Organisation of African Unity

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Image:Flag of the African Union.svg
Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union.

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine (OUA) was established on May 25, 1963. It was disbanded July 9, 2002 by its last chairman, South African Thabo Mbeki and replaced by the African Union.

Its intended purpose was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States and act as a collective voice for the continent. It was also dedicated to the eradication of colonialism and established a Liberation Committee to aid independence movements.

Its headquarters were established at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, at the invitation of its emperor, Haile Selassie I. The Charter of the Organisation was signed by 32 independent African states, among them members of the Casablanca Group, founded in 1961 and composed of "progressive states". At the time of its disbanding, 53 out of the 54 states in Africa were members; Morocco left on November 12, 1984 following the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as the government of Western Sahara in 1982.

Though widely derided ("Dictator's Club" [1],) ("Dictator's Trade Union" [2],) as a bureaucratic "talking shop" with little power, Ghanaian United Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan praised the OAU for bringing Africans together. Nevertheless, in its 39 years of existence critics argue that the OAU did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it "The Dictators Club".[3]

Autonomous specialised agencies working under the auspices of the OAU were:

Contents

[edit] List of Secretaries-general of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and African Union (AU) Chairmen of the Commission

Secretaries-general of the OAU
Name Beginning of Term End of Term Country
Kifle Wodajo (acting) 25 May 1963 21 July 1964 Ethiopia
Diallo Telli 21 July 1964 15 June 1972 Guinea
Nzo Ekangaki 15 June 1972 16 June 1974 Cameroon
William Eteki 16 June 1974 21 July 1978 Cameroon
Edem Kodjo 21 July 1978 12 June 1983 Togo
Peter Onu (acting) 12 June 1983 20 July 1985 Nigeria
Ide Oumarou 20 July 1985 19 September 1989 Niger
Salim Ahmed Salim 19 September 1989 17 September 2001 Tanzania
Amara Essy 17 September 2001 9 July 2002 Côte d'Ivoire
AU Chairmen of the Commission
Amara Essy (interim) 9 July 2002 16 September 2003 Côte d'Ivoire
Alpha Oumar Konaré 16 September 2003 Present Mali

[edit] List of Chairmen of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) & African Union (AU)

Organisation of African Unity
Name Beginning of Term End of Term Country
Haile Selassie 25 May 1963 17 July 1964 Ethiopia
Gamal Abdel Nasser 17 July 1964 21 October 1965 Egypt
Kwame Nkrumah 21 October 1965 24 February 1966 Ghana
Joseph Arthur Ankrah 24 February 1966 5 November 1966 Ghana
Haile Selassie 5 November 1966 11 September 1967 Ethiopia
Joseph-Désiré Mobutu 11 September 1967 13 September 1968 Congo (Kinshasa)
Houari Boumedienne 13 September 1968 6 September 1969 Algeria
Ahmadou Ahidjo 6 September 1969 1 September 1970 Cameroon
Kenneth Kaunda 1 September 1970 21 June 1971 Zambia
Moktar Ould Daddah 21 June 1971 12 June 1972 Mauritania
Hassan II 12 June 1972 27 May 1973 Morocco
Yakubu Gowon 27 May 1973 12 June 1974 Nigeria
Muhammad Siad Barre 12 June 1974 28 July 1975 Somalia
Idi Amin 28 July 1975 2 July 1976 Uganda
Seewoosagur Ramgoolam 2 July 1976 2 July 1977 Mauritius
Omar Bongo 2 July 1977 18 July 1978 Gabon
Gaafar Nimeiry 18 July 1978 12 July 1979 Sudan
William R. Tolbert, Jr. 12 July 1979 12 April 1980 Liberia
Léopold Sédar Senghor (acting) 28 April 1980 1 July 1980 Senegal
Siaka Stevens 1 July 1980 24 June 1981 Sierra Leone
Daniel arap Moi 24 June 1981 6 June 1983 Kenya
Mengistu Haile Mariam 6 June 1983 12 November 1984 Ethiopia
Julius Nyerere 12 November 1984 18 July 1985 Tanzania
Abdou Diouf 18 July 1985 28 July 1986 Senegal
Denis Sassou-Nguesso 28 July 1986 27 July 1987 Congo (Brazzaville)
Kenneth Kaunda 27 July 1987 25 May 1988 Zambia
Moussa Traoré 25 May 1988 24 July 1989 Mali
Hosni Mubarak 24 July 1989 9 July 1990 Egypt
Yoweri Museveni 9 July 1990 3 June 1991 Uganda
Ibrahim Babangida 3 June 1991 29 June 1992 Nigeria
Abdou Diouf 29 June 1992 28 June 1993 Senegal
Hosni Mubarak 28 June 1993 13 June 1994 Egypt
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 13 June 1994 26 June 1995 Tunisia
Meles Zenawi 26 June 1995 8 July 1996 Ethiopia
Paul Biya 8 July 1996 2 June 1997 Cameroon
Robert Mugabe 2 June 1997 8 June 1998 Zimbabwe
Blaise Compaoré 8 June 1998 12 July 1999 Burkina Faso
Abdelaziz Bouteflika 12 July 1999 10 July 2000 Algeria
Gnassingbé Eyadéma 10 July 2000 9 July 2001 Togo
Frederick Chiluba 9 July 2001 2 January 2002 Zambia
Levy Mwanawasa 2 January 2002 9 July 2002 Zambia
African Union
Name Beginning of Term End of Term Country
Thabo Mbeki 9 July 2002 10 July 2003 South Africa
Joaquim Chissano 10 July 2003 6 July 2004 Mozambique
Olusegun Obasanjo 6 July 2004 24 January 2006 Nigeria
Denis Sassou-Nguesso 24 January 2006 Present Congo

[edit] OAU Summits

It includes ordinary and extraordinary summits.

[edit] OAU members by date of admission (53 states)

Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Léopoldville).<ref>1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire.</ref> Dahomey,<ref>From 1975 Benin.</ref> Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast,<ref>From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire.</ref> Liberia, Libya, Madagascar,<ref>Suspended Dec 2001 - 10 July 2003.</ref> Mali, Mauritania,<ref>Suspended 4 August 2005.</ref> Morocco,<ref>Withdrew 12 November 1984.</ref> Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, The Sudan, Tanganyika,<ref name="r7">Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 November 1964.</ref> Togo,<ref>Suspended from 25 February 2005.</ref> Tunisia, Uganda, Upper Volta,<ref>From 1984 Burkina Faso.</ref> Zanzibar<ref name="r7" />
Kenya
Malawi
Zambia
  • Oct 1965 :
The Gambia
Botswana, Lesotho
  • Aug 1968 :
Mauritius
Swaziland
Equatorial Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Angola
Cape Verde, Comoros, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe
Seychelles
Djibouti
  • Jun 1980 :
Zimbabwe
Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara)
  • Jun 1990 :
Namibia
Eritrea
South Africa

[edit] Notes

<references />

[edit] References

[edit] See also

Pan-Africanism
Famous Proponents: Kwame Nkrumah · Julius Nyerere · Malcolm X · Muammar al-Gaddafi · Molefi Kete Asante · Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia · Cheikh Anta Diop · Marcus Garvey · Henry Sylvester-Williams · Walter Rodney · Abdias do Nascimento · Ahmed Sékou Touré · W.E.B. Du Bois · Frantz Fanon · Bob Marley · Patrice Lumumba · George Padmore · Runoko Rashidi · Steve Biko · Thabo Mbeki · Jomo Kenyatta

Philosophies and Concepts: United States of Africa · African code · Afrocentrism · Kwanzaa · Pan-African flag · Négritude · African nationalism · African Century · Africanization

Organizations and Movements: African Union (preceeded by the Organization of African Unity) · Uhuru Movement · UNIA-ACL · AllAfrica.com · African Unification Front · African diaspora

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de:Organisation für Afrikanische Einheit es:Organización para la Unidad Africana eo:Organizaĵo por Afrika Unueco fr:Organisation de l'unité africaine he:ארגון אחדות אפריקה nl:Organisatie van Afrikaanse Eenheid no:Organisasjonen for afrikansk enhet pl:Organizacja Jedności Afrykańskiej pt:Organização da Unidade Africana fi:Afrikan yhtenäisyysjärjestö sv:OAU tr:Afrika Birliği Örgütü zh:非洲统一组织

Organisation of African Unity

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