Organometallic chemistry

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Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal. Often this definition is too strict however, since many compounds without such bonds are chemically similar. An appropriate alternative may be "compounds containing metal-element bonds of a largely covalent character". Organometallic chemistry combines aspects of inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. Organometallic compounds are also known as Organo-Inorganics, Metallo-Organics and Metalorganics. Organometallic compounds are distinguished by the prefix "organo-".

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[edit] Examples

Some typical organometallic compounds are

Important classes of organometallic compounds are metal carbonyls, metallocenes (with ferrocene as a prime example), and carbene complexes. The term "metal" is defined deliberately broadly in this context and may include elements, such as silicon, arsenic or boron, which are not metallic but are considered to be metalloids such as the organoborane triethylborane (Et3B ) or the organosilicon compound tetramethylsilane (Me4Si, TMS). There is also the group of poor metal elements such as aluminium that form organoaluminiums, and aluminoxanes which are important parts of Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

[edit] Use and concepts

Organometallic compounds often find practical use in stoichiometric and catalytically active compounds, for example in the processing of petroleum products and the production of polymers.

The 18-Electron rule and the isolobal principle are concepts that help to understand chemical bonding and reactivity in organometallic compounds.

Key reaction mechanisms are oxidative addition, reductive elimination, transmetalation, electron transfer, beta-hydride elimination and organometallic substitution reactions.

[edit] History

Early developments: Cadet’s synthesis of methyl arsenic compounds related to the cacodylic acid, Zeise's platinum-ethylene complex, Edward Frankland’s discovery of dimethyl zinc, Ludwig Mond’s discovery of Ni(CO)4, and Victor Grignard’s organomagnesium compounds. The abundant and diverse products from coal and petroleum led to Ziegler-Natta, Fischer-Tropsch, hydroformylation catalysis which employ CO, H2, and alkenes as feedstocks and ligands. Recognition of organometallic chemistry as a distinct subfield culminated in the Nobel Prizes to Fischer and Wilkinson for work on metallocenes. In 2005, Chauvin, Grubbs, and Schrock shared the Nobel Prize for metal-catalyzed alkene metathesis.

[edit] Organometallic chemistry timeline

[edit] Organometallics

[edit] See also

[edit] External links


ca:Compost organometàl·lic

cs:Organokovová chemie de:Organometallchemie es:Química organometálica fr:Organométallique id:Kimia organologam he:כימיה אורגנומתכתית la:Chemica Organometallica lt:Organometaliniai junginiai lb:Organometallchimie hu:Fémorganikus kémia it:Chimica metallorganica nl:Organometaalchemie ja:有機金属化学 pl:Związki metaloorganiczne pt:Compostos Organometálicos su:Kimia organologam th:ออร์แกนโนเมทัลลิกเคมี zh:有机金属化学

Organometallic chemistry

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