act of Congress on 20 April 2005; election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held 2006)

The executive branch includes 15 ministries. Provincial governors and councilors, like mayors and aldermen and parish boards, are directly elected. Congress meets throughout the year except for recess in July and December. There are 20 seven-member congressional committees.

Former Vice President Alfredo Palacio assumed the presidency on April 20 2005 after Congress removed Lucio Gutiérrez amid escalating street protests precipitated by growing criticism of Gutiérrez Supreme Court appointments.

[edit] Legislative branch

Ecuador has a unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional. There are 100 members, who are elected by popular vote by province to serve four-year terms, so in fact multi-seat constituencies.

[edit] Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Ecuador. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Ecuador.
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 20 October 2002 Ecuador presidential election results
Candidates - Parties First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Lucio Gutiérrez - Patriotic Society Party 21 January / Pluri-National Pachakutik United Movement - New Country 20.32 54.79
Álvaro Noboa - Institutional Renewal Party of National Action 17.40 45.21
León Roldós Aguilera - Citizen Movement 15.48
Rodrigo Borja Cevallos - Democratic Left 14.05
Xavier Neira - Social Christian Party 12.23
Jacobo Bucaram Ortiz - Ecuadorian Roldosist Party 11.87
Jacinto Velázquez - Movement Independent Social Transformation (Movimiento Transformación Social Independiente ) 3.74
Ivonne Juez de Baki - Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party 1.77
César Alarcón Costa - Freedom Party 1.20
Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea - Solidary Fatherland Movement 1.08
Antonio Vargas - Indigenous Movement Amauta Jatari (Movimiento Indígena Amauta Jatari) 0.84
Total (turnout 62.9 %) 100.0 100.0
Source: Electionguide.org [1] (para mi amiga, la cosita!)
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 20 October 2002 National Congress of Ecuador election results
Parties and alliances Votes % Seats
Ecuadorian Roldosist Party (Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano) . 15
Democratic Left (Izquierda Democrática) . 13
Institutional Renewal Party of National Action (Partido Renovador Institucional de Acción Nacional) . 10
Joint list of PSP and MUPP-NP . 6
Pluri-National Pachakutik United Movement - New Country (Movimiento Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik - Nuevo País) . 5
People's Democracy-Christian Democratic Union (Democracia Popular-Unión Demócrata Cristiana) . 4
Democratic People's Movement (Movimiento Popular Democrático) . 3
Patriotic Society Party 21 January (Partido Sociedad Patriótica 21 de Enero) . 2
Joint list of MUPP-NP and PS-FA . 2
Joint list of MPD and PS-FA . 2
Ecuadorian Socialist Party-Broad Front (Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano-Frente Amplio) . 1
Concentration of People's Forces (Concentración de Fuerzas Populares) . 1
Freedom Party (Partido Libertad) . 1
Solidary Fatherland Movement (Movimiento Patria Solidaria) . 1
Provincial Integration Movement (Movimiento Integración Provincial) . 1
Democratic Transformation (Transformación Democrática) 1
Joint list of ID and MIRE . 1
Joint list of ID and DP-UDC . 1
Joint list of ID and Movimiento Ciudadanos Nuevo País . 1
Joint list of MUPP-NP and MCNP . 1
Joint list of DP-UDC, PS-FA and Alfarismo Nacional . 1
Joint list of PSC and Unión Nacional-UNO . 1
Joint list of PSC and AN . 1
Joint list of PSP and MPD . 1
Total (turnout 63.5%)   100
Source: El Universo

[edit] Administrative divisions

Ecuador is divided into 22 provinces: Azuay, Bolívar, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galápagos Islands, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Ríos, Manabí, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbíos, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

[edit] Legal system

Ecuador's legal system is based on the civil law system. Ecuador has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.

[edit] International organization participation:

Ecuador or Ecuadorian organizations participate in the following international organizations: the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Group of Eleven (G-11), Group of 77 (G-77), Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), ICC, ICC, International Red Cross, International Development Association (IDA), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Finance Corporation (IFC), International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), International Labour Organization (ILO), IMF, International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat), Interpol, IOC, International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), Latin American Economic System (LAES), Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), Nonaligned Movement (NAM), OAS, Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL), Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), RG, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Universal Postal Union (UPU), World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), World Health Organization (WHO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Tourism Organization (WToO), World Trade Organization (WTO)

[edit] External links


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