Palestinian National Authority

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السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية
As-Sulta Al-Wataniya Al-Filastiniya

Palestinian National Authority
Image:Palestinian flag.svg Image:Palestine COA.gif
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Biladi
Capital East Jerusalem<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> is the desired capital of an independent Palestine.
31°46′N 35°15′E
Government institutions currently located in Gaza and Ramallah.
31°54′N 35°12′E
Largest city Hebron<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Official languages Arabic
 - President Mahmoud Abbas
 - Prime Minister Ismail Haniya
Constitution created in 2003 
 - Independence Not independent 
 - Declared November 15 1988 
 - Status Unrecognized 
 - Total 6,220 km² (169th)
2,402 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 3.54
 - 2005 estimate 3,702,212 (128th)
 - Density 595/km² (18th)
1,514/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - estimate
 - Total - (-)
 - Per capita - (-)
HDI  (2003) 0.729 (medium) (102)
Currency Jordanian dinara
Israeli new sheqel
Time zone   (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST)   (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .ps
Calling code +970b
a West Bank only.
b Not officially assigned.

The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA; Arabic: السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينيةAs-Sulta Al-Wataniyya Al-Filastiniyya) is an interim administrative organization that nominally governs parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

The Palestinian National Authority was established in 1994, pursuant to the Oslo accords between the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) and the government of Israel, as a 5-year transitional body during which final status negotiations between the two parties were to take place. According to the Accords, the Palestinian Authority was designated to have control over both security-related and civilian issues in Palestinian urban areas (referred to as "Area A"), and only civilian control over Palestinian rural areas ("Area B"). The remainder of the territories, including Israeli settlements, the Jordan Valley region, and bypass roads between Palestinian communities were to remain under exclusive Israeli control ("Area C"). East Jerusalem was excluded from the Accords.


[edit] Overview

Image:Palestinian authority map.gif
Map of territories composing the Palestinian National Authority

The Palestinian Authority is distinct from the PLO, and it is the PLO, not the PNA, which enjoys international recognition as the organization representing the Palestinian people. The Palestinian diaspora, living outside the West Bank and Gaza, which constitutes the majority of the Palestinian people, are not allowed to vote in elections for PNA offices. Under the name "Palestine", it has an observer status in the United Nations (UN) since 1974. After the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the PLO's representation at the United Nations was renamed Palestine. It is the PLO, not the PNA, which has participated in General Assembly debates, without voting, since 1998, and which was recognized by Israel as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian People in the negotiations leading to the Oslo Accords.

The PNA previously received considerable financial assistance from the European Union and the United States (approximately USD $1,000,000,000 combined in 2005), but both suspended all direct aid on April 7, 2006 (as threatened in January 2006), (following Canada's March 29, 2006 decision to cut all aid) as a result of the Hamas victory in parliamentary elections.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The Gaza International Airport was built by the PNA in the city of Rafah, but operated for only a brief period before being razed by Israel following the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000. A sea port was also being constructed in Gaza but was never completed (see below).

The PA maintains an official uniformed armed service which various sources estimate to include anywhere from 40,000 to 80,000 recruits <ref>David Hirst, "The New Oppressor of the Palestinians," Guardian (London), July 6, 1996, reprinted in World Press Review, October 1996, p. 11. Hirst suggests that there are 40,000-50,000 security officers. For Israeli press reports about there being 40,000 officers, see Steve Rodan, "Gov't: PA Has 16,000 More Policemen than Permitted by Oslo," Jerusalem Post (international edition), May 2, 1998, p. 3. According to the Jerusalem Post, Israeli defense sources said in September 1996 that the number of armed men in the PA had risen to 80,000. See Steve Rodan, "Palestinians Have 80,000 Armed Fighters," Jerusalem Post, September 27, 1996, p. 5.</ref> employing some armored cars, and a limited number carry automatic weapons.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Officially termed a "police force", it is accused by some of violating the Oslo Accords which limit the force to 30,000 recruits.

Many Palestinians are dependent on access to the Israeli job market. During the 1990s, Israel however began to replace Palestinians with foreign guest workers. They were found to be economical and also were useful as a means of limiting dependence on Palestinians as a source of cheap labor due to what it called security concerns. This hurt the Palestinian economy, in particular in the Gaza strip, where 60% of the population is under the poverty line according to the CIA World Factbook.

[edit] Officials

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Mahmoud Abbas Fatah January 15 2005
Prime Minister Ismail Haniya Hamas February 19, 2006

Past Prime Ministers:

Past Presidents:

[edit] History

Main article: History of Palestine

In 1922 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire that ruled the region of Palestine for four centuries (1517-1917), the British Mandate of Palestine was established. The future of Palestine was hotly disputed between Arabs and the Zionist movement. In 1947, the United Nations Partition Plan proposed a division of the mandated territory between an Arab and a Jewish state, with Jerusalem and the surrounding area to be a corpus separatum under a special international regime. The regions allotted to the proposed Arab state included what would become the Gaza Strip and almost all of what would become the West Bank, as well as other areas.

Jewish groups (notably the Jewish Agency) generally supported the partition plan. Arab groups (all Arab countries in the U.N. voted against it) generally rejected the partition plan and subsequently invaded the newly formed State of Israel[citation needed], starting the Israeli War of Independence.

After the war, Israel controlled many of the areas designated for the Arab state, and the negotiated agreements established Armistice Demarcation Lines (ADLs), which did not have the status of recognised international borders.

Thus the areas held by Jordanian and Iraqi forces (with minor adjustments) came under Jordanian control, and became known as the West Bank (of the Jordan River, by contrast with the East Bank, or Jordan proper); the area held by Egyptian forces, along the Mediterranean coast in the vicinity of the city of Gaza and south to the international border, remained under Egyptian control and became known as the Gaza Strip.

For nineteen years following the 1949 Armistice Agreements until the 1967 Six Day War, Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Jordan occupied the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and no Arab state was created. In 1950, Jordan annexed the territories it occupied; this annexation was not officially recognized by other countries, with the sole exception of the United Kingdom (but not, as is often said, Pakistan).

The Article 24 of the Palestinian National Charter of 1964 [1] stated: "This Organization does not exercise any territorial sovereignty over the West Bank in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, on the Gaza Strip or in the Himmah Area."

Israel captured both territories in the 1967 Six-Day War; since then they have been under Israeli control. After the war, UN Security Council Resolution 242 introduced the "Land for Peace" formula for normalizing relations between Israel and its neighbors.

The Oslo Accords of the early 1990's between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority. This was an interim organization created to administer a limited form of Palestinian self-governance in the territories for a period of five years during which final-status negotiations would take place. The Palestinian Authority carried civil responsibility in some rural areas, as well as security responsibility in the major cities of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Although the five-year interim period expired in 1999, the final status agreement has yet to be concluded despite attempts such as the Camp David 2000 Summit, the Taba summit, and the unofficial Geneva Accords.

In 2005 Israeli forces unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, ceding full effective internal control of the territory to the Palestinian Authority, but retained control of its borders.

[edit] Current events

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Since the beginning of the Second Intifada, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has been undermined both in the Palestinian occupied territories (Gaza strip and West Bank) and abroad. Ariel Sharon and the George W. Bush administration refused to negotiate with Yasser Arafat, leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and former president of the PA, whom they asserted formed "part of the problem" (concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict) and not of its solution — this despite Arafat's signature of the 1993 Oslo Accords. In January 2006, Hamas won the legislative elections, and thus replaced Arafat's Fatah as leading party of the Palestinian people. The PNA is therefore now led by president Mahmoud Abbas (Fatah), elected in January 2005, and by prime minister Ismail Haniyah (Hamas).

Israel has accused the Palestinian Authority of ignoring and covertly sponsoring the violence against Israelis. The prolonged support and participation of his own private militia, the Fatah, in suicide bombings, reinforces that claim. This view has been officially accepted by the United States in summer 2002, which decided then to halt most sorts of negotiations with the current Palestinian authority, pending a fundamental organizational change. The US Council on Foreign Relations think tank has declared the Palestinian Authority under Arafat a haven for terrorism [citation needed].

During the Intifada, Israel has often targeted Palestinian Authority personnel and resources. In particular, many of the people arrested, assassinated or killed in action because of their alleged terrorist activities, were employees of the Palestinian Authority's security forces or militias. In Operation Defensive Shield Israel has captured documents that allegedly prove that the Palestinian Authority officially sponsors "terrorist activities", which are carried out by its personnel as "shadow jobs". For instance, Israel arrested and convicted Marwan Barghouti, a prominent leader of Fatah, for his role as leader of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. Barghouti maintains his innocence, and rejects the impartiality of the Israeli courts.

Israel has also targeted Palestinian Authority infrastructure; in particular it has closed and destroyed parts of the Palestinian sea and air ports, that were used, it claimed, to transport terrorists and their equipment. Israel's incursions during the Intifada also led to damage to some of the Palestinian computer infrastructure, though it is not clear to what extent it was deliberate.

These moves were criticized by the Palestinians, who claim that the Palestinian Authority is nearing collapse, and is no longer able to carry out its internal and external obligations. This is because these repeated degradations of PA resources and infrastructure have led to complaints by the PA and some of its EU funders that Israel is deliberately hobbling the PA to restrict its powers of law enforcement in order to present an image of terrorism and lawlessness in the Palestinian Territories. In 2002, the French University of Paris VI and the University of Lille voted the suspension of the scientific agreement between the EU and Israel, in particular concerning the cooperation program PCRD, on the charges that article 2 of the agreement, "founded on the respect of human rights and democratic principles", was not respected by Israel. This in particular followed the deliberate destruction by Tsahal of computers and other Palestinian teaching infrastructures, financed by the EU. However, the Universities, accused of antisemitism, later cancelled their votes <ref>"L'Université Paris-VI (Jussieu) vote pour l'arrêt de la coopération avec Israël", Europalestine, December 19, 2002.</ref>

On July 7, 2004, the Quartet of Middle East mediators informed Ahmed Qurei, Prime Minister of the PA from 2003 to 2006, that they were "sick and tired" of the Palestinians failure to carry out promised reforms: "If security reforms are not done, there will be no (more) international support and no funding from the international community"<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On July 18, 2004, United States President George W. Bush stated that the establishment of a Palestinian state by the end of 2005 was unlikely due to instability and violence in the Palestinian Authority.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In order for there to be a Palestinian state, it is essential for its leaders to be open to reform and be dedicated to their people.
The problem of the Palestinians is a territorial one – they have no state and they have no leaders. Palestinians that want change need to demand that a security force be established. The real problem is that there is no leadership that is able to say 'help us establish a state and we will fight terror and answer the needs of the Palestinians'.

Following Arafat's death on November 11, 2004, Rawhi Fattuh, leader of the Palestinian Legislative Council became Acting President of the Palestinian Authority as provided for in Article 54(2) of the Authority's Basic Law.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

If the office of the President of the National Authority becomes vacant due to any of the above cases, the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council shall assume the powers and duties of the Presidency of the National Authority, temporarily for a period not exceeding (60) sixty days, during which free and direct elections to choose a new president shall take place in accordance with the Palestinian Elections Law.

On 19 April, 2005, Vladimir Putin the president of Russia agreed to aid the Palestinian Authority stating, "We support the efforts of President Abbas to reform the security services and fight against terrorism ... If we are waiting for President Abbas to fight terrorism, he cannot do it with the resources he has now. ... We will give the Palestinian Authority technical help by sending equipment, training people. We will give the Palestinian Authority helicopters and also communication equipment."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In August 2005, Israeli Prime minister Ariel Sharon began his unilateral disengagement plan from the empoverished Gaza strip. Fatah pointed out that at the same time, he was encouraging constructions at Ma'ale Adummim and others settlements in the West Bank.

[edit] Politics and Internal structure

Main article: Politics of Palestine

The Palestinian Authority (PA) has historically been associated with the PLO, with whom Israel negotiated the Oslo Accords. The Chairman of the PLO, Yasser Arafat, was elected as President of PA in a landslide victory in 1996. Subsequent elections were postponed, ostensibly due to the eruption of the Al-Aqsa Intifada and the Israeli military clampdown that accompanied it. However, internal Palestinian strife was also a reason for the disorganization in government, and it was not until Arafat's death in 2004 that new elections occurred on both presidential and local levels. Although almost 80% of the employees of the PA were local Palestinians, higher posts were occupied mostly by PLO officials who returned from exile once the PA was established in 1994. To many local Palestinians, these "returnees" were a source of bureaucracy and corruption.

Arafat's administration was criticized for its lack of democracy, wide-spread corruption among officials, and the division of power among families and numerous governmental agencies with overlapping functions. He established over ten distinct security organizations through various mechanisms in an alleged divide et impera scheme, which is claimed to have guaranteed an atmosphere of power-struggle in the Authority which enabled him to preserve overall control. Both Israel and the US declared they lost trust in Arafat as a partner and refused to negotiate with him, regarding him as linked to terrorism. Arafat denied this, and was visited by other leaders around the world up until his death. However, this began a push for change in the Palestinian leadership. In 2003, Arafat succumbed to domestic and international pressure and appointed Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) as prime minister of the PA. Abbas resigned four months later because of lack of support from Israel, the US, and Arafat himself. He was later chosen as his Fatah party's candidate for president of the PA in 2004 after the death of Arafat. He won the presidency on January 9, 2005 with 62% of the vote.

According to the Palestinian "Basic Law" which was signed by Arafat in 2002 after a long delay, the current structure of the PA is based on three separate branches of power:<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> executive, legislative, and judiciary. The Judiciary Branch has yet to be properly formalized. The president of the PA is directly elected by the people, and the holder of this position is also considered to be the commander-in chief of the armed forces. In an amendment to the Basic Law approved in 2003 (and which may or may not become part of the Palestinian constitution once independence is established), the president appoints a "prime minister" who is also chief of the national security services. The prime minister chooses a cabinet of ministers and runs the government, reporting directly to the president. Former prime minister Ahmed Qureia formed his government on February 24, 2005 to wide international praise because, for the first time, most ministries were headed by experts in their field as opposed to political appointees.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is an elected body of 88 representatives and acts as a parliament. The PLC must approve all government cabinet positions proposed by the prime minister, and must also confirm the prime minister himself upon nomination by the president. As opposed to other Arab countries, the PLC has historically demonstrated considerable power, and has frequently caused changes in government appointments through threats of no-confidence votes. Many critical votes are won in the government's favor without an outright majority. Since the death of Arafat, the PLC has reinvigorated its activity, and commonly summons senior executive officials to testify before it. Parliamentary elections were conducted in January 2006 after the recent passage of an overhauled election law that increased the number of seats from 88 to 132.

[edit] Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in the Palestinian National Authority. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in the Palestinian National Authority.

From the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1993 until the death of Yasser Arafat in late 2004, only one election had taken place. All other elections were deferred for various reasons.

A single election for president and the legislature took place in 1996. The next presidential and legislative elections were scheduled for 2001, but were delayed following the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Following Arafat's death, elections for the President of the Authority were announced for January 9 2005. The PLO leader Mahmoud Abbas won 62.3% of the vote, while Dr. Mustafa Barghouti, a physician and independent candidate, won 19.8%.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 9 January 2005 Palestinian presidential election results
Candidates - Nominating parties Votes %
Mahmoud Abbas - Fatah or Liberation Movement of Palestine (Harakat al-Tahrâr al-Filistini) 501,448 62.52
Mustafa Barghouti- Independent 156,227 19.48
Taysir Khald- Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Al-Jabhah al-Dimuqratiyah Li-Tahrir Filastin) 26,848 3.35
Abdel Halim al-Ashqar- Independent 22,171 2.76
Bassam al-Salhi - Palestinian People's Party (Hizb al-Sha'b al-Filastini) 21,429 2.67
Sayyid Barakah - Independent 10,406 1.30
Abdel Karim Shubeir - Independent 5,717 0.71
Invalid Ballots 30,672 3.82
Blank Ballots 27,159 3.39
Total (turnout %) 802,077 100.0
Source: Central Elections Commission

On May 10, 2004 the Palestinian Cabinet announced that municipal elections would take place for the first time. Elections were announced for August 2004 in Jericho, followed by certain municipalities in the Gaza Strip. In July 2004 these elections were postponed. Issues with voter registration are said to have contributed to the delay. Municipal elections finally took place for council officials in Jericho and 25 other towns and villages in the West Bank on December 23, 2004. On January 27, 2005, the first round of the municipal elections took place in the Gaza Strip for officials in 10 local councils. Further rounds in the West Bank took place in May 2005.

Elections for a new Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) were scheduled for July 2005 by Acting Palestinian Authority President Rawhi Fattuh in January 2005. These elections were postponed by Mahmoud Abbas after major changes to the Election Law were enacted by the PLC which required more time for the Palestinian Central Elections Committee to process and prepare. Among these changes were the expansion of the number of parliament seats from 88 to 132, with half of the seats to be competed for in 16 localities, and the other half to be elected in proportion to party votes from a nationwide pool of candidates.

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 25 January 2006 Palestinian Legislative Council election results
Alliances and parties Votes (Proportional) % (Proportional) Seats (Proportional/District seats)
Change and Reform 440,409 44.45 74 (29/45)
Fatah, harakat al-tahrīr al-filastīnī (Liberation Movement of Palestine) 410,554 41.43 45 (28/17)
Martyr Abu Ali Mustafa (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) (al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrīr filastīn) 42,101 4.25 3 (3/0)
The Alternative (al-Badeel) 28,973 2.92 2 (2/0)
Independent Palestine 26,909 2.72 2 (2/0)
Third Way 23,862 2.41 2 (2/0)
Freedom and Social Justice 7,127 0.72 0 (0/0)
Freedom and Independence 4,398 0.44 0 (0/0)
Martyr Abu Abbas 3,011 0.30 0 (0/0)
National Coalition for Justice and Democracy (Wa'ad) 1,806 0.18 0 (0/0)
Palestinian Justice 1,723 0.17 0 (0/0)
Independents - - 4 (0/4)
Total (turnout: 74.6%) 990,873 100.0% 132 (66/66)
Source: Central Election Commission, Preliminary results,Final tally amendments, 2006-01-29, Final results

The following organizations, listed in alphabetic order, have taken part in recent elections inside the Palestinian National Authority:

October 2006 polls have shown that Fatah and Hamas have equal strength. [2]

[edit] Administrative Divisions

After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the West bank and the Gaza Strip were divided into areas (A, B, and C) and governorates. Area A refers to the area under PA security and civilian control. Area B refers to the area under Palestinian civilian and Israeli security control. Area C refers to the area under full Israeli control such as settlements.

See also: governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip,
See also: districts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip,
See also: List of cities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

[edit] Economy

Further information: Palestinian economy

Following the 2006 legislative elections, won by the Hamas, Israel has ceased transferring the $55 million tax-receipts to the PA; since the PA has no access point (ports, airports, etc.) to receive taxes, it is Israel that is charged with this duty. These funds accounted for a third of the PA's budget, two thirds of its proper budget, and insure the wages of 160 000 Palestinian civil servants (among them 60 000 security and police officers), on which a third of the Palestinian population is dependent. [citation needed] Israel has also decided to increase controls on check-point, which has been since the beginning of the Second Intifada a main cause of the 2001-2002 economic recession, which the World Bank has compared to the 1929 economic crisis. Furthermore, the US and the EU have stopped direct aid to the PA, while the US imposed a financial blockade on PA's banks, impeding some of the Arab League's funds (e.g. Saudi Arabia and Qatar) from being transferred to the PA <ref name="LemondeA"> (French) "Le Quartet cherche une solution à la banqueroute palestinienne", Le Monde, May 9, 2006. Retrieved on May 9, 2006. </ref>. On May 6 and 7, 2006, hundreds of Palestinians demonstrated in Gaza and the West Bank demanding payment of their wages. Tension between Hamas and Fatah has been slowly risen with the "economic squeeze" on the PA <ref name="BBC8"> "Three die in Fatah-Hamas clashes", BBC News, May 8, 2006. Retrieved on May 9, 2006. </ref>. The UN institution underlines that unemployment, which was estimated to 23% in 2005, would increase to 39% in 2006, while poverty, estimated at 44%, would increase to 67% in 2006 <ref name="LemondeA"/>.

[edit] Foreign aid & budget deficit

Due to the specific conditions of the disputed territories, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has received unprecedented financial support from the international community. According to the World Bank, USD $929 million were given by the international community to the PNA in 2001, $891 million in 2003 and $1.1 billion in 2005 (representing 53% of the budget in 2005). The main objectives are support to the budget, development aid and public health. In 2003, the US funded $224 million, the EU $187 million, the Arab League $124 million, Norway $53 million, the World Bank $50 million, the United Kingdom $43 million, Italy $40 million, and the last $170 million by others. According to the World Bank, the budget deficit was about of $800 million in 2005, with nearly half of it financed by donors. "The PA's fiscal situation has become increasingly unsustainable mainly as a result of uncontrolled government consumption, in particular a rapidly increasing public sector wage bill, expanding social transfer schemes and rising net lending," said the World Bank report. Government corruption is widely seen as the cause of much of the PA financial difficulties. An Atlantic Monthly investigation estimated that as much as 85% of the entire PA budget went to Arafat and his cronies either for personal use for Arafat's private security force.

[edit] Threats of cutting funds following January 2006 legislative elections

Following the January 2006 legislative elections, won by Hamas, the Quartet threatened to cut funds to the Palestinian Authority. On February 2, 2006, according to the AFP, the PNA accused Israel of "practicing collective punishment after it snubbed US calls to unblock funds owed to the Palestinians." Prime minister Ahmed Qorei "said he was hopeful of finding alternative funding to meet the budget shortfall of around 50 million dollars, needed to pay the wages of public sector workers, and which should have been handed over by Israel on the first of the month." The US Department criticized Israel for refusing to quickly unblock the funds. The funds were later unblocked. <ref>"Palestinian fury at Israeli refusal to unblock funds", Agence France Presse, February 2, 2006.</ref> However, the New York Times alleged on February 14, 2006 that a "destabilization plan" of the Hamas, winner of the January 2006 legislative elections, centered "largely on money" and cutting all funds to the PA once Hamas takes power, in order to delegitimize it in the eyes of the Palestinians. According to the news article, "The Palestinian Authority has a monthly cash deficit of some $60 million to $70 million after it receives between $50 million and $55 million a month from Israel in taxes and customs duties collected by Israeli officials at the borders but owed to the Palestinians." Beginning March 2006, "the Palestinian Authority will face a cash deficit of at least $110 million a month, or more than $1 billion a year, which it needs to pay full salaries to its 140,000 employees, who are the breadwinners for at least one-third of the Palestinian population. The employment figure includes some 58,000 members of the security forces, most of which are affiliated with the defeated Fatah movement." Since January 25 elections, "the Palestinian stock market has already fallen about 20 percent", while the "Authority has exhausted its borrowing capacity with local banks." <ref>"U.S. and Israelis Are Said to Talk of Hamas Ouster", The New York Times, February 14, 2006.</ref>

[edit] Use of European Union assistance

In 2002, the French University of Paris VI and the University of Lille voted the suspension of the scientific agreement between the EU and Israel, in particular concerning the cooperation program PCRD, on the charges that article 2 of the agreement, "founded on the respect of human rights and democratic principles", was not respected by Israel. This in particular followed the deliberate destruction by Tsahal of computers and other Palestinian teaching infrastructures, financed by the EU. However, the Universities, accused of antisemitism, later cancelled their votes <ref>"L'Université Paris-VI (Jussieu) vote pour l'arrêt de la coopération avec Israël", Europalestine, December 19, 2002.</ref>

In February 2004, it was reported that the European Union (EU) anti-fraud office (OLAF) was studying documents suggesting that Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Authority had diverted tens of millions of dollars in EU funds to organizations involved in terrorist attacks, such as the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. However, in August 2004, a provisional assessment stated that "To date, there is no evidence that funds from the non-targeted EU Direct Budget Assistance to the Palestinian Authority have been used to finance illegal activities, including terrorism."<ref>OLAF (August 10, 2004). OLAF Investigation Into EU Budget Assistance for the Palestinian Authority. Press release.</ref>

A separate EU "Working Group" also issued a report in April 2004, adopted by a 7-6 vote, which covers the period from the end of 2000 to the end of 2002, stating that EU aid has not been siphoned off to Palestinian militants carrying out attacks on Israelis: "There is no conclusive evidence, to date, that the EU non-targeted direct budgetary support was used to finance illegal activities, including the financing of terrorism".

Furthermore, the EU has changed the way it funded the Palestinians and now targeted aid for specific purposes. From April 2003, money is only handed over if various conditions are met, such as the presentation of invoices for bills the Palestinians need to pay. The EU remains the biggest donor to the Palestinian Authority.

[edit] Payments to Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons

On July 22, 2004, Salam Fayyad Minister of Finance of the Palestinian Authority in an article in the Palestinian weekly, The Jerusalem Times, detailed the following payments to Palestinians imprisoned by the Israeli authorities:<ref>Template:Cite web Subscription only.</ref>

  1. Prisoner allowances increased between June 2002 and June 2004 to $9.6m monthly, an increase of 246 percent compared with January 1995-June 2002.
  2. Between June 2002 and June 2004, 77 million shekels were delivered to prisoners, compared to 121 million between January 1995 and June 2002, which is an increase of 16 million shekels yearly. The increase of annual spending between the two periods registers 450 percent, which is much higher than the percentage of increase of the number of prisoners.
  3. Between 2002 and 2004, the PNA paid 22 million shekels to cover other expenses — lawyers’ fees, fines, and allocations for released prisoners. This includes lawyers’ fees paid directly by the PNA and fees paid through the Prisoners Club.

[edit] Demographics

[edit] Education

According the a ministrial statistic conducted in September 2005, there are 2267 schools in general education, 31001 classes, 1078488 students, and 48674 teachers in the Palestinian territories. 24% of schools are UNRWA-operated, 70% are governmental, and 6% are private.

Another statistic conducted in May 2005 shows that there are 138139 students enrolled in Higher Education Institutions. Between these students, 9002 (6.5%) are in community colls, 6034 (4.4%) in university coll, 46453 (33.6%) in Al-Quds Open University, and 76650 (55.5%) in traditional universities.

List of Universities and Colleges in Palestine:

[edit] Transportation

[edit] Palestinian Culture

Main article: Palestinian culture

[edit] Lawlessness in Palestinian areas

[edit] Violence against civilians

The Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group reports everyday disagreements and clashes between the various political factions, families and cities that a complete picture of Palestinian society is painted. These divisions have during the course of the al Aqsa Intifada also led to an increasingly violent ‘Intrafada’. In the 10 year period from 1993 to 2003, 16% of Palestinian civilian deaths were caused by Palestinian groups or individuals.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Erika Waak reports in The Humanist Of the total number of Palestinian civilians killed during this period by both Israeli and Palestinian security forces, 16 percent were the victims of Palestinian security forces. Accusations of collaboration with Israel are used to target and kill individual Palestinians: Those who are convicted have either been caught helping Israelis, spoken out against Arafat, or are involved in rival criminal gangs, and these individuals are hanged after summary trials. Arafat creates an environment where the violence continues while silencing would-be critics, and although he could make the violence impossible, he doesn't stop it.

Freedom House's annual survey of political rights and civil liberties, Freedom in the World 2001-2002, reports Civil liberties declined due to: shooting deaths of Palestinian civilians by Palestinian security personnel; the summary trial and executions of alleged collaborators by the Palestinian Authority (PA); extra-judicial killings of suspected collaborators by militias; and the apparent official encouragement of Palestinian youth to confront Israeli soldiers, thus placing them directly in harm's way.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Palestinian security forces have, as of March 2005, not made any arrests for the October 2003 killing of three Americans members of a diplomatic convoy in the Gaza Strip. Moussa Arafat, head of the Palestinian Military Intelligence and a cousin of then Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat has stated that, regarding the United States pressure to arrest the killers; "They know that we are in a very critical position and that clashing with any Palestinian party under the presence of the occupation is an issue that will present many problems for us". Since the October 2003 attack, United States diplomats have been banned from entering the Gaza Strip.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

It is claimed that some of the smuggling tunnels connecting Egypt and the Gaza Strip are controlled by one of the Palestinian Authority security services under Moussa Arafat's command. He is accused of receiving a portion of the profits derived from the smuggling tunnels.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

[edit] Violence against officials

On October 15, 2003, three members of a United States diplomatic convoy were killed and additional members of the convoy wounded three kilometers south of the Erez Crossing into the Gaza Strip by a terrorist bomb. The perpetrators remain at large.

In February 2004 Ghassan Shaqawa (the mayor of Nablus) filed his resignation from office in protest of the Palestinian Authority's lack of action against the armed militias rampaging the city and the multiple attempts by Palestinian terrorists to assassinate him. Gaza's police chief, General Saib al-Ajez, later would say: "This internal conflict between police and the militants cannot happen. It is forbidden. We are a single nation and many people know each other and it is not easy to kill someone who is bearing a weapon to defend his nation."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Through the first three months of 2004, a number of attacks on journalists in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have been blamed on the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, most clearly the attack on the Arab television station Al-Arabiya's West Bank offices by masked men self-identifying as members of the Brigades. Palestinian journalists in Gaza called a general strike on February 9 to protest this rising violence against journalists.

Karen Abu Zayd, deputy commissioner general for the UN Relief and Works Agency in the Gaza Strip stated on February 29, 2004: "What has begun to be more visible is the beginning of the breakdown of law and order, all the groups have their own militias, and they are very organized. It's factions trying to exercise their powers."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Ghazi al-Jabali, the Gaza Strip Chief of Police, since 1994 has been the target of repeated attacks by Palestinians. In March 2004, his offices were targeted by gunfire. In April 2004, a bomb was detonated destroying the front of his house. In July 17, 2004, he was kidnapped at the at gunpoint following an ambush of his convoy and wounding of two bodyguards. He was released several hours later.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Less than six hours later, Colonel Khaled Abu Aloula, director of military coordination in the southern part of Gaza was abducted.

On July 17 eve, Fatah movement members kidnapped 5 French citizens (3 men and 2 women) and held hostage in Red Crescent Society building in Khan Yunis:

Palestinian security officials said that the kidnapping was carried out by the Abu al-Rish Brigades, accused of being linked to Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On July 18, Arafat replaced Ghazi al-Jabali, with his nephew Moussa Arafat, sparking violent riots in Rafah and Khan Yunis in which members of the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades burned PA offices and opened fire on Palestinian policemen. During the riots at least one Palestinian was killed and dozen more seriously wounded.

On July 20, 2004 David Satterfield, the second-in-charge at the United States Department of State Near East desk stated in hearing before the Senate that the Palestinian Authority has failed to arrest the Palestinian terrorists who murdered three members of an American diplomatic convoy traveling in the Gaza Strip on October 15, 2003. Satterfield states:

There has been no satisfactory resolution of this case. We can only conclude that there has been a political decision taken by the chairman (Yasser Arafat) to block further progress in this investigation.

On July 21, Nabil Amar, former Minister of Information and a cabinet member and a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council, was shot by masked gunmen, after an interview to a TV channel in which he criticized Yasser Arafat and called for reforms in the PA.<ref>Template:Cite webh</ref>

Regarding the descent into chaos Cabinet minister Qadura Fares stated on July 21, 2004:

Every one of us is responsible. Arafat is the most responsible for the failure. President Arafat failed and the Palestinian government failed, the Palestinian political factions failed.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On July 22, 2004, The United Nations elevated its threat warning level for the Gaza Strip to "Phase Four" (one less than the maximum "Phase Five") and plans to evacuate non-essential foreign staff from the Gaza Strip.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The firing of Qassam rockets from the Gaza Strip into Israel is strongly opposed by those living closest to the firing location due to frequent Israeli military responses to Qassam rocket launches. On July 23, 2004, an Arab boy was shot and killed by Palestinian terrorists of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades after he and his family physically opposed their attempt to set up a Qassam rocket launcher outside the family's house. Five other individuals were wounded in the incident.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On July 25, 2004, 20 members of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades seized the governor's office in the Gaza Strip town of Khan Yunis. Among their demands are that Yasser Arafat's cousin, Moussa Arafat be dismissed from his post as chief of general security in Gaza. In a separate attack, unidentified persons stormed a police station and burned the structure causing extensive damage.

On July 31, Palestinian kidnappers in Nablus seized 3 foreign nationals, an American, British and Irish citizen. They were later released. Also, a PA security forces HQ building was burnt down in Jenin by the al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. A leader of Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades said they torched the building because new mayor Qadorrah Moussa, appointed by Arafat, had refused to pay salaries to Al Aqsa members or to cooperate with the group.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On August 8, 2004 the Justice Minister Nahed Arreyes resigned stating that he has been stripped of much of his authority over the legal system. The year before, Yasser Arafat created a rival agency to the Justice Ministry and was accused of continuing to control the judiciary and in particular the state prosecutors.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On August 10, 2004, a report by an investigation committee Palestinian Legislative Council for the reasons for the anarchy and chaos in the PA was published by Haaretz daily newspaper. The report puts the main blame on Yasser Arafat and the PA's security forces, which "have failed to make a clear political decision to end it". The report states,

"The main reason for the failure of the Palestinian security forces and their lack of action in restoring law and order" ...
"is the total lack of a clear political decision and no definition of their roles, either for the long term or the short."

The report also calls to stop shooting Qassam rockets and mortar shells on Israeli settlements because of it hurts "Palestinian interests". Hakham Balawi sais:

"... It is prohibited to launch rockets and to fire weapons from houses, and that is a supreme Palestinian interest that should not be violated because the result is barbaric retaliation by the occupying army and the citizenry cannot accept such shooting. Those who do it are a certain group that does not represent the people and nation, doing it without thinking about the general interest and public opinion in the world and in Israel. There is no vision or purpose to the missiles; the Palestinian interest is more important"<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Despite the criticism against Yasser Arafat, the troubles continued. On August 24, the Lieutenant Commander of the Palestinian General Intelligence in the Gaza Strip, Tareq Abu-Rajab, was shot by group of armed men. He was seriously injured.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On August 31, the Jenin Martyrs Brigades, the armed wing of the Popular Resistance Committees, threaten to kill Minister Nabil Shaath for participating in a conference in Italy attended by Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, declaring "He will be sentenced to death if he enters. The decision cannot be rescinded, we call upon his bodyguards to abandon his convoy in order to save their lives."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On September 8, Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei, threatens to resign, again. Three weeks have elapsed since he retracted is resignation, originally tendered six weeks ago.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On October 12, Moussa Arafat, cousin of Yasser Arafat and a top security official in the Gaza Strip, survived a car bomb assassination attempt. Recently the Popular Resistance Committees threatened Moussa Arafat with retaliation for an alleged attempt to assassinate its leader, Mohammed Nashabat.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On October 14, Palestinian Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei stated that the Palestinian Authority is unable to stop the spreading anarchy. While routinely blaming Israel for the PA's problems, he pointed out that the many PA security forces are hobbled by corruption and factional feuding. Due to the lack of governmentals reforms demanded by international peace mediators, Palestinian legislators demanded Qurei present a report on the matter by October 20, at which point they will decide upon holding a no-confidence vote.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

On October 19, a group of Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades members, led by Zakaria Zubeidi, seized buildings belonging to the Palestinan Finance ministry and Palestinian parliament in Jenin.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

[edit] Current Palestinian measures to keep law and order

In 2006, after the Hamas victory, the Palestinian interior minister formed an Executive Force for the police. However, the PA president objected and after clashes between Hamas and Fatah, a redeployment of the force was made and efforts started in order to integrate it with the police force.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes and references


[edit] External links



General information