United States Office of Management and Budget

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The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP) and is an important conduit by which the White House oversees the activities of federal agencies. OMB is tasked with giving expert advice to senior White House officials on a range of topics relating to federal policy, management, legislative, regulatory, and budgetary issues. The bulk of OMB's 500 employees are charged with monitoring the adherence of their assigned federal programs to presidential policies. OMB performs their coordination role by gathering, filtering, and promulgating the President's annual budget request, by issuing circulars dictating agency management practices, overseeing the "President's Management Agenda" (PMA)[1], and by reviewing agency regulations. The Office contains significant numbers of both career and politically appointed staff; OMB staff provide important continuity within the EOP since several hundred career professionals remain in their positions regardless of which party occupies the White House. Six positions within OMB--the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, and the Administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, and the Office of Federal Financial Management--are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed ("PAS") positions.

Until mid-April 2006, the Director of OMB was Joshua B. Bolten, but Bolten was appointed to replace Andy Card as White House Chief of Staff effective April 15, 2006. On April 18, 2006, Bush nominated United States Trade Representative Rob Portman to replace Bolten; Portman was confirmed by the Senate on May 26, 2006.

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[edit] Structure of OMB

The largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the four Resource Management Offices (RMO) which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or even several federal agencies or may be assigned a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U.S. Navy battleships. These staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the President’s budget. They perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) [2], review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, and oversee the aspects of the PMA including agency management scorecards. In essence they are the “one stop shop” within OMB and the Executive Office of the President and are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. They also provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are OIRA, OFPP, OFFM, and the Office of E-Government whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.

Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division (BRD), and the Legislative Reference Division (LRD). BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsibly for the technical aspects relating to the release of the President’s budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, and the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress.

The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearinghouse across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. LRD distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distills the comments into a consensus opinion of the Administration about the proposal. They are also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum (EBM) to the President once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the President’s signature. The EBM details the particulars of the bill, opinions on the bill from relevant federal departments, and an overall opinion about whether the bill should be signed into law or vetoed. They also issues Statements of Administration Policy (SAP) that let Congress know the White House’s official position on proposed legislation.

[edit] History

The Bureau of the Budget (BOB), OMB's predecessor, was established as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. The BOB was moved to the EOP in 1939, and reorganized into OMB in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included Roy Ash (head), Paul O'Neill (assistant director), Fred Malek (deputy director) and Frank Zarb (associate director) and two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining those dual roles into each given program examiner within the RMO.

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[edit] Directors of the Office of Management and Budget

Name Dates Served ↓ Notes
Rob Portman May 26, 2006 - Present
Joshua B. Bolten June 26, 2003 - April 15, 2006

Bolten was designated on March 28, 2006, to replace Andy Card as White House Chief of Staff.

Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr. January 23, 2001 - June 6, 2003 Daniels left and successfully ran for Governor of the state of Indiana.
Jacob J. Lew May 21, 1998 - January 19, 2001 Jack Lew served as Deputy Director of OMB from 1995 to 1998
Franklin D. Raines September 13, 1996 - May 21, 1998 Raines went on to be CEO of Fannie Mae
Alice M. Rivlin October 17, 1994 - April 26, 1996 Rivlin became a Governor of the Federal Reserve after leaving OMB.
Leon Panetta January 21, 1993 - October 1994 Panetta went on to become President Clinton's Chief of Staff
Richard Darman January 25, 1989 - January 20, 1993
Joseph R. Wright, Jr. October 16, 1988 - January 20, 1989
James C. Miller III October 8, 1985 - October 15, 1988
David A. Stockman January 21, 1981 - August 1, 1985
James T. McIntyre September 24, 1977 - January 20, 1981
Bert Lance January 21, 1977 - September 23, 1977 Lance resigned amid a corruption scandal.
James T. Lynn February 10, 1975 - January 20, 1977 Lynn left to head Aetna Insurance.
Roy Ash February 2, 1973 - February 3, 1975
Caspar Weinberger June 12, 1972 - February 1, 1973 Weinberger would later become Ronald Reagan's Secretary of Defense.
George P. Schultz July 1, 1970 - June 11, 1972
Robert Mayo January 22, 1969 - June 30, 1970
Charles Zwick January 29, 1968 - January 21, 1969
Charles Schultze June 1, 1965 - January 28, 1968
Kermit Gordon December 28, 1962 - June 1, 1965
David E. Bell January 22, 1961 - December 20, 1962
Maurice H. Stans March 18, 1958 - January 21, 1961
Percival Brundage April 2, 1956 - March 17, 1958
Rowland Hughes April 16, 1954 - April 1, 1956
Joseph Dodge

January 22, 1953 - April 15, 1954

Frederick Lawton

April 13, 1950 - January 21, 1953

Frank Pace February 1, 1949 - April 12, 1950
James E. Webb July 13, 1946 - January 27, 1949
Harold E. Smith April 15, 1939 - June 19, 1946
Daniel W. Bell

September 1, 1934 - April 14, 1939

Lewis Douglas March 7, 1933 - August 31, 1934
Clawson Roop August 15, 1929 - March 3, 1933
Herbert Lord July 1, 1922 - May 31, 1929
Charles Dawes

June 23, 1921 - June 30, 1922

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[edit] Other famous people who worked at the OMB

[edit] Related Links

United States Office of Management and Budget

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