Pedophilia

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Pedophilia, paedophilia or pædophilia (see spelling differences) is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to prepubescent or peripubescent children. People with this attraction are called pedophiles.

In contrast to the generally accepted medical definition, the term pedophile is also used colloquially to denote significantly older adults who are sexually attracted to adolescents below the local age of consent,<ref>Ames, A. & Houston, D. A. (1990). "Legal, social, and biological definitions of pedophilia." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 19 (4), 333-342.</ref> as well as those who have sexually abused a child.

Contents

[edit] Definitions

The word comes from the Greek paidophilia (παιδοφιλία)—pais (παις, "child") and philia (φιλία, "love, friendship"). Paidophilia was coined by Greek poets either as a substitute for "paiderastia" (pederasty)<ref>Liddell, H.G., and Scott, Robert (1959). Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. ISBN 0-19-910206-6.</ref>, or vice versa<ref>Anonymous (probably Geigel, Alois. 1869). Das Paradoxon der Venus Urania ("The paradox of man-manly love"), p. 6. Reprinted as a complete facsimile in Hohmann, Joachim S. (1977). Der unterdrückte Sexus ("Historical oppression of sexuality"). ISBN 3-87958-712 (in German). The anonymous 1869 author had harshly rejected the theories of early LGBT activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs whose "filthy pederasty" he contrasted with chaste, "sublime paedophilia" basing both definitions on the classical meaning boy for παις instead of the non-classical meaning child, and εραστια ("erastia") as pure "sexual desire", contrasted with more sublime φιλία.</ref>. As paederastia and pederasty were used in a derogatory manner since the time of ancient Rome until the mid-20th century due to its exclusive sexual meaning while paedophilia was not due to the originally more sublime meaning of φιλία in classical Greek compared to εραστια, the latter version of the story might be more likely.

The term paedophilia erotica was coined in 1886 by the Vienna psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in his writing Psychopathia Sexualis.<ref>Krafft-Ebing, Richard von (1886). Psychopathia Sexualis. English translation: ISBN 1-55970-425-X.</ref> He gave the following characteristics:

  • the sexual interest is toward children, either prepubescent or at the beginning of puberty
  • the sexual interest is the primary one, that is, exclusively or mainly toward children
  • the sexual interest remains over time

Strictly speaking, this definition would include many adolescents and prepubescents, for whom such an interest might be normal; thus, some experts add the criterion that the interest be toward children at least five years younger than the subject. See entry for sexologist Dr. John Money.

Krafft-Ebing also categorized child molesters into three types:

  • a.) pedophile,
  • b.) surrogate (that is, the child is regarded as a surrogate object for a preferred, non-available adult object)
  • c.) sadistic.

Other researchers used their own terms for the Krafft-Ebing categories:

  • a.) preferential/structured/fixed (i. e. pedophile) type,
  • b.) situational/opportunistic/regressed/incest (i. e. surrogate) type
  • c.) sadistic (no change)

This three-type model as well as the fundamental mental and behavioural differences of the three types were empirically evidenced, among others, by Kinsey; Howells 1981;<ref name=howells1981>Howells, K. (1981). "Adult sexual interest in children: Considerations relevant to theories of aetiology," Adult sexual interest in children, 55-94.</ref> Abel, Mittleman & Becker 1985;<ref name="abeletal1985">Abel, G. G., Mittleman, M. S., & Becker, J. V. (1985). "Sex offenders: Results of assessment and recommendations for treatment." In M. H. Ben-Aron, S. J. Hucker, & C. D. Webster (Eds.), Clinical criminology: The assessment and treatment of criminal behavior (pp. 207-220). Toronto, Canada: M & M Graphics.</ref> Knight et al. 1985;<ref name="knightetal1985">Knight, R.; Rosenberg, R.; Schneider, B. (1985). "Classification of sex offenders: Perspectives, methods, and validation" In A. W. Burgess (Ed.) Rape and sexual assault: A research handbook (pp. 222-293). New York: Garland.</ref> Brongersma 1990;<ref>Edward Brongersma (1990): "Boy-Lovers and Their Influence on Boys: Distorted Research and Anecdotal Observations" In Journal of Homosexuality 20 - 1/2</ref> McConaghy 1993;<ref name="mcconaghy1993">McConaghy, Nathaniel (1993). "Sexual Behaviour: Problems and Management", 312, New York: Plenum</ref> Ward et al. 1995;<ref name="wardetal1995">Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., Marshall, W. L., & Siegert, R. J. (1995). "Attachment style and intimacy deficits in sexual offenders: A theoretical framework." In Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 7, 317-334.</ref> Hoffmann 1996;<ref name="hoffmann1996">Hoffmann, R. (1996). "Die Lebenswelt des Pädophilen: Rahmen, Rituale und Dramaturgie der pädophilen Begegnung" (Paedophile conduct: Context, rituals, and choreography of paedophile contacts). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (in German)</ref> Seikowski 1999.<ref name="seikowski1999">Seikowski, K. (1999). "Pädophilie: Definition, Abgrenzung und Entwicklungsbedingungen" ("Paedophilia: Definition, distinguishing features, and aetiology") In Sexualmedizin 21, pp. 327-332 (in German)</ref>

Use of the term pedophile to describe all child sexual offenders is seen as problematic by some people,<ref>Edwards, M. (1997) "Treatment for Paedophiles; Treatment for Sex Offenders." Paedophile Policy and Prevention, Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series (12), 74-75.</ref><ref name="specialproblems">Underwager, Ralph and Wakefield, Hollida (1995). "Special Problems with Sexual Abuse Cases: Assessment of the Accused Adult." In J. Ziskin (Ed.) Coping With Psychiatric and Psychological Testimony (Fifth Edition). Los Angeles: Law and Psychology Press. pp. 1315-1370. ISBN 1-879689-07-3</ref><ref name="feierman">Feierman, J. (1990). "Introduction" and "A Biosocial Overview," Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions, 1-68.</ref> especially when viewed from a medical standpoint, as the majority of sex crimes against children are perpetrated by situational offenders rather than people sexually preferring prepubertal children.<ref>Joint submission from the Northern Territory Government and Police, 9 March 1995, page 4. Cited in "Organised Criminal Paedophile Activity." 14.8% of the sample were assessed to be pedophiles.</ref><ref>DiLorenzo, JoAnn (1981). "How a prominent Ware attorney preyed on troubled boys," They Valley Advocate, quoting the FBI's Kenneth Lanning, who estimates that only 10% of child sex offenders are preferential.</ref><ref>Marshall, W.L., Barbaree, H.E., and Eccles, A. (1991). "Early onset and deviant sexuality in child molesters," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6(3), 323-336. 33.8% of the sample showed arousal to children.</ref> Nevertheless, some researchers, such as Howard E. Barbaree,<ref name="barbaree-seto">Barbaree, H. E., and Seto, M. C. (1997). Pedophilia: Assessment and Treatment. Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. 175-193.</ref> have endorsed the use of actions as a sole criterion for the diagnosis of pedophilia as a means of taxonomic simplification, rebuking the American Psychiatric Association's standards as "unsatisfactory".

Some individuals,<ref>Musk, H., and Swetz, A. (1997). "Pedophilia in the correctional system," Corrections Today, 59(5), 24–28. "Pedophilia is a sexual orientation characterized by sexual attraction to children."</ref><ref>Jones, G. (1990). "The Study of Intergenerational Intimacy in North America: Beyond Politics and Pedophilia," Journal of Homosexuality, 20(1-2), 288. "Intergenerational attraction on the part of some adults could constitute a lifestyle 'orientation', rather than a pathological maladjustment."</ref> such as Dr. Fred S. Berlin,<ref name="edwards">Edwards, Douglas J. (2004). Mental Health's Cold Shoulder Treatment of Pedophilia in Behavioral Health Management, May-June.</ref><ref>Berlin, Fred (2000). "Treatments to Change Sexual Orientation," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 157.</ref> assert sexual attraction to children to be a sexual orientation in itself. Berlins asserts, "I think it can be both a disorder and an orientation."<ref name="flanagan">Flanagan, Russ (2004). ""I'm tired of being forced into the shadows by society," The Express-Times, 22 February.</ref> Dan Markussen, spokesman for Danish Pedophile Association, argues that "sexual orientation is defined as a lifelong attraction, which pedophilia obviously is."<ref name="flanagan" />

[edit] Diagnosis

The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (F65.4) defines pedophilia as "a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal age."<ref>World Health Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10. § F65.4</ref>

The APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, Text Revision gives the following as its "Diagnostic criteria for 302.2 Pedophilia":<ref>American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition), § 302.2</ref>

  • Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (generally age 13 years or younger).
  • The person has acted on these urges, or the sexual urges or fantasies cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
  • The person is at least age 16 years and at least 5 years older than the child or children in Criterion A.

Do not include an individual in late adolescence involved in an ongoing sexual relationship with a 12 or 13-year-old.

The actual boundaries between childhood and adolescence may vary in individual cases and are difficult to define in rigid terms of age. The World Health Organization, for instance, defines adolescence as the period of life between 10 and 19 years of age,<ref>Goodburn, Elizabeth A., and Ross, David A. (1995). "A Picture of Health: A Review and Annotated Bibliography of the Health of Young People in Developing Countries." Published by the World Health Organization and UNICEF.</ref> though it is most often defined as the period of life between the ages of 13 and 18.

The APA diagnostic criteria do not require actual sexual activity with a child. The diagnosis can therefore be made based on the presence of fantasies or sexual urges alone, provided the subject meets the remaining criteria.

[edit] Extent of occurrence

The extent to which pedophilia occurs is not known with any certainty. Some studies have concluded that at least a quarter of all adult men may have some feelings of sexual arousal in connection with children.<ref>Freund, K. and Costell, R. (1970). "The structure of erotic preference in the nondeviant male." Behaviour Research & Therapy 8 (1), 15-20.
Quinsey, V. L. et al. (1975). "Penile circumference, skin conductance, and ranking responses of child molesters and 'normals' to sexual and nonsexual visual stimuli." Behavior Therapy. 6, 213-219.</ref> Freund et al. (1972) remarked that "with males who have no deviant object preferences, clearly positive sexual reactions occur to [nude] 6- to 8-year old female children."<ref>Freund, Kurt; McKnight, C. K.; Langevin, R.; and Cibiri, S. (1972). "The female child as a surrogate object." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2, (2), 119-133.</ref>

In 1989 Briere and Runtz conducted a study on 193 male undergraduate students concerning pedophilia. Of the sample, 21% acknowledged sexual attraction to some small children; 9% reported sexual fantasies involving children; 5% admitted masturbating to these fantasies; and 7% conceded some probability of actually having sex with a child if they could avoid detection and punishment. These sexual interests were associated with negative early sexual experiences, masturbation to pornography, self-reported likelihood of raping a woman, frequent sex partners, and attitudes supportive of sexual dominance over women. The authors also noted that "given the probable social undesirability of such admissions, [one could] hypothesize that the actual rates ... were even higher."<ref>Briere, J. and Runtz, M. (1989) "University males' sexual interest in children: predicting potential indices of "pedophilia" in a nonforensic sample." Child Abuse & Neglect, 13 (1), 65-67.</ref>

A study by Hall et al. of Kent State University found that 32.5% of their sample — 80 adult male volunteers, 20% of whom reported some attraction to prepubescent girls — exhibited sexual arousal to heterosexual pedophilic stimuli that equaled or exceeded their arousal to the adult stimuli.<ref>Hall, G. C. N. et al. (1995) "Sexual Arousal and Arousability to Pedophilic Stimuli in a Community Sample of Normal Men" Behavior Therapy. 26, 681-694.</ref>

[edit] Occurrence in child sex offenders

A perpetrator of child sexual abuse is, despite all medical definitions, commonly assumed to be a pedophile, and referred to as such; however, there may be other motivations for the crime<ref name="barbaree-seto" /> (such as stress, marital problems, or the unavailability of an adult partner),<ref>Howells, K. (1981). "Adult sexual interest in children: Considerations relevant to theories of aetiology," Adult sexual interest in children, 55-94.</ref> much as adult rape can have non-sexual reasons. Thus, child sexual abuse alone may or may not be an indicator that its perpetrator is a pedophile; most perpetrators of it are in fact not primarily interested in children.<ref>Lanning, Kenneth (2001). Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis (Third Edition). National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.</ref>

Those who have committed sexual crimes against children, but do not meet the normal diagnosis criteria for pedophilia, are referred to as situational, opportunistic, or regressed offenders, whereas offenders primarily attracted toward children are called structured, preferential, or fixated pedophiles, as their orientation is fixed by the structure of their personality. It is estimated that only 2 to 10 percent of child sexual abuse perpetrators meet the regular criteria for pedophilia. (Kinsey-Report, Lautmann, Brongersma, Groth).

As noted by Abel, Mittleman, and Becker<ref>Abel, G. G., Mittleman, M. S., & Becker, J. V. (1985). "Sex offenders: Results of assessment and recommendations for treatment." In M. H. Ben-Aron, S. J. Hucker, & C. D. Webster (Eds.), Clinical criminology: The assessment and treatment of criminal behavior (pp. 207-220). Toronto, Canada: M & M Graphics.</ref> (1985) and Ward et al. (1995), there are generally large characteristical distinctions between the two types of offenders. Situational offenders tend to offend at times of stress; have a later onset of offending; have fewer, often familial victims; and have a general preference for adult partners. Pedophilic offenders, however, often start offending at an early age; often have a large number of victims who are frequently extrafamilial; are more appetitively driven to offend; and have values or beliefs that strongly support an offense lifestyle.

Most cases of father-daughter incest are believed to involve fathers who are situational offenders, rather than pedophiles.<ref>Quinsey, V. L. (1977). "The assessment and treatment of child molesters: A review." Canadian Psychological Review. 18, 204-220.</ref> Attempts have been made to use "profiling" to identify pedophiles, however, these methods have come under sharp criticism for making claims that are far in excess of what the evidence supports.<ref>Campbell, Terence W., The Reliability and Validity of Gardner's Indicators of Pedophilia. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations (5), online at http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume5/j5_3_4.htm</ref>

[edit] Treatment

A number of proposed treatment techniques for pedophilia have been developed. Many regard pedophilia as highly resistant to psychological interference and have dismissed as ineffective most "reparative strategies."<ref name="crawfordd">Crawford, David (1981). "Treatment approaches with pedophiles." Adult sexual interest in children. 181-217.</ref> Others, such as Dr. Fred Berlin, believe pedophilia can "indeed be successfully treated," if only the medical community would give it more attention.<ref name="edwards" /> The reported success rate of modern "reparative" treatment on pedophiles is very low.<ref name="crawfordd" />

[edit] Non-medical therapies

Treatment strategies for pedophilia include a "12 step support system," parallel to addiction therapy, though such a system is generally regarded as the least efficacious method of treatment.[citation needed]

Another approach is cognitive-behavioral therapy. Usually, this is done by telling the pedophile to fantasize about sexual contact with children, and then, once aroused, they are given instructions to imagine the assumed legal and social consequences of such an action.[citation needed]

[edit] Medical therapies

Anti-androgenic medications such as Depo Provera may be used to lower testosterone levels, and are often used in conjunction with the non-medical approaches above. This is commonly referred to as "chemical castration."

Other programs induce an association of illegal behavior with pain by means of the more controversial aversion therapy, in which the pedophile is given an electric shock while fantasizing.<ref>"Can pedophiles be treated?" Whyfiles.org</ref> A study by the Council on Scientific Affairs found that the success rate of aversion therapy was parallel to that of homosexual reparative therapy.<ref>Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association (1987). "Aversion therapy," Journal of the American Medical Association, 258(18), 2562-2565.</ref> This method is rarely used on pedophiles who have not offended.

Convicted sex offenders, including many pedophiles and homosexuals, have been treated by the psychosurgical procedure commonly known as lobotomization. Psychosurgery has long been controversial, particularly the historical use of surgical intervention on homosexuals given that homosexuality is no longer considered a mental illness by the psychiatric community (see for instance Rieber et al. 1976;<ref name="rieberetal1976">Rieber, I. et al. (1976). "Stellungnahme zu stereotaktischen Hirnoperationen an Menschen mit abweichendem Sexualverhalten" (Statement on stereotactical brain surgery performed on people exhibiting deviant sexual behaviour), Monatsschrift Kriminologie ("Criminological monthly"), no. 59, pp. 216-222. (in German)</ref> Sigusch 1977;<ref name="sigusch1977">Sigusch, V. (1977). "Medizinische Experimente am Menschen: Das Beispiel Psychochirurgie; Beiwerk des Jahrbuchs für kritische Medizin, Bd. 2" (Medical experiments in human: Example neurosurgery; supplement of the Annual of Critical Medicine, vol. 2). (in German)</ref> Rieber & Sigusch 1979;<ref name="riebersigusch1979">Rieber, I. & Sigusch, V. (1979). "Psychosurgery on sex offenders and sexual 'deviants' in West Germany", Archives of Sexual Behaviour, no. 8, pp 523-527</ref> Schorsch & Schmidt 1979)<ref name="schorschschmidt1979">Schorsch, E & Schmidt, G. (1979). "Hypatholomie bei sexuellen Abweichungen - Eine Kritik aus sexualwissenschaftlicher Sicht" (Hypothalamotomy in cases of sexual deviance: A criticism from a sexuological perspective)</ref>

Thalamotomy is an alternative surgical treatment of sex offenders in practice since the problems with leucotomy have been commonly known (see Greist 1990;<ref>Greist, J. H. (1990). "Treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: Psychotherapies, drugs, and other somatic treatment", Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, no. 5 (Suppl.), 44-50.</ref> Diering & Bell 1991;<ref>Diering, S. L. & Bell, W. O. (1991). "Functional neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders: A historical perspective", Stereotactical Functional Neurosurgery, no. 57, 175-194.'</ref> Hay & Sachdev 1992;<ref>Hay, P. J. & Sachdev, P. S. (1992). "The present status of psychosurgery in Australia and New Zealand", Medical Journal of Australia, no. 157, 17-19</ref> Rappaport 1992;<ref>Rappaport, Z. H. (1992). "Psychosurgery in the modern era: Therapeutic and ethical aspects", Medical Law, no. 11, 449-453</ref> de la Porte 1993;<ref>Porte, C. de la (1993). "Technial possibilities and limitations of stereotaxy", Acta Neurochirurgica, no. 124, 3-6</ref> Poynton 1993;<ref>Poynton, A. M. (1993). "Current state of psychosurgery", British Journal of Hospital Medicine, no. 40, 408-411</ref> Bridges et al. 1994;<ref name="bridgesetal1994">Bridges, P. K. et al (1994). "Psychosurgery: Stereotactic subcaudate tractomy. An indispensable treatment", British Journal of Psychiatry, no. 165, 599-611</ref> Cummings et al. 1995)<ref name="cummingsetal1995">Cummings, S. et al. (1995). "Neuropsychological outcome from psychosurgery for obsessive-compulsive disorder", Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, no. 29, 33-39</ref> and is increasingly advertized as an "effective therapy" for sex offenders (as well as for some children suffering from symptoms of child sexual abuse, since the 1980s (see for instance Andy 1970;<ref>Andy, O. J. (1970). "Thalamotomy in hyperactive and aggressive behaviour", Conf. Neurol., no. 32, 322-325</ref> Bradford 1988a;<ref>Bradford, J. M. W. (1988). "Organic treatment for the male sexual offender", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., no. 528, 193-202</ref> Wyre & Swift 1991;<ref>Wyre, R. & Swift, A. (1991): " 'Und bist du nicht willig...': Die Täter" ("Don't fight it...": Sexual offenders), Köln/Germany: Volksblattverlag (in German)</ref> Abel et al. 1992;<ref>Abel. G. G. et al. (1992). "Current treatments of paraphiliacs", Ann. Rev. Sex. Res., no. 3, 255-290</ref> Bridges et al. 1994;<ref name="bridgesetal1994" /> Cummings et al. 1995).<ref name="cummingsetal1995" /> As Levey and Curfman have noted, however, given the availability of psychopharmacological treatment options, psychosurgical interventions are not likely to be employed given their extreme side effects and irreversible nature. See the same article for an in depth review of treatment options and diagnostic criteria. Additionally Reid 2002 writes that neurosurgery for sex offenders is "essentially unavailable" in the United States and that data on its use is sparse.<ref>Reid (2002). "Sexual Predator Evaluations and Commitments", Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 8, No. 5</ref>

[edit] Criticisms of treatment strategies

Sigusch 2001<ref>Sigusch, V. (2001). "Organotherapien bei sexuellen Perversionen und sexueller Delinquenz" ("Organic therapies in sexual perversions and sexual delinquency"), Sigusch, V. (ed.). Sexuelle Störungen und ihre Behandlung ("Sexual disorders and their treatments"), pp. 517-537, Stuttgart/New York: Georg Thieme Verlag (in German).</ref> and others<ref name="rieberetal1976" /><ref name="sigusch1977" /><ref name="riebersigusch1979" /><ref name="schorschschmidt1979" /> criticize the moral pressure put upon sex offenders continuously until the present day by offering them amnesty in return for such non-standardized brain surgery under whatever name where the surgeon is free to remove as much of the offender's cerebrum as he pleases, a therapy which according to Sigusch 2001 consecutively leads to complete physical destruction of the individual organism (or increasing exhibition of violent behaviour even if there was none before) since according to Sigusch 2001 no successes are observed after each single surgery and surgeons generally regard that the therapy will be more successful the more brain mass will be removed (see also Andy 1970). Balasubramaniam et al. 1969<ref>Balasubramaniam, V. et al. (1969). "Sedative neurosurgery", J. Ind. Med. Assoc., no. 53, 377-381</ref> speak of this neurosurgery used on sex offenders as a "sedative" strategy "where a patient is made quiet and manageable by an operation".

Criticisms of therapies for pedophiles as well as theoretical models of no potential for their therapy mostly stem from the finding of some studies that pedophiles exhibit no clinically pathological traits other than the direction of their sexual preference, a fact that is very rare among all other classified paraphilias and mental illnesses<ref name="vogt2006">Vogt, Horst (2006): Pädophilie - Leipziger Studie zur gesellschaftlichen und psychischen Situation pädophiler Männer ("Paedophilia - Leipzig study on the societal and psychological situation of paedophile males"), Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers. ISBN 3-89967-323-9 (in German)</ref> where the pathological aetiological characteristics causing deviant behaviour are commonly therapied. As these pathological aetiological characteristics cannot be evidenced in pedophiles, common therapy models fail on them.

Vogt 2006<ref name="vogt2006" /> states that even on an international scale only 2 scientific studies have ever been made on distinctly pathological mental characteristics of pedophiles before 2006 that were methodologically correct, naming these as Bernard 1982;<ref name="bernard1982a">Bernard, Frits (1982): "Der Pädophile: Allgemeine Untersuchung einer Gruppe" (Paedophiles: General examination of a group), Bernard, Frits. Kinderschänder? - Pädophilie, von der Liebe mit Kindern ("Child molesters? Paedophilia, on childlove"), 61-80, Berlin: Foerster Verlag. (in German)</ref> Wilson & Cox 1983.<ref>Wilson, G. D. & Cox, D. N. (1983). The child lovers: A study of paedophiles in society, London: Peter Owen.</ref> Vogt 2006 re-confirmed identical results as Bernard 1982; Wilson & Cox 1983. No pathological characteristics could be found for pedophiles other than the direction of their sexual preference which all three studies explicitly suggest to be up for debate as not pathological especially in light of their findings. The only significant deviance from the norm other than sexual preference that could be found by all three studies was higher mean level of education of pedophiles compared to the average population, while all three studies also opt strongly for distinguishing between clinical and forensical studies made of individuals mostly stigmatized, often traumatized by their current surroundings, and non-clinical, non-forensical studies.

These conclusions are in conflict with those of other researchers, who have found that pedophiles exhibit "many psychiatric features beyond deviant sexual desire, including high rates of comorbid axis I disorders (affective disorders, substance use disorders, impulse control disorders, other paraphilias) as well as severe axis II psychopathology (especially antisocial and Cluster C personality disorders)."<ref name="cohen2002">Cohen, L.J. & Galynker, I.I. (2002): "Clinical features of pedophilia and implications for treatment.", Journal of Psychiatric Practice</ref> Beyond his criticism of clinical and forensic studies, Vogt 2006 replies to this that many, if not most studies diagnose pedophilia merely on the grounds of offenses instead of going through the effort of distinguishing the three categories of offenders via psychological examination and analysis.<ref name="vogt2006" />

Scientists supporting the declassification of pedophilia as paraphilia and mental illness due to the findings of the first two studies include Howitt 1998a;<ref>Howitt, D. (1998). Paedophiles and sexual offences against children, Chichester, England: Wiley.</ref> Green 2002;<ref>Green, Richard (2002). "Is pedophilia a mental disorder?", Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31 (6). 467-471. (summary)</ref> Ng 2002;<ref>Ng, E. M. L. (2002). "Pedophilia from a Chinese perspective", Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31 (6). 491-492</ref> Fiedler 2004.<ref>Fiedler, P. (2004). Sexuelle Orientierung und sexuelle Abweichung: Heterosexualität, Homosexualität, Transgenderismus und Paraphilien, sexueller Mißbrauch, sexuelle Gewalt ("Sexual orientation and sexual deviance: Heterosexuality, homosexuality, transgenderism, paraphilia, sexual abuse, sexual violence"). Weinheim, Germany: Beltz, PVU. (in German)</ref>

Also Langevin 1983<ref>Langevin, R. (1983). "Sexual strands : Understanding and treating sexual anomalies in men", Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.</ref> and Okami & Goldberg 1992<ref>Okami, P. & Goldberg, A. (1992). "Personality Correlates of Pedophilia: Are They Reliable Indicators?", Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 297-328.</ref>; ("consistent" findings with Langevin 1983) found no pathological characteristics in pedophiles other than their sexual preference and that "None of the commonly held hypotheses were supported." The most likely reason why these two studies were rejected by Vogt 2006 as methodologically incorrect is that they relied upon clinical and/or forensical data.

[edit] Related terms

  • Ephebophilia, also known as hebephilia, is the condition of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to adolescents. These terms are used in contrast with pedophilia; however pedophilia is sometimes used more broadly in the western world to describe both ephebophilia and attraction to younger children, that is, any person younger than the legal age of consent. Ephebophilia is a term of recent coinage, and does not have broad academic acceptance as constituting a paraphilia.
  • Pederasty has historically been given sharply different meanings, sometimes referring to male homosexuality in general and sometimes specifically to homosexual male pedophilia. In academic usage the word has still a third meaning, referring specifically to the age-structured homosexuality practiced in classical Greece between older men and adolescents, and by extension to age-structured homosexuality in other cultures.
  • Nepiophilia, also called infantophilia, is the attraction to toddlers and infants (usually ages 0–3). Some researchers have suggested a distinction between pedophilia and nepiophilia, especially for same-sex pedophilia (see for example Bernard 1975, 1982; Lautmann 1994), as it is unusual for pedophiles to prefer toddlers. According to Howells 1981;<ref>Howells, Kevin (1981). "Considerations Relevant to Theories of Etiology", Cook, M.; Howells, K. Adult Sexual Interest in Children, 78</ref> Bernard 1982;<ref name="bernard1982a" /><ref>Bernard, Frits (1982): "Pädophilie und Altersgrenzen" (Paedophilia and different ages of childhood), Bernard, Frits. Kinderschänder? - Pädophilie, von der Liebe mit Kindern ("Child molesters? Paedophilia, on childlove"), 81-109, Berlin: Foerster Verlag. (in German)</ref> McConaghy 1993;<ref>McConaghy, Nathaniel (1993). "Sexual Behaviour: Problems and Management", 312, New York: Plenum.</ref> Lautmann 1994,<ref>Lautmann, Rüdiger (1994): "Unterschiede zwischen Knaben- und Mädchenliebe" (Differences of boy-love and girl-love), Lautmann, Rüdiger. Die Lust am Kind - Portrait des Pädophilen ("Erotic affection for minors: Portrait of paedophilia"), 36-40, Hamburg: Ingrid Klein Verlag. (in German)</ref> male-oriented pedophilia more prevalently blends in with ephebophilia, while female-oriented pedophilia more prevalently blends in with nepiophilia.
  • Gerontophilia is the condition of being sexually attracted to the elderly.

[edit] Pedophile activism

Main article: Pedophile activism

The pedophile activism movement, referred to by some supporters as the childlove movement, is a social movement that encompasses a wide variety of views, but generally advocates one or more of the following: social acceptance of adults' romantic or sexual attraction to children; social acceptance of adults' sexual activity with children; and changes in institutions of concern to pedophiles, such as changing age-of-consent laws and mental illness classifications. The movement is extremely unpopular and has made little progress toward these goals. The most high profile pedophile activism group is NAMBLA. NAMBLA advocates the legalization of sexual relationships between older men and young boys.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes and references

<references />

  • Scruton, Roger, Sexual Desire: A Moral Philosophy of the Erotic, Free, 1986.
  • Pryor, Douglass, Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children, New York Univ. Press, 1996.
  • Fagan P. J. et al (2002). "Pedophilia" (requires registration). Journal of the American Medical Association. 288, 2458-2465.
  • Rind et al. (1998). "A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples." Psychological Bulletin. 124 (1), 22-53.
  • Levine, Judith. (2002). Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children From Sex. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Discusses the perception and reality of pedophilia. ISBN 0-8166-4006-8.
  • Wilson, Paul R. (1981). Paul Wilson: The Man They Called a Monster. Melbourne: Cassell Australia. ISBN 0-7269-9282-8. (Book about a court reporter who had sexual relationships with 2500 adolescent males; includes interviews with the later adults who reflect on these relationships.)
  • Abel GG: Behavioral treatment of child molesters, in Perspectives on Behavioral Medicine. Edited by Stunkard AJ, Baum A. New York, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989, pp 223-242
  • Abel GG, Blanchard EB: The role of fantasy in the treatment of sexual deviation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:467-475, 1974
  • Abel GG, Osborn CA: Clinical syndromes of adult psychiatry: the paraphilias, in The Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. New York, Oxford University Press, in press
  • Abel GG, Rouleau J-L: Male sex offenders, in Handbook of Outpatient Treatment of Adults. Edited by Thase ME, Edelstein BA, Hersen M. New York, Plenum, 1990, pp 271-290

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