Pakistan

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اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان
Islami Jumhuriyah Pākistān

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Image:Flag of Pakistan.svg Image:Emblem Pakistan.jpeg
Flag State Emblem
Motto: Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam (Urdu)
("Unity, Discipline and Faith")
Anthem: Qaumi Tarana
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E
Largest city Karachi
Official languages Urdu, English
Government Semi-presidential system
 - President Pervez Musharraf
 - Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 - Abbasid Dynasty 711-962 
 - Ghaznavid Empire 962-1187 
 - Ghorid Kingdom 1187-1206 
 - Delhi Sultanate 1210-1526 
 - Mughal Empire 1526-1707 
 - Declared August 14 1947 
 - Republic March 23 1956 
Area
 - Total 803,940 km² (36th)
310,403 sq mi 
 - Water (%) 3.1
Population
 - 2006 estimate 165,803,560<ref name="estimate"> Estimate from CIA World Factbook </ref> (6th)
 - Density 206/km² (53rd)
534/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 - Total $439.7 billion (26th)
 - Per capita $2,829.5 (125th)
HDI  (2006) 0.539 (medium) (134th)
Currency Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5:00)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+6:00)
Internet TLD .pk
Calling code +92


Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان‎), is a country located in South Asia and the Greater Middle East. It has a thousand-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea in the south and borders Afghanistan and Iran to the west, India to the east and the People's Republic of China in the far northeast.<ref name="kashmir">The Kashmir region is claimed by India and Pakistan. Both countries and China separately administer parts of the region with the Indian- and Pakistani-held areas defined by the Line of Control. The Pakistan–China border is not recognized by India.</ref>

Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and is the second most populous Muslim country. It was established as a modern state in 1947, as one of the two parts of the partitioned British India, but the region has a long history of settlement and civilisation including the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region was invaded by Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Afghans, and was incorporated into the British Raj in the nineteenth century. Since independence, Pakistan has experienced times of significant military and economic growth, and periods of instability, with the secession of East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh). Pakistan is a declared nuclear weapons state.

Contents

[edit] Etymology

The name "Pakistan" (IPA: [paːkɪst̪aːn]) means "Land of the Pure" in Sindhi, Urdu and Persian. It was coined in 1933 by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never<ref name="pamphlet">Text of the Now or Never pamphlet, issued on January 28, 1933</ref>. The name was coined from the then proposed five provinces of British India to be formed into a separate country for Indian Muslims, P (Punjab), A (Afghania), K (Kashmir), S (Sind) and TAN (Balauchistan) meaning land. Hence the land of the five provinces. The name also infers that the people of this land are 'pure'. Officially, the nation was founded as the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and was renamed as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956.

[edit] History

Main article: History of Pakistan

The modern day Pakistan consists of four major parts called provinces Punjab, Sind, Balauchistan and NWFP. It also governs part of Kashmir which is currently split between Pakistan, India and China. Modern Pakistan is a country that has Harappan, Aryan, Persian, Greek, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, White Hun, Afghan, Arab, Turkic, and Mughal heritage. Waves of invaders and migrants settled down in Pakistan through out the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. Pakistan is home to the oldest Asian civilisation (and one of the oldest in the world after Mesopotamia and Egypt), Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC - 1500 BC). The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947, but the region it encompasses has an extensive history that overlaps with the histories of Ancient India, Iran and Afghanistan. The region is a crossroad of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road, and was settled over thousands of years by many groups, including Dravidians, Indo-Aryans, Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Scythians, Parthians Kushans, White Huns, Afghans, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols. The earliest evidence of humans in the region are pebble tools from the Soan Culture<ref name="soan">University of Sheffield's archaeological research in Pakistan</ref> in the province of Punjab, dated from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. The Indus region was the site of several ancient cultures including Mehrgarh, one of the world's earliest known towns, and the Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.<ref name="indus_valley">Minnesota State University page on Mohenjo-Daro</ref>

The Indus Valley civilisation collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which extended over much of northern India and Pakistan. Successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region from the Achaemenid Persian empire<ref name="achaemenid">Livius.org on the extent of the Achaemenid Empire</ref> around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great<ref name="plutarch">Plutarch's Life of Alexander</ref> in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times - the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country's major archaeological sites.

In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim<ref name="qasim">Infinity Foundation's translation of the Chach-Nama</ref> conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab, setting the stage for several successive Muslim empires including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During this period Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Hindu population to Islam. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company<ref name="east_india">Library of Congress study of Pakistan</ref> gained ascendancy over South Asia.

Image:GGJinnah.jpg
Governor General Jinnah delivering the opening address on 11 August 1947 to the new state of Pakistan.

The War of Independence in 1857 was the region's last major armed struggle against the British Raj, and it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Congress. However, the Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930's amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal's presidential address called for a separate Muslim state in northwest and eastern South Asia. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution<ref name="resolution">Jang.com page on the Lahore Resolution</ref> of 1940, which ultimately led to the creation of Pakistan.

Image:PAK1971.JPG
The two wings of Pakistan in 1970; East Pakistan separated from the West wing in 1971 as an independent Bangladesh.

Pakistan was formed on 14 August 1947 with two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of South Asia, separated by Hindu-majority India, and comprising the provinces of Balauchistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The partition of British India resulted in communal riots<ref name="1947riots">Estimates for the 1947 death toll</ref> across India and Pakistan—millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Disputes arose over several princely states including Jammu and Kashmir whose ruler had acceded to India and finally led to the First Kashmir War (1948) ending with Pakistan and India each occupying large parts of the state. From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. The republic declared in 1958 was stalled by a coup d'etat by Ayub Khan (1958–69), who was president during a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with the cyclone which caused 500,000 deaths<ref name="cyclone">"Community participation in disaster management can reduce the losses"</ref> in East Pakistan.

Economic and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political repression and tensions escalating into civil war<ref name="1971war">1971 war summary by BBC website</ref> (Bangladesh Liberation War) and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and ultimately the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.<ref name="bangladesh">US Country Studies article on the Bangladesh War</ref>

Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in what accounts to a judicial murder in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the third military president. Pakistan's secular policies were replaced by Zia's introduction of the Islamic Shariah legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. With the death of General Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she alternated power with Nawaz Sharif, as the country's political and economic situation worsened. Pakistan sent 5,000 troops to the 1991 Gulf War as part of a US led coalition and specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.<ref name="gulf_war">[1]</ref> Military tensions in the Kargil conflict<ref name="kargil">Kargil conflict timeline on the BBC website</ref> with India in 1999 was followed by a military coup<ref name="1999coup">Daily Telegraph (UK) article on the 1999 coup</ref> in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers. In 2001, Musharraf became President after the resignation of Rafiq Tarar. After the 2002 parliamentary elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 Prime-Ministerial election by Shaukat Aziz.

[edit] Government and politics

Main articles on politics and government of Pakistan can be found at the Politics and government of Pakistan series.

The Muslim League formed Pakistan's first government under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan. The Muslim League's leadership of Pakistani politics decreased significantly with the rise of other political parties, with the Pakistan People's Party in West Pakistan, and the Awami League in East Pakistan, which would ultimately lead to the creation of Bangladesh. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973, suspended in 1977 by Zia-ul-Haq, was re-instated in 1991 and is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of government. Pakistan is a federal democratic republic with Islam as the state religion. The semi-presidential system includes a bicameral legislature consisting of a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the Head of State and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial Governors are selected by the Provincial Assemblies on the advice of the Chief Minister.

The Pakistani military has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's history, (Pakistan Poltics) with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999 onwards. The leftist Pakistan People's Party (PPP), led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, emerged as a major political player during the 1970s. Under the military rule of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistan began a marked shift from the British-era secular politics and policies, to the adoption of Shariat and other laws based on Islam. During the 1980s, the anti-feudal, pro-Muhajir Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) was started by unorthodox and educated urban dwellers of Sindh and particularly Karachi. The 1990s were characterized by coalition politics dominated by the PPP and a rejuvenated Muslim League.

In the October 2002 general elections, the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q) won a plurality of National Assembly seats with the second-largest group being the Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), a sub-party of the PPP. Zafarullah Khan Jamali of PML-Q emerged as Prime Minister but resigned on 26 June 2004 and was replaced by PML-Q leader Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain as interim Prime Minister. On 28 August, 2004 the National Assembly voted 191 to 151 to elect the Finance Minister and former Citibank Vice President Shaukat Aziz as Prime Minister. Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a coalition of Islamic religious parties, won elections in North-West Frontier Province, and increased their representation in the National Assembly.

Image:BUSHPERVEZ.jpg
US President George W. Bush and President Musharraf answer reporters in the East Room of the White House in late 2006.

Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation,<ref name="enlightened_moderation>President Musharraf on Enlightened Moderation</ref> a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world. Pakistan is also a member of the major regional organisations of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO). In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States especially in the early 1950s when Pakistan was the United States' "most allied ally in Asia"<ref name="mostallied">Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia</ref> and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO). During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s Pakistan was a crucial US ally, but relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were applied by the US over suspicions of Pakistan's nuclear activities. The September 11 attacks and the subsequent War on Terrorism have seen an improvement in US–Pakistan ties, especially after Pakistan ended its support of the Taliban regime in Kabul. In January 2004, founder of Pakistani nuclear program A. Q. Khan confessed of nuclear proliferation to Libya, Iran and North Korea. On 5 February 2004, the president Pervez Musharraf, announced that he had pardoned A. Q. Khan.

Pakistan has long had troubled relations with neighbouring India. The long-running dispute over Kashmir resulted in full fledged wars in 1947 and 1965. Civil war in 1971 flared into the simultaneous Bangladeshi Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Pakistan conducted nuclear weapon tests in 1998 to counterbalance India's nuclear tests and became the only Muslim nuclear weapons state. The relations with India are steadily improving following peace initiatives in 2002. Pakistan maintains close economic, military and political relationships with the People's Republic of China.

Pakistan also faces instability in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, where some tribal leaders support the Taliban. Pakistan has had to deploy the army in these regions to suppress the local unrest, in Waziristan. The Waziristan conflict ended with a recently declared peace agreement between the tribal leaders and the Pakistani government, that is expected to bring back stability to the region.<ref name="local_unrest">'Taliban' gain sway in tribal region. Daily Times. 31 December 2005.</ref>

Additionally, the country has long faced instability in its largest province, Balauchistan. The army was deployed to fight a serious insurgency within the province from 1973–76. Social stability resumed after Rahimuddin Khan was appointed martial law administrator beginning in 1977. After relative peace throughout the 1980s and 1990s, some influential Baloch tribal leaders restarted a separatist movement after Pervez Musharraf took over in 1999. In a recent incident Nawab Akbar Bugti, the leader of Balauchistan, was killed in August 2006 by Pakistani military forces.

[edit] Administrative divisions

Image:Sub Pakistan.png
Provinces and territories of Pakistan

Pakistan is a federation<ref name="federation">The Constitutional basis of the Federation of Pakistan</ref> of four provinces, a capital territory and federally administered tribal areas. Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the Kashmir region, organised as two separate political entities (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), which are also claimed by India. In 2001 the federal government abolished the third tier of government (administrative divisions) in favour of the former fourth tier districts. The provinces and the capital territory are subdivided into a total of 107 districts which contain numerous tehsils and local governments. The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises seven districts and Northern Areas comprises six districts.

Provinces:

  1. Balauchistan
  2. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
  3. Punjab
  4. Sindh

Territories:

  1. Islamabad Capital Territory
  2. Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Pakistani-administered portions of the Kashmir:

  1. Azad Kashmir or Pakistan Occupied Kashmir<ref name="pok">India does not recognise Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas as part of Pakistan and refers to them as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK)</ref>
  2. Northern Areas<ref name="pok" />

[edit] Economy

Main article: Economy of Pakistan
Image:Karachi downtown.jpeg
Karachi, the financial capital and the largest city of Pakistan
Pakistan is an rapidly developing country which has faced a number of challenges on both political and economic fronts. Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan's economic growth rate was better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990's.<ref name="econ_1990s">Template:Cite web</ref> Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors. There has been great improvement in the foreign exchange position and rapid growth in hard currency reserves in recent years. The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and significant debt-relief from the United States.<ref name="cia_world_factbook" /> Pakistan's gross domestic product, as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), is estimated to be US$439.7 billion<ref name="imfPPP">Template:Cite web</ref> while its per capita income (PCI) stands at $2,803.<ref name="imfPCI">Template:Cite web</ref> Despite clear progress, reports by the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and the UN Development Program place the poverty rate in Pakistan between 23-28 percent.<ref name="oneworld">Template:Cite web</ref> Pakistan's GDP growth rates have seen a steady increase over the last 5 years. However, inflationary pressures and a below par savings rate, among other economic factors, could make it difficult to sustain a high growth rate according to some analysts.<ref name="adb">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="dtview">Template:Cite web</ref>
Image:Faizabad Interchange.jpeg
Faizabad interchange: Gateway to the capital Islamabad.
The growth of non-agricultural sectors has changed the structure of the economy, and agriculture now only accounts for roughly 30% of the GDP. The service sector accounts for 44% of the country's GDP with wholesale and retail trade forming 26% of this sector. In recent times, the Karachi Stock Exchange has soared, along with most of the world's emerging markets. Large amounts of foreign investments have been made into several industries. The top industries in Pakistan are telecom, software, automotives, textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, ship building, and more recently, aerospace.

Pakistan has accomplished many engineering feats such as construction of the world’s largest earth filled dam Tarbela, the world's twelfth largest dam Mangla, as well as the world’s highest international road: the Karakoram Highway. There are also half a dozen additional dams planned such as Kalabagh Dam, Diamer-Bhasha Dam, Munda, Akhori and Skardu Katzara.<ref name='dams'>Template:Cite web</ref>

In november 2006 China and Pakistan signed a Free Trade Agreement hoping to triple bilateral trade from $4.2 billion (USD) to $15 billion (USD) within the next five years. <ref name='fta'>Template:Cite web</ref> Pakistan's annual exports in 2005 ammounted to $15 billion (USD)<ref name='expor'>Template:Cite web</ref>, and is poised to cross $18 billion (USD) in 2006 and $20 billion (USD) in 2007.<ref name='expor'>Template:Cite web</ref>. Pakistan is also home to a thriving arms industry which exports $200 million (USD) annually, mostly defence equipment and arms to countries in the Middle East and South Asia, and its defence officials are hopeful that these exports will surpass $500 million (USD) a year within the next five years.<ref name='arms'>Template:Cite web</ref>

In keeping with its rapid economic development in recent years, Pakistan registered an economic growth rate of 7 percent in the financial year 2005-06.<ref>http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\12\01\story_1-12-2006_pg5_4</ref>

[edit] Demographics

Image:Pakistan ethnic 80.jpg
Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, 1980

Pakistan has an estimated population of 165,803,560, as of April 2006.<ref name="US Census Bureau">International Data Base U.S. Census Bureau. URL accessed on 5 May 2006.</ref> Pakistan has the world's sixth largest population, placing it higher than Russia, and lower than Brazil. Because of Pakistan's high growth rate, it is expected to surpass Brazil in population in the year 2020. Population projections for Pakistan are relatively difficult because of the apparent differences in the accuracy of each census and the inconsistencies between various surveys related to fertility rate, but it is likely that the rate of growth peaked in 1980s.<ref name="population">Feeney and Alam, 2003</ref> The population was estimated at 162,400,000<ref name="prb">Population Reference Bureau's 2005 World Data Sheet</ref> on July 1, 2005, with a fertility rate of 34 per thousand, a death rate of 10 per thousand, and the rate of natural increase at 2.4%. Pakistan also has a high infant mortality rate of 70 per thousand births.<ref name="US Census Bureau">International Data Base U.S. Census Bureau. URL accessed on 17 October 2006.</ref>

Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, and English is the official language, used in the Constitution and widely used by corporate businesses, the educated urban elite, and most universities. Punjabi is spoken by over 60 million people, but has no official recognition in the country.<ref name=punjabi> Pakistanis represent a variety of races and ethnic groups, mostly of Indo-European stock and hence quite distinct from the aboriginal peoples who inhabit this part of the Indian Sub-Continent. Ethnologue Western Punjabi</ref> These major ethnic groups are further broken down into several smaller ethnic groups - Punjabis (44.68)% of the population, Pashtuns (15.42%), Sindhis (14.1%), Seraikis (10.53%), Muhajirs (7.57%), Balochis (3.57%) and others (4.66%) such as Tajiks, Bengalis and many others.

The demographics of religion in Pakistan were significantly influenced in 1947 by the movement of Muslims to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs to India. Census data <ref name="census">Census results for languages of Pakistan</ref> indicates that 96% of the population are Muslims, of whom nearly 80% are Sunni Muslims and 19% are Shi'a Muslims. The remainder comprises of Christians, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, Parsis, Ahmadis, and Animists (mainly the Kalasha of Chitral). A few Buddhists are included in Pakistani statistics; however, these live in Indian administered Ladakh which Pakistan claims along with the rest of Kashmir. As of 2005, over three million refugees (approximately 81.5% being ethnic Pashtuns[citation needed]) remain in Pakistan as a result of the wars in Afghanistan, with 83% of these refugees reporting their intent to permanently settle in Pakistan.<ref name="afghan refugees census">UNHCR Statistical Summary Report: Census of Afghans in Pakistan</ref>

[edit] Society and culture

Main article: Culture of Pakistan
Image:Mainboulevard1cg.jpeg
Lahore is the 2nd largest city of Pakistan.

The national dress of Shalwar Kameez is originally a Sindhi dress, however, mostly it is worn in all parts of Pakistan. The sari is another national dress that is worn by many women in Sindh and parts of Pakistan. Women wear brightly coloured shalwar qameez, while men often wear solid-coloured ones.

The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Other major Ghazal singers include Mehdi Hassan, Ghulam Ali, Farida Khanum, Tahira Syed, Abida Parveen and Iqbal Bano. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad. Until the 1990s, the state-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels such as Geo TV, Indus TV, Hum,ARY, KTN and others. Various American, European, and Asian television channels and movies are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via cable and satellite television. There are also small indigenous movie industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood and Pollywood). Although Bollywood movies are banned since 1965,<ref>Pakistan to show Bollywood film Pakistan banned Indian movies following the 1965 war </ref> Indian film stars are generally popular in Pakistan.

Pakistani society is largely multilingual and predominantly Muslim, with high regard for traditional family values, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Sukkur and Peshawar that wish to move in a more liberal direction,<ref name="secular_middle">Beinart, Peter. "Understate". The New Republic Online. July 01, 2002.</ref> as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. Increasing globalization has increased the influence of "Western culture" with Pakistan ranking 46th on the Kearney/FP Globalization Index.<ref name="globalization">Kearney Foreign Policy Globalization Index</ref> There are an approximated four million Pakistanis living abroad,<ref name="expats">http://www.pakistaneconomist.com/database1/cover/c2000-50.asp URL accessed March 17, 2006</ref> with close to a half-million expatriates living in the United States<ref name="expats_us">Ahmed, Fasih. "U.S. Rules Give Pakistan a Windfall". Wall Street Journal. New York, New York. October 22, 2003. Page A18.</ref> and around a million living in Saudi Arabia.<ref name="expats_saudi">Hussain, Shaiq. Musharraf to focus on Palestine in Saudia visit from today. The Nation. June 25, 2005. URL accessed March 17, 2006</ref>As well as nearly one million people of Pakistani descent in the United Kingdom, there are burgeoning cultural connections.<ref name="expats_uk">Howells, Kim. Kim Howells arrives in Pakistan. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (National). September 6, 2006. URL accessed October 22, 2006</ref>

Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan, based on its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes. The variety of attractions range from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in field and winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially K2<ref name="mountains">PTDC page on mountaineering</ref>. The northern parts of Pakistan have many old fortresses, towers and other architecture as well as the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the small pre-Islamic Animist Kalasha community who claim descent from the army of Alexander the Great. In the Punjab is the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital with many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. To promote Pakistan's unique and various cultural heritage, the prime minister launched "Visit Pakistan 2007". <ref name="Visit Pakistan 2007">Events taking place during 2007, Press released by Tourism of Pakistan</ref>

[edit] Holidays

Main article: Holidays in Pakistan
Image:Hazuri Bagh.JPG
Mughal-era Hazuri Bagh in Lahore, an example of Mughal era Islamic architecture.

There are many festivals celebrated annually in Pakistan which may or may not observe as holidays e.g. Pakistan Day (23 March)(holiday), Independence Day (14 August)(holiday), Defence of Pakistan Day (6 September), Pakistan Air Force Day (7 September), the anniversaries of the birth (25 December)(holiday) and death (11 September) of Quaid-e-Azam(holiday), Allama Iqbal (9 November) and the birth (30 July) and death (8 July) of Madar-e-Millat. Labour Day (also known as May Day) is also observed in Pakistan on 1 May and interestingly The Valentines Day.

Several important festivals are celebrated by Pakistani Muslims during the year, dependent on the Islamic calendar. Ramadan, the ninth month of the calendar, is characterised by daytime fasting for 29 or 30 days and is followed by the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. In a second festival, Eid ul-Adha, an animal is sacrificed in remembrance of the actions of Abraham and the meat is shared with friends, family, and the less fortunate. Both Eid festivals are public holidays, serving as opportunities for people to visit family and friends, and for children to receive new clothes, presents, and sweets. Some Muslims celebrate Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, the birthday of the prophet Muhammad, in the third month of the calendar (Rabi' al-Awwal). Shia Muslims mark the Day of Ashurah on the 9th and 10th days of the first month (Muharram) to commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn bin Ali, (the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad).

Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians in Pakistan also celebrate their own festivals and holidays. Sikhs come from across the world to visit several holy sites in Punjab, including the shrine of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, at Hassan Abdal in the Attock District, and his birthplace, at Nankana Sahib. There are also several regional and local festivals, such as the Punjabi festival of Basant, which marks the start of spring and is celebrated by kite flying.

[edit] Sports

Main article: Sports in Pakistan
Image:Gaddafi.jpg
Gaddafi cricket stadium, one of the largest in the world

The official and national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, although squash and cricket are also very popular. The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992), were runners-up once (in 1999) and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996). The team has also won the Australasia Cup thrice (1986, 1990, 1994). Pakistan has also produced a number of successful world-class squash players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan. Muhammad Yousuf was remained world champion in game of snooker in 1990's. At an international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Pakistan's medal tally remains at 10 medals (3 gold, 3 silver and 4 bronze) while at the Commonwealth games and Asian Games it stands at 61 medals and 182 medals respectively. Hockey is the sport that Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, with three gold medals (1960, 1968, 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994).<ref name="hockey">Bharatiya Hockey</ref> Pakistan has hosted several international competitions, including the SAF Games in 1989 and 2004.

A1 Grand Prix racing is also becoming popular with the entry of a Pakistani team in the 2005 season. The Tour de Pakistan, modelled on the Tour de France, is an annual cycling competition that covers the length and breadth of Pakistan. Recently, football has grown in popularity across the country, where traditionally it had been played almost exclusively in the western province of Balochistan.

[edit] See also

Image:Emblem Pakistan.jpeg Topics related to Pakistan
Cities

Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Quetta, Peshawar, Gwadar, Faisalabad, Multan, Sialkot, Sukker, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi, Thatta, Chitral, Abbottabad, Bahawalpur, Murree, Taxila, Moenjodaro, Nawabshah, Attock, Gilgit.

History

14 Points of Jinnah, Achaemenid dynasty, Alexander the Great, Anglo-Afghan wars, Anglo-Sikh wars, Ashoka the Great, Babur, Baghdad Pact, Bangladesh Liberation War, Caliph, Delhi Sultanate, Durrani Empire, Ghaznavid Empire, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greco-Buddhism, History of Baluchistan, Independence, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indus Valley Civilization, Islamic empires in India, Kargil War, Khalji, Kushan Empire, Lahore Resolution, Lodhi, Mahmud Ghaznavi, Mauryan Empire, Menander I, Mughal Empire, Muhammad bin Qasim, Muhammad of Ghor, Muslim League, Nadir Shah, Partition of India, Pashtuns, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, Ranjit Singh, Sayyid, Solanki, Vedic civilization, Waziristan conflict.

Politics

Chief Justices, Constitution, Demographics, Districts, Government of Sindh, Government of Balochistan, Elections, Flag, Foreign Relations, Government, Jirga, Line of Succession to President, Political parties, Mayors, National Assembly, Senate, Parliament, President, Prime Minister, Subdivisions, Supreme Court, Terrorism.

Sports

Pakistan Hockey Federation, Pakistan Cricket Board, Pakistan cricket team, Pakistan Test Cricket Umpires A1 Grand Prix Pakistani cricket team Pakistan Premier League Pakistan National Football Challenge Cup Gilli-danda Kabaddi Bait Bazi Pakistan Open

Geography

Arabian Sea, Baltoro Glacier, Baroghil, Broghol, Clifton beach, Demographics, Dorah Pass, Durand line, Guddu Barrage, Gumal Pass, Hawke's Bay, Himalayas, Indus River, Indian Ocean, Indo-Gangetic plain, Indus River Delta, Indus Water Treaty, K2, Kalabagh Dam, Karakoram, Khyber Pass, Lowarai Pass, Lowari, Cities, Mountains, Mazar-e-Quaid, National Parks, Nanga Parbat, Rann of Kutch, Salt Range, Sandspit Beach, Sarpo Laggo Glacier, Shandur, Siachen Glacier, Sukkur barrage.

Economy

Airblue, Airlines of Pakistan, Communications, Islamabad Stock Exchange, Karachi Stock Exchange, Lahore Stock Exchange, Companies, Low cost housing, Pakistan International Airlines, Railways, Pakistani rupee, Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, Tallest buildings, Transport.

Culture

A1 Grand Prix, A1 Team Pakistan, Basant, Chand Raat, Cuisine, Hinduism, Holidays, Islam, Kara Film Festival, Languages, Musicians, TV and radio channels, Lollywood, Murree Beer, Music, Nationalism Pakistani black metal, Pakistani cricket team Literature, Religion, Sari, Sherwani, Sikhism, Sports, Sufi rock.

Education

Lahore Museum, Universities. National Library of Pakistan, Literature, Poetry.

Other

2004 in Pakistan, Inter-Services Intelligence, List of Pakistanis, Military, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Boy Scouts Association, Related topics.

Categories Archaeological sites, Architecture, Cities, Communications, Conservation, Culture, Economy, Education, Geography, Government, Healthcare, History, Images, Kashmir, Media , Military, Lists, Law, People, Politics, Punjab, Religion, Science and technology, Society, Sports, Subdivisions, Tourism, Transport, Pakistan stubs
Image:Emblem Pakistan.jpeg
International ties of Pakistan
Image:Flag of Pakistan.svg
Geographical and geopolitical: Asia | South Asia | Indies
Historical and cultural: Commonwealth of Nations | Organization of the Islamic Conference | Islamic Republic
International organisations & trade: United Nations | World Trade Organisation | Asian Development Bank | SAARC | South Asia Free Trade Agreement | Non-Aligned Movement | ECO | D8 | G20 developing nations | Group of 77 - G24 | WIPO

[edit] Notes

<references/>

[edit] Additional references

  • Cohen, Stephen P. The Idea of Pakistan. The Brookings Institution. November 2004. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1.
  • Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse University Press. August 1988. ISBN 0-8156-2448-4.
  • Halliday, Fred. State and Ideology in the Middle East and Pakistan. Monthly Review Pr. Feb 1998. ISBN 0-85345-734-4.
  • Hammond Incorporated. Hammond Greater Middle East Region: Including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, and Turkey. American Map Corporation. August 2002. ISBN 0-8437-1827-7.
  • Hilton, Isabel. "Letter from Pakistan: The Pashtun Code". The New Yorker. December 03, 2001. [2]
  • Insight Guides, Halliday, Tony and Ikram, Tahir. Insight Guide Pakistan<u>. Apa Productions. January 1998. ISBN 0-88729-736-6.
  • Malik, Hafeez. <u>Pakistan: Founders' Aspirations and Today's Realities. Oxford University Press, USA. May 2001. ISBN 0-19-579333-1.
  • Malik, Iftikhar H. "Religious Minorities in Pakistan". Minority Rights Group International. September 2002. ISBN 1-897693-69-9. [3]
  • Najim, Adil. "Pakistan and Democracy". The News International Pakistan<u>. May 06, 2004. [4]
  • Rooney, John. <u>Shadows in the dark: A history of Christianity in Pakistan up to the 10th century. Christian Study Centre. January 1984. ASIN B0006EPRFS.
  • Sharif, Shuja. "Musharraf's Administration And Pakistan's Economy". Contemporary Review. Mar 31, 2005. 129-134.
  • Wolpert, Stanley. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, USA. May 1984. ISBN 0-19-503412-0.
  • Zakaria, Rafiq. The Man Who Divided India: An Insight into Jinnah’s Leadership and its Aftermath
  • Statehood in South Asia
  • Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 10 (October 2004)

[edit] External links

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Pakistan

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