Learn more about Paramount chief
The word was introduced by westerners, often in colonial times, as a generic term rendering various autochthonous institutions, which may vary considerably according to each community's culture and history - follow the links in the (probably incomplete) lists below.
However the term has also often been given legal sanction in order to use tribal institutions for indirect rule, sometimes even in post-independence republics - rather like the British, Dutch and other colonizing powers did, often successfully, with princely states, mainly in the East Indies.
 In Africa
 Eastern African paramount chieftainships and titles
 Western African paramount chieftainships and titles
- in Nigeria: * Egbaland
- in The Gambia: * The Gezi (Paramount Chief or Queen,with the style of His or Her Majesty. The current leader is Paramount CHief Richard Lake. He was made Paramount Chief on July 22, 2006 by the Gambian Government. It was the first new creation of a Gambian tribe.)
 Southern African paramount chieftainships and titles
- in present Lesotho since it emerges as a polity in 1822, a British Protectorate as Basutoland since 12 March 1868 (11 August 1871 - 18 March 1884 Annexed to Cape Colony as Basutoland territory, 18 March 1884 a separate colony, as one of the High Commission Territories; title changed to king at the 4 October 1966 independence from Britain.
- in Malawi Inkosi ya makosi was the title of two Ngosi dynasties : the Jere or Qeko dynasty (since 1840) and the Maseko or Gomani dynasty (since before 1832), both still existing
- in Namibia
- In Swaziland the term paramount chief was imposed by the British over Swazi royal objections in 1903, was never recognized by the Swazi royalty, and was changed to "king" in English upon independence in 1968. The SiSwati name for the office is Ngwenyama, a ceremonial term for "lion".
- in South Africa
- Khosikulu of the vhaVenda; after the people's split, (only?) of the haMphaphuli
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the Xhosa people's following polities: amaGcaleka, amaMbalu, amaRharhabe, amaNdlambe, imiDushane kaNdlambe, imiQhayi, amaGasela, amaGwali, amaHleke, imiNdange, amaNtinde, amaGqunukhwebe
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaBhaca (until 1830 called abakwaZelemu)
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaPondo
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaPondomise
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaThembu
 In Asia
 Arabian paramount chieftainships and titles
- the following tribal polities in the Arabian peninsular sultanate of Oman, titled tamimah (till 1971):
 In Oceania
 Polynesian paramount chieftainships and titles
- on New Zealand: Ariki Nui of Ngati Tuwharetoa, the major Māori polity there since circa 1750, until the 2 May 1859 established Kingship movement
- on American Samoa * (on Samoa, there is a paramount king *)
- on Fiji:
- during the October - December 1987 secession agitation on one island, known as the Republic of Rotuma, lead by Henry Gibson (remained in New Zealand), his style was gagaj sau lagfatmaro, rendered as Paramount chief.
- the British Sovereign remains recognized as 'Great Chief', even since the country became a republic on 7 October 1987; however, this is not an office of state
- in French Polynesia: ari`i *
- on Easter Island * (presently in Chile) paramount chief or king, the 'ariki henua *
 See also
 Sources and references
- WorldStatesmen see each present country