Party-list proportional representation
Learn more about Party-list proportional representation
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Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e.g. elections to parliament), emphasizing proportional representation (PR). They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.
In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Israel, or they may vote for candidates and that vote will pool to the party, like in Turkey and Finland.
There are two major and important variations of Party List systems, usually defined as closed list and open list elections: i.e. the order in which the party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party (a closed list system) or they may be determined by the voters at large (an open list system).
There are many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation. The three most common are:
- The D'Hondt method (or Jefferson's method), used in Spain, Israel, Austria, Finland and Poland, among other places;
- The Sainte-Laguë method (or Webster's method), used in many Scandinavian countries, New Zealand, and the German Federal State Bremen;
- The Huntington-Hill method, used in the United States of America (to determine seat apportionment among states, not political parties)
- The largest remainder methods, or LR (including the Hamilton method).
List PR may also be combined in various hybrids (e.g. using the Additional member system).
The unmodified Sainte-Laguë method and the LR-Hare method rank as the most proportional followed by LR-Droop; single transferable vote; modified Sainte-Laguë, D'Hondt and largest remainder Imperiali. While the allocation formula is important, equally important is the district magnitude (number of seats in a constituency). The higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes.
 See also
 External links
- Advantages and disadvantages of List PR - from the ACE Project
- Open, Closed and Free Lists - from the ACE Project
- Mike Ossipoff's site on List Proportional representation
- Site of the Independent Commission reviewing the effects of PR in the UKfr:Scrutin proportionnel plurinominal