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In the Greek and Roman world-view, Oceanus (Greek Ὠκεανός, Okeanos), was the world-ocean, which they believed to be an enormous river encircling the world. Strictly speaking, Okeanos was the ocean-stream at the Equator in which floated the habitable hemisphere (oikoumene).<ref> See Stecchini, "Ancient Cosmology".</ref> In Greek mythology, this world-ocean was personified as a Titan, a son of Uranus and Gaia. In Hellenistic and Roman mosaics, this Titan was often depicted as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and horns, and the lower torso of a serpent (cf. Typhon). On a fragmentary archaic vessel (British Museum 1971.11-1.1) of ca 580 BCE, among the gods arriving at the wedding of Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis, is a fish-tailed Oceanus, with a fish in one hand and a serpent in the other, gifts of bounty and prophecy. In Roman mosaics he might carry a steering-oar and cradle a ship.

Some scholars believe that Oceanus originally represented all bodies of salt water, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, the two largest bodies known to the ancient Greeks. However, as geography became more accurate, Oceanus came to represent the stranger, more unknown waters of the Atlantic Ocean (also called the "Ocean Sea"), while the newcomer of a later generation, Poseidon, ruled over the Mediterranean.

Oceanus' consort is his sister Tethys, and from their union came the ocean nymphs, also known as the three-thousand Oceanids, and all the rivers of the world, fountains, and lakes<ref> The late classical poet Nonnus mentioned "the Limnai [Lakes)], liquid daughters of Okeanos." (Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6.352)</ref>. From Cronus, of the race of Titans, the Olympian gods have their birth, and Hera mentions twice in Iliad book xiv her intended journey "to the ends of the generous earth on a visit to Okeanos, whence the gods have risen, and Tethys our mother who brought me up kindly in their own house." <ref>Iliad xiv. 200 and 244.</ref>

Image:Oceanus and Tethys.jpg
Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. Roman mosaic from Zeugma, c. 1st–2nd centuries AD

In most variations of the war between the Titans and the Olympians, or Titanomachy, Oceanus, along with Prometheus and Themis, did not take the side of his fellow Titans against the Olympians, but instead withdrew from the conflict. In most variations of this myth, Oceanus also refused to side with Cronus in the latter's revolt against their father, Uranus.

In the Iliad, the rich iconography of Achilles' shield, which was fashioned by Hephaestus, is enclosed, as the world itself was believed to be, by Oceanus:

"Then, running round the shield-rim, triple-ply,
he pictured all the might of the Ocean stream."

When Odysseus and Nestor walk together along the shore of the sounding sea (Iliad ix.182) their prayers are addressed "to the great Sea-god who girdles the world." It is to Oceanus, not to Poseidon, that their thoughts are directed.

Invoked in passing by poets and figured as the father of rivers and streams, thus the progenitor of river gods, Oceanus appears only once in myth, as a representative of the archaic world that Heracles constantly threatened and bested.<ref>The Suda identifies Okeanos and Tethys as the parents of the two Kerkopes, whom Heracles also bested.</ref> Herakles forced the loan from Helios of his golden bowl, in order to cross the wide expanse of the Ocean on his trip to the Hesperides. When Oceanus tossed the bowl, Heracles threatened him and stilled his waves. The journey of Heracles in the sun-bowl upon Oceanus was a favored theme among painters of Attic pottery.


[edit] In cosmography

Oceanus appears in Hellenic cosmography as well as myth. Cartographers continued to represent the encircling equatorial stream much as it had appeared on Achilles' shield.[1]

Though Herodotus was skeptical about the physical existence of Oceanus, he rejected snowmelt as a cause of the annual flood of the Nile river; according to his translator and interpreter, Livio Catullo Stecchini, he left unsettled the question of an equatorial Nile, since the geography of Sub-Saharan Africa was unknown to him.

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[edit] External links

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

<references />

[edit] References

  • Karl Kerenyi, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson)

[edit] External links

Greek deities series
Primordial deities | Titans | Aquatic deities | Chthonic deities
Titanes: Oceanus | Hyperion | Coeus | Cronus | Crius | Iapetus
Titanides: Tethys | Theia | Phoebe | Rhea | Mnemosyne | Themis
Sons of Iapetus: Atlas | Prometheus | Epimetheus | Menoetius
Aquatic deities
Poseidon | Oceanus | Ceto | Nereus | Glaucus | Thetis | Amphitrite
Tethys | Triton | Proteus | Phorcys | Pontus | Oceanids | Nereids | Naiads
ast:Océanu (mitoloxía)

bg:Океан (митология) cs:Okeanos da:Okeanos de:Okeanos es:Océano (mitología) eo:Oceano (mitologio) fr:Océan (mythologie) it:Oceano (mitologia) he:אוקיינוס (מיתולוגיה) lb:Okeanos lt:Okeanas hu:Ókeanosz nl:Oceanus (god) ja:オケアノス pl:Okeanos pt:Oceanus ro:Oceanus ru:Океан (мифология) simple:Okeanos sl:Okean sv:Okeanos tr:Okeanos uk:Океан (міфологія) yi:אקעאנוס zh:俄刻阿洛斯


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