Period (Periodic table)

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In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table.

The number of electron shells an atom has determines what period it belongs to. Each shell is divided into different subshells, which as atomic number increases are filled in roughly this order:

2s           2p  
3s           3p  
4s        3d 4p  
5s        4d 5p
6s     4f 5d 6p  
7s     5f 6d 7p  
8s  5g 6f 7d 8p  

Hence the structure of the periodic table. Since the outermost electrons determine chemical properties, those tend to be similar within periodic table groups.

Elements adjacent to one another within a group have similar physical properties, despite their significant differences in mass. Elements adjacent to one another within a period have similar mass but different properties.

See also:

Periodic tables

Standard table | Vertical table | Table with names | Names and atomic masses (large) | Names and atomic masses (small) | Names and atomic masses (text only) | Inline F-block | Elements to 218 | Electron configurations | Metals and nonmetals | Table by blocks | Alternatives

Lists of elements

Name | Atomic symbol | Atomic number | Boiling point | Melting point | Density | Atomic mass

Groups:   1 -  2 -  3 -  4 -  5 -  6 -  7 -  8 -  9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18
Periods:  1  -  2  -  3  -  4  -  5  -  6  -  7  -  8  -  9
Series:   Alkalis  -  Alkaline earths  -  Lanthanides  -  Actinides  -  Transition metals  -  Poor metals  -  Metalloids  -  Nonmetals  -  Halogens  -  Noble gases
Blocks:  s-block  -  p-block  -  d-block  -  f-block  -  g-block

ca:Plantilla:Elements químicsaf:Periode (Periodieketabel) ar:دورة جدول دوري ast:Periodu de la tabla periódica bg:Период на периодичната система ca:Període de la taula periòdica de:Periode des Periodensystems es:Periodo de la tabla periódica eo:Periodo de la perioda tabelo eu:Taula periodikoaren periodo fr:Période du tableau périodique ko:주기율표 주기 id:Periode tabel periodik is:Lota (lotukerfið) it:Periodo della tavola periodica lmo:Períut de la taula periòdica hu:Periódusos rendszerbeli periódus nl:Periode (scheikunde) ja:元素の周期 nn:Periodane i periodesystemet pl:Okres (chemia) pt:Período (química) ro:Perioadele tabelului periodic ru:Период периодической системы sr:Периода периодног система елемената sh:Perioda periodnog sistema elemenata su:Periode tabel periodik fi:Jakso (jaksollinen järjestelmä) sv:Periodiska systemets perioder th:คาบในตารางธาตุ zh:元素周期

Period (Periodic table)

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