Learn more about November 21
November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 40 days remaining.
- 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
- 235 - Anterus is elected Pope.
- 1272 - Following Henry III of England's death on November 16, his son Prince Edward becomes King of England.
- 1620 - Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, O.S.).
- 1783 - In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, Marquis d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.
- 1789 - North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 12th U.S. state.
- 1791 - Colonel Napoléon Bonaparte is promoted to full general and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the French Republic.
- 1861 - American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin secretary of war.
- 1877 - Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound.
- 1905 - Albert Einstein's paper, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", is published in the journal "Annalen der Physik". This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the famous equation e=mc².
- 1916 - The HMHS Britannic sinks in the Aegean Sea after an explosion from an unknown object, killing 30 people.
- 1920 - Bloody Sunday during the Anglo-Irish War
- 1922 - Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first woman United States Senator.
- 1927 - Columbine Mine Massacre: Striking coal miners were allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes.
- 1934 - Ella Fitzgerald makes her singing debut at age 16 at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York.
- 1941 - The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
- 1942 - The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (the highway was not usable by general vehicles until 1943, however).
- 1953 - Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the "Piltdown Man" skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was a hoax.
- 1956 - Don Newcombe of the then Brooklyn Dodgers wins the Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award of the National League. He won because he posted a staggering 27-7 record and an E.R.A. of 3.06.
- 1962 - The Chinese People's Liberation Army declares a unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War.
- 1964 - The Verrazano Narrows Bridge opens to traffic (at the time it was the world's longest suspension bridge).
- 1964 - Second Vatican Council: The third session of the Roman Catholic Church's ecumenical council closes.
- 1967 - Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: "I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing."
- 1969 - The first ARPANET link is established.
- 1969 - US President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Sato agree in Washington, DC on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. Under terms of the agreement, the US is to retain its rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
- 1970 - Vietnam War: Operation Ivory Coast - A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Son Tay prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there.
- 1971 - Indian troops partly aided by Mukti Bahini (Bengali guerrillas) defeated the Pakistan army in the Battle of Garibpur.
- 1974 - The Birmingham Pub Bombings by the IRA killed 21 people. The Birmingham Six were sentenced to life in prison for this and subsequently acquitted.
- 1974 - George W. Bush is honorably discharged from the US Air Force Reserve.
- 1977 - Minister of Internal Affairs Hon Allan Highet announced that 'the national anthems of New Zealand shall be the traditional anthem 'God Save The Queen' and the poem 'God Defend New Zealand', written by Thomas Bracken, as set to music by John Joseph Woods, both being of equal status as national anthems appropriate to the occasion'.
- 1979 - The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan is attacked by a mob and set alight, killing four. (see: Foreign relations of Pakistan)
- 1980 - A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally's Las Vegas). 87 people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
- 1980 - Lake Peigneur drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
- 1980 - Who Shot JR? - The Dallas Episode "Who Done It?" aired on US television. It was one of the highest-rated episodes of a TV show ever aired.
- 1985 - United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard is arrested for spying (he was caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations and was eventually sentenced to life in prison).
- 1986 - Iran-Contra Affair: National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary start to shred documents implicating them in the sale of weapons to Iran and channeling the proceeds to help fund the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
- 1990 - Charter of Paris for a New Europe refocusses the efforts of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europeon post-Cold War issues.
- 1990 - Nintendo's successor to the Famicom; the Super Famicom was released in Japan.
- 1991 - "The Apple of God's Eye", an undercover investigative journalism piece exposing the fundraising practices of American televangelist Robert Tilton, airs on ABC's Primetime Live newsmagazine show for the first time.
- 1995 - The Dayton Peace Agreement was initialled in the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, near Dayton, Ohio, ending three and a half years of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The agreement was formally ratified in Paris, on December 14 that same year.
- 1995 - Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
- 1995 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 5,000 (5,023.55) for the first time.
- 1996 - A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33.
- 2002 - NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
- 2004 - The second round of the Ukrainian presidential election is held, unleashing massive protests and controversy with regards to the election's integrity.
- 2004 - The island of Dominica is hit by its most destructive earthquake in history; the northern half of the island receives the most damage, especially in the town of Portsmouth. It is also felt in neighbouring Guadeloupe, where one person is killed as a result.
- 2004 - The Paris Club agrees to write off 80% (up to $100 billion) of Iraq's external debt.
- 1495 - John Bale, English churchman (d. 1563)
- 1567 - Anne de Xainctonge, French saint (d. 1621)
- 1692 - Carlo Innocenzio Maria Frugoni, Italian poet (d. 1768)
- 1694 - Voltaire, French philosopher (d. 1778)
- 1761 - Dorothy Jordan, British actress (d. 1816)
- 1768 - Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher, German theologian (d. 1834)
- 1787 - Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born shipping magnate (d. 1865)
- 1835 - Hetty Green, American businesswoman (d. 1916)
- 1854 - Pope Benedict XV (d. 1922)
- 1860 - Tom Horn, American gunman (d. 1903)
- 1870 - Sigfrid Edström, Swedish sports official (d. 1964)
- 1878 - Gustav Radbruch, German law professor (d. 1949)
- 1886 - Harold Nicolson, British diplomat.
- 496 - Pope Gelasius I
- 1361 - Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (plague) (b. 1346)
- 1555 - Georg Agricola, German scientist (b. 1490)
- 1566 - Annibale Caro, Italian poet (b. 1507
- 1579 - Thomas Gresham, English merchant and financier
- 1652 - Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (b. 1585)
- 1695 - Henry Purcell, English composer
- 1775 - John Hill, British writer
- 1811 - Heinrich von Kleist, German writer (b. 1777)
- 1844 - Ivan Krylov, Russian fabulist (b. 1769)
- 1881 - Ami Boué, Austrian geologist (b. 1794)
- 1899 - Garret Hobart, Vice President of the United States (b. 1844)
- 1916 - Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria (b. 1830)
- 1924 - Florence Harding, American First Lady (b. 1860)
- 1941 - Henrietta Vinton Davis American elocutionist, dramatist, impersonator, public speaker (b. 1860).
- 1942 - Leopold Graf Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian foreign minister (b. 1863)
- 1945 - Robert Benchley, American writer and actor (b. 1889)
- 1953 - Larry Shields, American jazz clarinetist (b. 1893)
- 1957 - Francis Burton Harrison, American political figure (b. 1873)
- 1958 - Mel Ott, American baseball player (b. 1909)
- 1959 - Max Baer, American boxer (b. 1909)
- 1963 - Robert Stroud (The Birdman of Alcatraz), American prisoner (b. 1890)
- 1969 - Mutesa II of Buganda, President of Uganda (1924)
- 1970 - Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Indian physicist and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1888)
- 1970 - Newsy Lalonde, National Hockey League player (b. 1887)
- 1974 - John B. Gambling, American radio talk show host (b. 1897)
- 1974 - Frank Martin, Swiss composer (b. 1890)
- 1981 - Harry Von Zell, American announcer (b. 1906)
- 1982 - John Hargrave, British Social Credit advocate (b. 1894)
- 1986 - Jerry Colonna, American comic (b. 1904)
- 1986 - Dar Robinson, American film stuntman (b. 1947)
- 1988 - Carl Hubbell, American baseball player (b. 1903)
- 1990 - Dean Hart, Canadian professional wrestler (b. 1954)
- 1991 - Sonny Werblin, former owner of the New York Jets (b. 1907)
- 1993 - Bill Bixby, American actor and director (b. 1934)
- 1995 - Peter Grant, British rock manager, actor (Led Zeppelin,Bad Company) (b. 1935)
- 1995 - Noel Jones, British diplomat (b. 1940)
- 1996 - Abdus Salam, Pakistani physicist and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1926)
- 1999 - Quentin Crisp, British writer, raconteur and actor (b. 1908)
- 2000 - Emil Zátopek, Czech long distance runner (b. 1922)
- 2001 - Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj, King of Malaysia (b. 1926)
- 2002 - Hadda Brooks, American jazz singer, pianist, and composer (b. 1916)
- 2005 - Alfred Anderson, last Scottish World War I veteran (b. 1896)
- 2005 - Hugh Sidey, American journalist (b. 1927)
- 2006 - Pierre Amine Gemayel, Lebanese Cabinet minister, assasinated (b. 1972)
- 2006 - Abelardo Rengifo, Grandfather
 Holidays and observances
 External links
November 20 - November 22 - October 21 - December 21 -- listing of all days
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