Palatine Hill

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Image:Palatine Hill.jpg
17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them.
Image:Palatineterracing.jpg
Massive retaining walls extended the area on the Palatine available for the Imperial building complex.

The Palatine Hill (Latin: Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy. It is some 70 metres high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus.

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[edit] Mythology

According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants, and with his wife Acca Larentia raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome.

[edit] History

Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people have lived there since approximately 1000 BC.

Many affluent Romans of the Republican time (510 BC – c. 44 BC) had their residences there. The ruins of the palaces of Augustus (63 BC14), Tiberius (42 BC37) and Domitian (5196) can still be seen.

The Palatine Hill was also the site of the festival of the Lupercalia.

[edit] Location

One building, believed to be the residence of Livia (58 BC29), the wife of Augustus, is currently undergoing renovation. Situated near to the house of Livia is the palace of Cybele, currently not fully excavated and not open to the public. Behind this structure, cut into the side of the hill, is the so-called House of Tiberius.

Overlooking the Forum Romanum is the Flavian Palace which was built largely during the reign of the Flavian dynasty (69 – 96) – Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. This palace, which was extended and modified by several emperors, extends across the Palatine Hill and looks out over the Circus Maximus. The building of the greater part the palace visible from the Circus was undertaken in the reign of the Emperor Septimius Severus (146211).

Immediately adjacent to the palace of Severus is the stadium of Domitian. This is a structure which has the appearance of a Roman Circus, but is of insufficient size to accommodate chariots. Its exact purpose is disputed. It may have been a venue for foot-racing, field sports or equestrian events.

The Palatine Hill is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during the daytime for a small charge. The entrance is near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

[edit] Excavations

During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools. He declared this site the "original town of Rome". Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed. The museum also contains Roman statuary.

An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820.

In July of 2006 archaeologists announced the discovery of what they believe to be the birth place of Augustus.

[edit] Etymology

According to Livy (59 BC17) the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. The term palace itself stems from Palatium.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

be:Палятын

bg:Палатин ca:Palatí de:Palatin (Rom) es:Monte Palatino fr:Mont Palatin id:Bukit Palatine is:Palatínhæð it:Palatino he:גבעת הפאלאטיום la:Palatium nl:Palatijn ja:パラティーノ ka:პალატინის გორა pl:Palatium pt:Palatino simple:palatine sv:Palatinen zh:帕拉蒂尼山

Palatine Hill

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