The New York Times

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<tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;">
The September 11, 2002 front page of The New York Times.</td></tr> <tr><th>Publisher</th><td>Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.</td></tr> <tr><th>Price</th><td>USD 1.00 Monday-Saturday
USD 3.50 Sunday
USD 3.50/5.00 Special Editions</td></tr> <tr><th>ISSN</th><td>0362-4331</td></tr>
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet

OwnerThe New York Times Company
Founded1851
HeadquartersNew York City, USA

Website: www.nytimes.com

The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. and distributed internationally. It is owned by The New York Times Company, which publishes 15 other newspapers, including the International Herald Tribune and the Boston Globe. It is the largest metropolitan newspaper in the United States. Nicknamed the "Gray Lady" for its staid appearance and style, it is regarded as a newspaper of record in the United States.<ref name="SVSUHistoricalTimes">Template:Cite web</ref> The name is often abbreviated to the Times, but should not be confused with The Times, which is published in the United Kingdom.

Contents

[edit] History

Image:Dday newyorktimes.jpg
The front page on June 6, 1944 announces the beginning of the Battle of Normandy

The New York Times was founded on September 18, 1851 by experienced journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones as the New-York Daily Times.

On September 14, 1857, the New-York Daily Times lost its hyphen and the word Daily and became The New York Times.

The original intent was to publish the paper every morning except on Sundays. However, during the Civil War the Times (along with other major dailies) started publishing Sunday issues.

Between 1870 and 1871, a series of Times exposes brought down Boss Tweed and ended the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's city hall.<ref name="timeline1851-80">The New York Times Company: New York Times Timeline 1851-1880</ref>

In the 1876 presidential election, while other newspapers declared Samuel Tilden the victor over Rutherford B. Hayes, the Times, under the headline A Doubtful Election, asserted the outcome remained uncertain. After months, an electoral commission and Congress finally decided the election in Hayes's favor.<ref name="timeline1851-80" />

In the 1884, the Times faced a period of transition from strictly supporting Republican candidates to becoming a politically-independent paper, supporting Grover Cleveland in his first presidential election in 1884. In the beginning, it took a toll on the income of the Times but within a few years, the paper regained most of its lost ground and readership.

In 1896, Adolph Ochs, publisher of The Chattanooga Times, acquired The New York Times and in 1897, he coined the paper's celebrated slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print," widely interpreted as a jab at competing papers in New York City (the New York World and the New York Journal American) that were known for lurid yellow journalism. Under his guidance, The New York Times achieved an international scope, circulation, and reputation.

The newspaper gave its name to Times Square in 1904 after it moved to new headquarters on 42nd Street in an area formerly known as Longacre Square. It was here that the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball from the Times building was started by the paper in 1907. After only nine years in Times Square, the paper relocated in 1913 to 229 West 43rd Street, its current headquarters. The original Times Square building, now known as One Times Square, was sold in 1961. A new headquarters for the newspaper, a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano, is currently under construction at West 41st Street and 8th Avenue in Manhattan.

In 1904, the Times received the first on-the-spot wireless transmission from a naval battle, a report of the destruction of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in the Yellow Sea during the Russo-Japanese war.

In 1919 it made its first trans-Atlantic delivery to London. In 1910, the first air delivery of the Times to Philadelphia began. In 1920, a "4 A.M. Airplane Edition" was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening.

November 6, 1928, on Times Tower, the Motograph News Bulletin, known colloquially as "The Zipper" or "The News Zipper," started flashing its 14,800 bulbs with election results: Herbert Hoover defeats Al Smith. Beginning May 18, 1942, the zipper went dark in compliance with wartime blackout rules.

During World War II, two Times reporters, Harold Denny, in North Africa, and Otto D. Tolischus, in Japan, were held as prisoners of war. Tolischus was tortured and accused of espionage. Both were eventually released.

In 1945, William L. Laurence, a science reporter, was drafted by the government to write the official history of the A-bomb project. On August 9, he was the only journalist on the mission to bomb Nagasaki.

The crossword began to appear in 1942 as a feature, and the paper bought the classical radio station WQXR in the same year. The fashion section started in 1946. The Times also started an international edition in 1946, but stopped publishing it in 1967, when it joined with the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris. (In 2003, the Times became sole publisher) The Op-Ed section started appearing in 1970. More recently, in 1996, The New York Times went online, giving access to readers all over the world on the Web at www.nytimes.com.

In 1964, the paper was the defendant in a libel case known as New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, in which the Supreme Court established the actual malice legal test for libel.

[edit] Pulitzer Prizes

The Times has won 94 Pulitzer Prizes, far more than any other newspaper.

[edit] Famous mistakes

Image:Hitlertamed.jpg
Things did not turn out as had been anticipated.

In 1920, a New York Times editorial ridiculed Robert Goddard and his claim that a rocket would work in space:

That Professor Goddard, with his "chair" in Clark College and the countenancing of the Smithsonian Institution, does not know the relation of action to reaction, and of the need to have something better than a vacuum against which to react – to say that would be absurd. Of course he only seems to lack the knowledge ladled out daily in high schools.

In 1969, days before Apollo 11's landing on the moon, the newspaper published a tongue-in-cheek correction:

Further investigation and experimentation have confirmed the findings of Isaac Newton in the 17th century, and it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error.

On November 15, 1992, the Times published a list of slang terms (known as "grunge speak") that were supposedly used in the Seattle grunge scene. This was later proven to be a hoax created by Megan Jasper, a sales representative for Sub Pop Records.

On several occasions the Times has erroneously published premature obituaries, including:

[edit] Historical controversies

The paper, like many news organizations, has often been accused of giving too little or too much play to various events for reasons not related to objective journalism.

One of these allegations is that before and during World War II, the newspaper downplayed accusations that the Third Reich had targeted Jews for expulsion and genocide, at least in part because the publisher, who was Jewish, feared the taint of taking on any 'Jewish cause'.[citation needed]

Another serious charge is the accusation that the Times, through its coverage of the Soviet Union by correspondent Walter Duranty helped to cover up the Ukrainian genocide perpetrated by Joseph Stalin in the 1930s.<ref name="duranty">The New York Times Company: "New York Times Statement About 1932 Pulitzer Prize Awarded to Walter Duranty"</ref><ref>The Daily Standard (June 12, 2003, 1:40:00 PM): "Pulitzer-Winning Lies", by Arnold Beichman</ref>

[edit] The Times today

The New York Times is one of the most prominent American daily newspapers, although it trails USA Today and the Wall Street Journal in circulation. It has traditionally printed full transcripts of major speeches and debates. The newspaper is currently owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role.

Since winning its first Pulitzer Prize,<ref name="TimesAwards">Template:Cite web</ref> in 1918 for its World War I reporting, the Times has won 94 Pulitzer Prizes, including a record seven in 2002. In 1971 it broke the Pentagon Papers story, publishing leaked documents revealing that the U.S. government had been painting an unrealistically rosy picture of the progress of the Vietnam War. This led to New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), which declared the government's prior restraint of the classified documents was unconstitutional. More recently, in 2004 the Times won a Pulitzer award for a series written by David Barstow and Lowell Bergman on employers and workplace safety issues.

The Times has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses,<ref name="TimesCuts500">Template:Cite web</ref> in common with a general trend among print newsmedia. At the end of 2005 it had over 350 full time reporters and about 40 photographers, in addition to hundreds of free-lance contributors who work for the paper more occasionally.

The Times is based in New York City. It has 16 news bureaus in the New York region, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus.<ref name="TimesProperties">Template:Cite web</ref> In recent years, it has sought to strengthen its status as a national newspaper by increasing to twenty its number of printing locations, allowing early morning distribution in many additional markets.

In 2006, the paper reported a circulation of roughly 1,142,464 copies on weekdays and 1,683,855 copies on Sundays.<ref name="TimesCirculation>Template:Cite web</ref> In the New York City metropolitan area, the paper costs $1.00 Monday through Saturday and $3.50 on Sunday. Elsewhere the Sunday edition costs $5.00. New home delivery subscribers may receive a discount. [1]

The newspaper continues to own classical WQXR (96.3 FM) and WQEW (1560 AM). The classical format was simulcast on both frequencies until the early 1990s, when the big-band and standards format of WNEW-AM (now WBBR) moved from 1130 AM to 1560. The AM station changed its call letters from WQXR to WQEW. By the beginning of the 21st century, The Times had begun leasing WQEW to ABC Radio for its Radio Disney format, which continues on 1560 AM to this day.

The Times had a separate Television guide from March 1988 to April 2006. It was the last major newspaper to not outsource its television guide's editorial content to a syndication service such as Tribune Media Services, though the latter company compiled the data for the guide's TV grids. Blurbs (short, haiku-like summaries) for the listings of theatrical and television movies were based on the opinions of Times critics but edited to a succinct form by the former film critic Howard Thompson, Lawrence Van Gelder and Anita Gates.

[edit] Major sections

The newspaper is organized in three sections:

1. News 
Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, New York Region, Education, Weather, and Obituaries.
2. Opinion 
Includes Editorials, Op-Eds and Letters to the Editor.
3. Features 
Includes Arts, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Dining & Wine, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine, and Week in Review

[edit] Style

When referring to people, it uses titles, rather than unadorned last names (except among the sports pages, in which last names stand alone). Its headlines tend to be verbose, and, for major stories, come with subheadings giving further details, although it is moving away from this style. It stayed with an 8-column format years after other papers had switched to 6, and it was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997. In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-righthand column.

The typefaces used for the headlines include Cheltenham. The text is set in Imperial.

[edit] Web presence

Image:Nytimes launch.jpg
The initial look of NYTimes.com in 1996
The Times has had a strong presence on the web since 1995, and has been ranked one of the top web sites. It is accessible via www.nytimes.com and www.nyt.com. It has a general policy of keeping articles freely available for a week and charges subscription for older articles. Accessing some articles requires registration, though this restriction can be bypassed by using a link generator or in some cases through Times RSS feeds.[2] The website had 555 million pageviews in March 2005.<ref name="March2005Pageviews">Template:Cite web</ref>

For the month of March 2006, NYTimes.com had a strong traffic, with 11.6 million unique visitors and continues to rank as the number one newspaper site. NYT Company consolidation (which includes About.com) is the 12th most-visited parent company, with 37.7 million unique visitors.<ref name="March2006Pageviews">Template:Cite web</ref>

In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription based service for daily columns in a program known as TimesSelect. This was unusual in that it included previously free editorial columns, and so it consequently led to attempts to work around it such as Never Pay Retail<ref name="NeverPayRetail">Template:Cite web</ref> and the posting of TimesSelect material by bloggers.<ref name="WiredTimesSelectGoof">Template:Cite web</ref> One of the reasons for this new service was to move from a large dependency on ad revenue.

TimesSelect is free for print copy subscribers [3], online readers can access it for $7.95 per month, about the cost of two Sunday editions, or can get a year subscription for $49.95 per year [4].

Times columnists such as Nicholas Kristof and Thomas Friedman have made their criticisms of TimesSelect clear, with Friedman going so far as to say "I hate it. It pains me enormously because it’s cut me off from a lot, a lot of people, especially because I have a lot of people who reading me overseas, like in India and whatnot, and so I hate it ... I feel totally cut off from my audience."<ref name="SlateSuellontropScooplet">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="HatesSubscriptionWall">Template:Cite web</ref> in a video interview conducted at the 2006 Webby Awards.<ref name="YouTubeInterview">Template:Cite web</ref> Most for-pay NYT editorials are available online shortly after their publication through blog searches. As of late January 2006 online reproduction of Select content is extremely difficult to find on commercial websites.

[edit] Management and employees

[edit] Publishers

[edit] Executive editors

[edit] Current Masthead

The News Sections

  • Bill Keller, Executive Editor
  • Jill Abramson, Managing Editor
  • John M. Geddes, Managing Editor
  • Jonathan Landman, Deputy Managing Editor
  • Richard L. Berke, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Tom Bodkin, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Susan Edgerley, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Glenn Kramon, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Gerald Marzorati, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Michele Mcnally, Assistant Managing Editor
  • William E. Schmidt, Assistant Managing Editor
  • Craig R. Whitney, Assistant Managing Editor

Business Management

  • Scott H. Heekin-Canedy, President, General Manager
  • Dennis L. Stern, Senior V.P., Deputy General Manager
  • Denise F. Warren, Senior V.P., Chief Advertising Officer
  • Alyse Myers, Senior V.P., Chief Marketing Officer
  • Alexis Buryk, Senior V.P., Advertising
  • Thomas K. Carley, Senior V.P., Planning
  • Yasmin Namini, Senior V.P., Circulation
  • David A. Thurm, Senior V.P., Chief Information Officer
  • Roland A. Caputo, V.P., Chief Financial Officer
  • Terry L. Hayes, V.P., Labor Relations
  • Thomas P. Lombardo, V.P., Production
  • Muriel Watkins, V.P., Human Resources
  • Cristian L. Edwards, President, News Services
  • Vivian Schiller, Senior V.P., General Manager, Nytimes.Com
  • Michael Oreskes, Editor, International Herald Tribune

[edit] Current columnists

Op-Ed Columnists

Former Op-Ed Columnists Russell Baker, Gail Collins, Anthony Lewis, Flora Lewis, Anna Quindlen, James Reston, A. M. Rosenthal, William Safire, John Tierney, Tom Wicker

News Columnists

Business Columnists

[edit] Other famous personnel

[edit] Controversies in the 2000s

In 2003, the Times admitted that Jayson Blair, one of its reporters, had committed repeated journalistic fraud over a span of several years.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The general professionalism of the paper was questioned, though Blair immediately resigned following the incident. Questions of affirmative action in journalism were also raised,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Shafer, Jack, "The Jayson Blair Project How did he bamboozle the New York Times?" "Pressbox" column, Slate online magazine, May 8, 2003</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> since Blair is black. The paper's top two editors – Howell Raines, the executive editor, and Gerald M. Boyd, managing editor – resigned their posts following the incident.[5]

In April 2004 the Times reversed its policy of not using the term Armenian Genocide.<ref name="ArmeniapediaTimes"> "New York Times". Armeniapedia. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.</ref> Despite publishing dozens of articles about the Armenian Genocide as it progressed,<ref name="ArmediapediaArticles"> "Armenian Genocide Contemporary Articles". Armeniapedia. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.</ref> the Times for a period shied away from using the term in its articles as part of its editorial policy. The Turkish Government still denies genocide occurred. Times columnist and former reporter Nicholas D. Kristof, who is of Armenian descent, has criticized in his Times column the ongoing denial of the Armenian Genocide by the Turkish government.

On May 26, 2004, the Times published a piece entitled "From the Editors" indicating that the paper's reporting of the lead up to the war in Iraq, "especially on the issue of Iraq's weapons and possible Iraqi connections to international terrorists...was not as rigorous as it should have been."<ref name="nytimes20040526">Week in Review 2004 May 30</ref>

In October 2005, Times reporter Judith Miller was released from prison after 85 days, when she agreed to testify to Special Prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald’s grand jury after receiving a personal waiver, both on the phone and in writing, of her earlier confidential source agreement with Lewis "Scooter" Libby. No other reporter whose testimony had been sought in the case had received such a direct and particularized release. Her incarceration has helped fuel an effort in Congress to enact a Federal Shield law, comparable to the state shield laws which protect reporters in 49 of the 50 states. After her second appearance before the grand jury, Miller was released from her contempt of court finding. Miller resigned from the paper on 9 November 2005.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In a similar case, in late 2001, Times reporters (including Judith Miller) were leaked information about government actions against the Holy Land Foundation and the Global Relief Foundation, two Islamic charities suspected of funding terrorist organizations. After a grand jury was convened in Illinois to consider an indictment against the leakers, the Times refused to cooperate with the prosecutor’s request for the reporters to identify their confidential sources. When the government attempted to subpoena phone records of the reporters, the Times sought an injunction. The Federal District Court in New York agreed with the Times on the basis of a First Amendment and common law reporters’ privilege and barred the government from seeing the records. However, that decision was recently reversed by the U.S. Court of Appeals.

On December 16, 2005, a New York Times article revealed that the Bush administration had ordered the National Security Agency (NSA) to intercept certain telephone conversations between suspected terrorists in the U.S. and those in other countries without first obtaining court warrants for the surveillance, apparently in violation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) and without the knowledge or consent of the Congress. A federal judge recently held that the plan revealed by the Times was unconstitutional, and hearings have been held on this issue in Congress. The article noted that reporters and editors at the Times had known about the intelligence-gathering program for approximately a year but had, at the request of White House officials, delayed publication to conduct additional reporting. The Justice Department has launched an investigation to determine the sources of the classified information obtained by the Times. The men who reported the stories, James Risen and Eric Lichtblau, won the Pulitzer Prize for national reporting in 2006.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In an article on June 23, 2006, The Times (along with the Wall Street Journal[6],Washington Post[7] and the Los Angeles Times[8]) revealed the existence of the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program, a CIA/Department of Treasury program to detect terrorist financing though access to the database of the Brussels-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication ("SWIFT").

The newspaper's Public Editor, Byron Calame originally supported publication but later changed his mind. In an August 13, 2006 column he wrote "I haven't found any evidence in the intervening months that the surveillance program was illegal.... The lack of appropriate oversight—to catch any abuses in the absence of media attention—was a key reason I originally supported publication. I think, however, that I gave it too much weight."<ref name="nytimes20061022">[9]</ref> Times Editor Bill Keller responded to Calame’s mea culpa in a letter to Calame posted on Calame's online blog on November 6, 2006. Keller felt that Calame’s premise that “the press should not reveal sensitive secret information unless there is a preponderance of evidence that the information exposes illegal or abusive actions by the government” set too high a bar. Keller explained that “The banking story landed in the context of a national debate about the concentration of executive power. The Swift program was the latest in a series of programs carried out without the customary checks and balances — in this case, Congressional oversight. Key members of Congress who would normally be apprised of such a program and who would be expected to monitor its safeguards only learned of the program because we did.”<ref name="publiceditor.blogs.nytimes.com">[ http://publiceditor.blogs.nytimes.com/?p=75#more-75]</ref> In September 2006, the Belgian government declared that the SWIFT dealings with U.S. government authorities were, in fact, a breach of Belgian and European privacy laws.[10]

[edit] Corporate-influence concerns

In their book Manufacturing Consent, Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky analyze a variety of major U.S. media outlets, with an emphasis on the Times, and conclude a bias exists which is neither liberal nor conservative in nature, but rather aligned towards the interests of corporate conglomerates, such as those that now own most of these media. Chomsky has explained that this bias functions in all sorts of ways:

"...by selection of topics, by distribution of concerns, by emphasis and framing of issues, by filtering of information, by bounding of debate within certain limits. They determine, they select, they shape, they control, they restrict — in order to serve the interests of dominant, elite groups in the society."<ref name="Chomsky1992">Template:Cite web</ref>
Chomsky also touches on the specific importance this perceived bias has in the Times, saying:
"...history is what appears in The New York Times archives; the place where people will go to find out what happened is The New York Times. Therefore it's extremely important if history is going to be shaped in an appropriate way, that certain things appear, certain things not appear, certain questions be asked, other questions be ignored, and that issues be framed in a particular fashion."<ref name="Chomsky1992">Template:Cite web</ref>

The Times has also been criticized[citation needed] for allowing Exxon-Mobil Corporation to run a regular paid "advertorial" commentary piece on its editorial page, although the practice is common in other U.S. newspapers.

[edit] Self-examination of bias

In summer 2004, the newspaper's then public editor (ombudsman), Daniel Okrent, wrote a piece on the Times' alleged liberal bias.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> He concluded that the Times did have a liberal bias in coverage of certain social issues, gay marriage being the example he used. He claimed that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City.

Okrent did not comment at length on the issue of bias in coverage of "hard news", such as fiscal policy, foreign policy, or civil liberties. However, he noted that the paper's coverage of the Iraq war was, among other things, insufficiently critical of the George W. Bush administration (see below). In May 2005 Okrent was succeeded by Byron Calame.

Additionally in a post-Jayson Blair report to Bill Keller,<ref name="ReadersTrust">Template:Cite web</ref> a committee of Times employees noted:

Nothing we recommend should be seen as endorsing a retreat from tough-minded reporting of abuses of power by public or private institutions. In part because the Times ' editorial page is clearly liberal, the news pages do need to make more effort not to seem monolithic.

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Berry; Nicholas O. Foreign Policy and the Press: An Analysis of the New York Times' Coverage of U.S. Foreign Policy (Greenwood. 1990)
  • Davis; Elmer. History of the New York Times, 1851-1921 (1921)
  • Hess, John. My Times: A Memoir of Dissent, Seven Stories Press (2003), cloth, ISBN 1-58322-604-4; trade paperback, Seven Stories Press (2003), ISBN 1-58322-622-2
  • Jones, Alex S. and Susan E. Tifft. The Trust: The Private and Powerful Family Behind The New York Times. Back Bay Books (2000), ISBN 0-316-83631-1.
  • Mnookin, Seth. Hard News: The Scandals at The New York Times and Their Meaning for American Media, Random House (2004), cloth, ISBN 1-4000-6244-6.
  • Talese, Gay. The Kingdom and the Power, World Publishing Company, New York, Cleveland (1969), ISBN 0-8446-6284-4.

[edit] Footnotes

<references/>

[edit] External links

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