Personality psychology

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Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. One emphasis in this area is to construct a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes. Another emphasis views personality as the study of individual differences, in other words, how people differ from each other. A third area of emphasis examines human nature and how all people are similar to one other. These three viewpoints merge together in the study of personality.

Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations (Ryckman, 2004). The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character.

The pioneering American psychologist, Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality, the idiographic and the nomothetic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization, or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual.

The study of personality has a rich and varied history in psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. Some psychologists have taken a highly scientific approach, whereas others have focused their attention on theory development. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing.


[edit] Philosophical assumptions

Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern Personality Theorists stem from basic philosophical assumptions they hold. Psychology is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art, science, and philosophy to draw general conclusions. The following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions where theorists disagree:

[edit] Freedom (Free Will) versus Determinism

The debate over whether we have control over our own behavior and understand the motives behind it (Freedom), or if our behavior is basically determined by some other force over which we might not have control (Determinism). We may merely respond to external forces like government, parents, professors, the economic system, etc; or we may even be constrained to behave in certain ways by our genetics, upbringing, etc.

[edit] Hereditary versus Environmental

Whether genetics have the most influence over someone’s behavior (Hereditary), or the environment they exist within (Environmental). Personality traits and other psychological phenomena can be inherited – identical twin studies and family studies to show that (for e.g.) anxiety disorders must be biologically wired. -Jung(dream and fantasy)-can be passed down from previous generations -Genetics/Neurobiological-personality traits and other psychology are inherited

[edit] Uniqueness versus Universality

The argument over whether we are all unique individuals (Uniqueness) or if humans are basically similar in their nature (Universality).

[edit] Proactive versus Reactive

Do we primarily act through our own initiative (Proactive), or do we react to outside stimuli (Reactive)?

[edit] Optimistic versus Pessimistic

Finally, whether or not we can alter our personalities (Optimistic) or if they remain the same throughout our whole lives (Pessimistic).

[edit] Personality theories

There are several theoretical perspectives on personality in psychology, which involve different ideas about the relationship between personality and other psychological constructs, as well as different theories about the way personality develops.

Generally the opponents to personality theories claim that personality is "plastic" in time, places, moods and situations. Changing personality may in fact result from diet (or lack thereof), medical effects, historical or subsequent events, or learning. Stage managers (of many types) are especially skilled in changing a person's resulting "personality". Most personality theories will not cover such flexible people nor unusual situations. Therefore, although personality theories do not define personality as "plastic" over time, they do imply a drastic change in personality is highly unusual.

Most theories can be grouped into one of the following classes:

[edit] Trait theories

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts." In other words, persons have certain characteristics which partly determine their behaviour. According to the theory, a friendly person is likely to act in a friendly way in any situation because of the traits in his personality. One criticism of trait models of personality as a whole is that they lead professionals in clinical psychology and laypeople alike to accept classifications, or worse offer advice, based on superficial analysis of one's profile.

The most common models of traits incorporate four or five broad dimensions or factors. The least controversial dimension, observed as far back as the ancient Greeks, is simply extroversion vs. introversion (outgoing and physical-stimulation-oriented vs. quiet and physical-stimulation-averse).

  • Gordon Allport delineated different kinds of traits, which he also called dispositions. Central traits are basic to an individual's personality, while secondary traits are more peripheral. Common traits are those recognized within a culture and thus may vary from culture to culture. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized.

  • Raymond Cattell's research propagated a two-tiered personality structure with sixteen "primary factors" (16 Personality Factors) and five "secondary factors." A different model was proposed by Hans Eysenck, who believed that just three traits - extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism - were sufficient to describe human personality. Differences between Cattell and Eysenck emerged due to preferences for different forms of factor analysis, with Cattell using oblique, Eysenck orthogonal, rotation to analyse the factors that emerged when personality questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis. Today, the Big Five factors have the weight of a considerable amount of empirical research behind them. Building on the work of Cattell and others, Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the "Big Five":
  1. Extroversion (i.e., "extroversion vs. introversion" above; outgoing and physical-stimulation-oriented vs. quiet and physical-stimulation-averse)
  2. Neuroticism (i.e., emotional stability; calm, imperturbable, optimistic vs. emotionally reactive, prone to negative emotions)
  3. Agreeableness (i.e., affable, friendly, conciliatory vs. aggressive, dominant, disagreeable)
  4. Conscientiousness (i.e., dutiful, planful, and orderly vs. spontaneous, flexible, and unreliable)
  5. Openness to experience (i.e., open to new ideas and change vs. traditional and staid)
  • John L. Holland's RIASEC vocational model, commonly referred to as the Holland Codes, stipulates that there are six personality traits that lead people to choose their career paths. This model is widely used in vocational counseling and is a circumplex model where the six types are represented as a hexagon where adjacent types are more closely related than those more distant [1].
  • Building on the writings and observations of Carl Jung, during WWII Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother Katharine C. Briggs delineated personality types by constructing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This model was later elaborated further by David Keirsey. It is an older, more theoretically-motivated, but quite popular approach to personality traits and is also called the Big Four model, accepting Extroversion vs. Introversion as basic and further adding three more dimensions:
  1. Extroversion vs. Introversion (see above)
  2. Intuition vs. Sensing (trust in conceptual/abstract models of reality versus concrete sensory-oriented facts)
  3. Thinking vs. Feeling (thinking as the prime-mover in decision-making vs. feelings as the prime-mover in decision-making)
  4. Perceiving vs. Judging (desire to perceive events vs. desire to have things done so judgements can be made)
This personality typology has some aspects of a trait theory: it explains people's behaviour in terms of opposite fixed characteristics. In these more traditional models, the intuition factor is considered the most basic, dividing people into "N" or "S" personality types. An "N" is further assumed to be guided by the thinking or objectication habit, or feelings, and be divided into "NT" (scientist, engineer) or "NF" (author, human-oriented leader) personality. An "S", by contrast, is assumed to be more guided by the perception axis, and thus divided into "SP" (performer, craftsman, artisan) and "SJ" (guardian, accountant, bureaucrat) personality. These four are considered basic, with the other two factors in each case (including always extraversion) less important. Critics of this traditional view have observed that the types are quite strongly stereotyped by professions, and thus may arise more from the need to categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice. This among other objections led to the emergence of the five factor view, which is less concerned with behavior under work stress and more concerned with behavior in personal and emotional circumstances. Some critics have argued for more or fewer dimensions while others have proposed entirely different theories (often assuming different definitions of "personality").
  • Type A and Type B personalities: During the 1950s, Meyer Friedman and his co-workers defined what they called Type A and Type B behavior patterns. They theorized that intense, hard-driving Type A personalities had a higher risk of coronary disease because they are "stress junkies." Type B people, on the other hand, tend to be relaxed, less competitive, and lower in risk. There is also a Type AB mixed profile. Dr. Redford Williams, cardiologist at Duke University refuted Friedman’s theory that Type A personalities have a higher risk of coronary heart disease, however, current research indicates that the hostility component of Type A may have health implications. Type A/B theory has been extensively criticized by psychologists because it tends to oversimplify the many dimensions of an individual's personality.

[edit] Psychoanalytic theories

Psychoanalysis theories explain human behaviour in terms of interaction between the various components of personality. Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school. Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics: based on the popular ideas of conversion of heat into mechanical energy and vice versa, he proposed the conversion of psychic energy into behavior.

Freud broke the human personality down to three significant components: the ego, superego, and id. The id is sexual and psychic energies that build up and need to be released or expressed in some way, they act as our pleasure principle. The ego is the structure that helps the id express itself – in other words, it acts as a "reality assessor" to the id. It emerges in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world. The ego works as a mediator and navigates one's environment to fulfill deep-seated needs. Finally, the super-ego exists within the ego. It exercises moral judgement and societal rules in keeping the ego and id in check. In other words, it assesses morals we have. The super-ego is the last function of the personality to develop and may be seen as an outcome of the interactions with one's parents during the long period of childhood dependency. According to Freud, personality is shaped by the interactions of these three components.

Freud assumed that who we are as adults is determined by early childhood experiences.

Freud believed that there were five "Psychosexual" stages of development including:

  1. Oral stage - birth to approximately age one
  2. Anal stage - two years of age
  3. Phallic Stage - between three and six
  4. Latency Period - about seven years old to puberty
  5. Genital Stage - occurs during adolescence

Freud believed that events in the past could influence the present such as when a person develops a fixation during one of these five stages and is apparent in his/her excessive need to overindulge in this earlier stage.

One of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates Alfred Adler did agree with Freud that early childhood experiences are important to development, and believed that birth order may influence personality development. This belief may have been influenced by his feelings of inferiority compared to his older brother. A sibling birth order position can affect the way an individual lives their life. Meaning personalities vary through oldest to youngest child. Alder believed the oldest was the one that set high goals to achieve to get attention back that they lost when the younger siblings were born. He believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious possibly so they are able to surpass the first-born’s achievements, but were not as much concerned about the glory. Also he believed that the last born would be more dependent and sociable but be the baby. He also believed that only children love being the center of attention and mature quickly, but in the end fail to become independent.

Freud came up with some of his theories about unconscious memories, and their influence on the patient's present behavior based on the work that Josef Breuer had done with 'Anna O.' Freud credits Breuer with the discovery of the psychoanalytic method. Breuer worked with a patient named Anna O. She was a 21 year old woman who was suffering from an undiagnosed (physical and mental) illness for several years. Her symptoms included: paralysis of the right arm and leg, difficulty in vision, nausea, as well as the inability to drink any liquids. She had difficulty speaking and was prone to altered states of consciousness which affected her changing personality and eventual amnesia. After examining Anna O, Breuer decided the best way to treat her would be with hypnosis. He was able to observe her mumbling and placed her under hypnosis. While hypnotized, he asked her to verbalize associations that she had with the words she was mumbling. Eventually, she began to describe situations and stories that all circled around her father's illness and death. She had been taking care of her ailing father and Breuer concluded that her symptoms were determined by traumatic or stressful events that happened in the past and happened to have a cathartic effect, also known as catharsis or emotional release associated with talking about the underlying problem. Breur would go to her house at night and talk about her fantasies then act them out. She would be symptom free for the rest of the night. Anna O. appeared to be cured about 2 years after Breuer had begun working with her. Later, Freud referred to the Anna O. case and concluded that at the time of the original traumatic event, the person experiencing the event has to contain their emotions. The patient then develops behaviors from their emotional experience of the event and it is those emotional experiences that lead to the present behavior stemming from the unconscious. ."<ref>Engler, Barbara (2006). Personality Theories. Houghton Mifflin.</ref>

Freud also believed in an idea called transference. This is when emotions one had as a child to your parents' actions are transfered to a therapist. Freud believed that all our reactions to other people are a result of our upbringing. Something someone does could be reminiscent of a desired trait, an undesired trait or an undesired parental trait.

Heinz Kohut thought similarly to Freud’s idea of transference. He used narcissism as a model of how we develop our sense of self. Narcissism is the exaggerated sense of one self in which is believed to exist in order to protect one's low self esteem and sense of worthlessness. Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud's theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the 'self-object transferences' of mirroring and idealization. In other words, children need to idealize and emotionally "sink into" and identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as parents or older siblings. They also need to have their self-worth mirrored by these people. These experiences allow them to thereby learn the self-soothing and other skills that are necessary for the development of a healthy sense of self.

Another important figure in the world of personality theory would be Karen Horney. She is credited with the development of the "real self" and the "ideal self". She believes that all people have these two views of their own self. The "real self" is how you really are with regards to personality, values, and morals; but the "ideal self" is a construct you apply to yourself to conform to social and personal norms and goals. Ideal self would be "I can be successful, I am CEO material"; and real self would be "I just work in the mail room, with not much chance of high promotion".

Margaret Mahler agreed with Klein's theory of linking relationships children have with their mothers to mental disorders of disturbed children. Certain disorders directly relate to what kind of relationship they had with their mothers. An example of this would be people diagnosed with schizophrenia. They are often too attached to their mother as children and even become obsessed, and never get over the "Oedipus" or "Electra" complex. Another example would be autistic children. Autistic children show no interest in their mother, relating to her, and so on. Both of these are very opposite reactions, but both have to do with the outcome of the mental disorder.

[edit] Behaviorist theories

Behaviorists explain personality in terms of reactions to external stimuli, and was a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy. This school of thought was developed by B. F. Skinner who put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or "the organism" with its environment. Skinner believed that children do bad things in order to get the attention that they crave. For example: a child cries because the child desires attention and knows it will be given. These are the stimulus, response, and consequences. The stimulus is the child being ignored, the response is the child acting out, and the attention that child gets is the consequence. According to this theory, people's behavior is formed by processes such as operant conditioning. Skinner put forward a 'three term contingency model' which helped promote analysis of behavior based on the 'Stimulus - Response - Consequence Model' in which the critical question is: "Under which circumstances or antecedent "stimuli" does the organism engage in a particular behavior or "response," which in turn produces a particular "consequence"?"

Ivan Pavlov is another notable influence. He is well known for his classical conditions experiments involving a dog. These physiological studies on this dog led him to discover the foundation of behaviorism as well as classical conditioning. Pavlov would begin his experiment by first ringing a bell, which would cause no response from the dog. He would proceed to place food in front of the dog's face, causing the dog to salivate. Several seconds later, he would ring the bell again, causing the dog to now salivate. After continuing this experiment several times, the dog would salivate at just the ring of the bell. These conditioning experiments can be used for many different types of experiments. He can do these experiments for any situation. For example, If every time someone ate fish they got sick, and he rang the bell when they ate the fish, eventually they would get sick from just the sound of the bell.

John B. Watson, The Father of American Behaviorism, made four major assumptions about radical Behaviorisms -

  1. Evolutionary Continuity: The laws of behavior are applied equally to all living organisms, so we can study animals as simple models of complex human responses.
  2. Reductionism: All behaviors are linked to physiology.
  3. Determinism: Animals do not respond freely, they respond in a programmed way to external stimuli. Biological organisms respond to outside influences.
  4. Empiricism: Only our actions are observable evidence of our personality. Psychology should involve the study of observable (overt) behavior.

No introspection or self analysis.

Behavioral modification is a form of therapy that applies the principles of learning to achieve changes in behavior.

[edit] Cognitive and social-cognitive theories

In cognitivism behaviour is explained as guided by cognitions (e.g. expectations) about the world, and especially those about other people. Albert Bandura, a social learning theorist suggested that the forces of memory and emotions worked in conjunction with environmental influences. Bandura was known mostly for his studies involving his "bobo doll." During these experiments, Bandura video taped a college student kicking and verbally abusing a bobo doll. He then showed this video to a class of kindergartners who were getting ready to go out to play. When they entered the play room, they saw bobo dolls, and some hammers. The people observing these children at play saw a group of children beating the doll. He called this study and his findings observational learning, or modeling. Cognitive theories are theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging.

Early examples of approaches to cognitive style are listed by Baron (1982). These include Witkin's (1965) work on field dependency, Gardner's (1953) discovering people had consistent preference for the number of categories they used to categorise heterogeneous objects, and Block and Petersen's (1955) work on confidence in line discrimination judgments. More central to this field have been:

Self-efficacy work, dealing with confidence people have in abilities to do tasks (Bandura, 1997);

Locus of control theory (Lefcourt, 1966; Rotter, 1966) dealing with different beliefs people have about whether their worlds are controlled by themselves or external factors;

Attributional style theory (Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale, 1978) dealing with different ways in which people explain events in their lives. This approach builds upon locus of control, but extends it by stating that we also need to consider whether people attribute to stable causes or variable causes, and to global causes or specific causes.

Various scales have been developed to assess both attributional style and locus of control. Locus of control scales include those used by Rotter and later by Duttweiler, the Nowicki and Strickland (1973) Locus of Control Scale for Children and various locus of control scales specifically in the health domain, most famously that of Kenneth Wallston and his colleagues, The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (Wallston et al, 1978). Attributional style has been assessed by the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982), the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson & Villanova, 1988), the Attributions Questionnaire (Gong-guy & Hammen, 1990), the Real Events Attributional Style Questionnaire (Norman & Antaki, 1988) and the Attributional Style Assessment Test (Anderson, 1988).

Walter Mischel (1999) has also defended a cognitive approach to personality. His work refers to "Cognitive Affective Units", and considers factors such as encoding of stimuli, affect, goal-setting and self-regulatory beliefs. The term "Cognitive Affective Units" shows how his approach considers affect as well as cognition.

Albert Ellis, an American cognitive-behavioral therapist, is considered by many to be the grandfather of cognitive-behavioral therapy. In 1955 Ellis developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), which later came to be known as Rational Therapy (RT). REBT required that the therapist help the client understand — and act on the understanding — that his personal philosophy contains common irrational beliefs that lead to his own emotional pain. Because thinking and emotion have a cause and effect relationship, Ellis believes that the thoughts we have become our emotions and the emotions we have become our thoughts. The basic theory of REBT is that majority of people create their own sort of emotional consequences because to sustain an emotion it must have had some form of thought. Ellis also created the A-B-C theory of personality. (A) is the activating event which is followed by (B), the belief system that the person holds and then (C), the emotional consequence. What the theory states is that (A) does not cause (C); but that (B) causes (C). The emotional consequences are caused by what the person believes in. An example would be if a person is walking outside and a stranger in a car pulls up next to them asking for directions (A), and the persons' belief system is that any stranger in a car that wants directions wants to hurt you (B) so therefore the person fears the person in the car is going to hurt them (C).

Aaron Beck, who is widely noted as the father of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), suggested that nearly all psychological dilemmas can be redirected in a positive (helpful) manner with the changing of the suffering individual's thought processes. He has worked extensively on depression and suicide, and is now redirecting his theories towards those with borderline personality disorder, and the various anxiety disorders (OCD, neurosis, phobias, PTSD, etc.). Extensive evidence has proven the effectiveness of combining CBT with pharmacotherapy in treating the most severe psychiatric disorders such as bi-polar disorder and schizophrenia. Aaron Beck's continuing research in the field has proven to be a greater success over time.

[edit] Humanistic theories

In humanistic psychology it is emphasized people have free will and that they play an active role in determining how they behave. Accordingly, humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons as opposed to forced, definitive factors that determine behaviour. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were proponents of this view.

Maslow spent much of his time studying what he called "self-actualizing persons", those who are "fulfilling themselves and doing the best that they are capable of doing". Maslow believes that all who are interested in growth move towards self-actualizing (growth, happiness, satisfaction) views. Many of these people demonstrate a trend in dimensions of their personalities. Characteristics of self-actualizers according to Maslow include the four key dimensions; 1) Awareness - maintaining constant enjoyment and awe of life.These individuals often experienced a "peak experience". He defined a peak experience as an "intensification of any experience to the degree that there is a loss or transcendence of self". A peak experience is one in which an individual perceives an expansion of his or herself, and detects a unity and meaningfulness in life. Intense concentration on an activity one is involved in, such as running a marathon, may invoke a peak experience. 2) Reality and problem centered - they have tendency to be concerned with "problems" in their surroundings. 3) Acceptance/Spontaneity - they accept their surroundings and what cannot be changed. And 4) Unhostile sense of humor/democratic - they do not like joking about others, which can be viewed as offensive. They have friends of all backgrounds and religions and hold very close friendships.

Maslow and Rogers emphasized a view of the person as an active, creative, experiencing human being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to current perceptions, relationships, and encounters. They disagree with the dark, pessimistic outlook of those in the Freudian psychoanalysis ranks, but rather view humanistic theories as positive and optimistic proposals which stress the tendency of the human personality toward growth and self-actualization. This progressing self will remain the center of its constantly changing world; a world that will help mold the self but not necessarily confine it. Rather, the self has opportunity for maturation based on its encounters with this world. This understanding attempts to reduce the acceptance of hopeless redundancy. Humanistic therapy typically relies on the client for information of the past and its effect on the present, therefore the client dictates the type of guidance the therapist may initiate. This allows for an individualized approach to therapy.Rogers found that patients differ in how they respond to other people. Rogers tried to model a particular approach to therapy- he stressed the response. These responses came in a variety of fashions:

A. Evaluative Response – Place a value judgment on person’s feelings B. Interpretive Response- tells the person what they’re really thinking or feeling. C. Reflective Response- Captures how someone is feeling right now about the situation.

[edit] Biopsychological & neuropsychological theories

Around the 1990s, neuroscience entered the domain of personality psychology. Whereas previous efforts for identifying personality differences relied upon simple, direct, human observation, neuroscience introduced powerful brain analysis tools like Electroencephalography (EEG), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to this study. One of the founders of this area of brain research is Richard Davidson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Davidson's research lab has focussed on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala in manifesting human personality. In particular, this research has looked at hemispheric asymmetry of activity in these regions. Neuropsychological studies have illustrated how hemispheric asymmetry can affect an individual's personality (particularly in social settings) for individuals who have NLD (non-verbal learning disorder) which is marked by the impairment of nonverbal information controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. Difficulties will arise in the areas of gross motor skills, inability to organize visual-spatial relations, or adapt to novel social situations. Frequently, a person with NLD is unable to interpret non-verbal cues, and therefore experiences difficulty interacting with peers in socially normative ways.

[edit] Object relations theory

Freud decided to use the term "object" to refer to any target that an infant uses to satisfy his drive. Object relations theorists have settled upon a structural model in which an natural drive to form and maintain human relationships is the basic need from which which other drives derive their meaning. In Object Relations Theory the object is the aim of "relational needs" in human development. These objects are most often people, such as primary caretakers and significant others. However, in young children these objects may include a blankie, favorite toy, pacifiers etc. DW Winnicott describes these objects as transitional objects. The child becomes attached to the object it provides pleasure for the child, when young he is unable to distinguish himself from the object. For the child, the transitional object provides a connection between the child's inner and outer worlds. The child learns about separateness between subjective and objective. From birth through life, object relations theorists propose that individuals seek to develop human relationships and form attachments that may aid or hinder their development. (Engler, 2006).

There are many other views on personality psychology, one of them George Kelly's personal construct psychology. Kelly presents a fundamental postulate with eleven corollaries: 1. Construction 2. Individuality 3. Organization 4. Dichotomy 5. Choice 6. Range 7. Experience 8. Modulation 9. Fragmentation 10. Communality 11. Sociability Other important contributors to the field are Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Otto Rank, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Albert Ellis, Erich Fromm, Hans Eysenck, Snygg and Combs, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, Viktor Frankl, Rollo May, and Jean Piaget. The fields of evolutionary psychology and Buddhist Psychology are also of interest in this context.

[edit] Personality tests

Types of personality tests include:

Critics have pointed to the Forer effect to suggest that some of these appear to be more accurate and discriminating than they really are. Personality psychology is often closely associated with social psychology.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • Abramson, L. , Seligman, M.E.P. & Teasdale,J. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74.
  • Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Baron, J. (1982). Intelligence and Personality. In R. Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Engler, Barbara (2006). Personality Theories. Houghton Mifflin.
  • Ryckman, R. (2004). Theories of Personality. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

[edit] External links

[edit] Headline text

jakkerj"==Further reading==

  • Mischel, W. (1999). Introduction to Personality. Sixth edition. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace.
  • Bradberry, T., and Greaves, J. (2005). "The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book." New York: Simon and Schuster.

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Personality psychology

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