New York City

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City of New York
Image:Flag of New York City.svg
Flag Seal
Nickname: "Big Apple; City that never Sleeps; Gotham"
Location in the state of New York
Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′W
Country United States
State New York
Boroughs The Bronx
Staten Island
Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R)
 - City 1,214.4 km²  (468.9 sq mi)
 - Land 785.5 km²  (303.3 sq mi)
 - Water 428.9 km² (165.6 sq mi)
 - Urban 8,683.2 km² (3,352.6 sq mi)
 - Metro 17,405 km² (6,720 sq mi)
Elevation 10 m  (33 ft)
 - City (2006) 8,213,839
 - Density 10,316/km² (26,720/sq mi)
 - Urban 18,498,000
 - Metro 18,709,802
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)

New York City (officially the City of New York) is the largest city in the United States by population and one of the world's major global cities. Located in the state of New York, the city has a population of 8.2 million within an area of 321 mi² (approximately 830 km²),<ref>Template:Cite web New York City's total area is 468.9 mi². 159.88 mi² of this is water and 321 mi² is land.</ref> making it the most densely populated city in North America. With a population of 18.7 million, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the largest urban areas in the world.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

New York City is an international center for business, finance, fashion, medicine, entertainment, media and culture, with an extraordinary array of museums, art galleries, performance venues, media outlets, international corporations, and financial markets. The city is also home to the United Nations, and to many of the world's most famous skyscrapers.

Popularly known as the "Big Apple" and the "City That Never Sleeps", the city attracts people from all over the globe who come for its economic opportunity, culture, and fast-paced cosmopolitan lifestyle. As of June 2006, the city was distinguished for having the lowest crime rate among major American cities.<ref>Zeranski, Todd. "NYC Is Safest City as Crime Rises in U.S., FBI Say", Bloomberg News, 2006-06-12 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.</ref>


[edit] History

The region was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery by Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano. It was not until the 1609 voyage Englishman Henry Hudson that the area was mapped, however. European settlement began with the founding of the Dutch fur trading settlement, later called New Amsterdam, on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1613. Later in 1626, Peter Minuit established a long tradition of shrewd real estate investing when he purchased Manhattan Island and Staten Island from native people in exchange for trade goods. (Legend, now long disproved, has it that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.) In 1664, the British conquered the city and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany. The Dutch briefly regained it in 1673, renaming the city "New Orange", before permanently ceding the colony of New Netherland to the British a year later.

The Castello Plan depicting New Amsterdam on the southern tip of Manhattan, 1660.

Under British rule New York grew in importance as a trading port. The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress met in New York City and on April 30, 1789 the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated at Federal Hall on Wall Street. New York was the capital city of the young nation until 1790.

During the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration, a visionary development proposal called the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the opening of the Erie Canal, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Mid-western United States and Canada in 1819. By 1835, New York City had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish immigrants. Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy pressed for Central Park, which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857.

Anger at military conscription during the American Civil War (1861–1865) led to the Draft Riots of 1863, one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history. After the Civil War, immigration from Europe grew steeply, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new and better life in the United States. The city's population boomed and in 1898 the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then an independent city), Manhattan and municipalities in the other boroughs. The opening of the New York City Subway in 1904 helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. In 1911 the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and led to important advancements in safety standards, building codes, and improvements at the city's fire department.

In the 1920s New York City was a destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. The Harlem Renaissance flourished, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that saw construction of dueling skyscrapers in the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.

Returning World War II veterans and immigrants from Europe created a postwar economic boom and the development of huge housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed and the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's ascendance as the world's dominant economic power, the United Nations headquarters (built in 1952) emphasizing New York's political influence, and the rise of Abstract Expressionism in the city displacing Paris as the center of the art world.<ref>Burns, Ric (2003-08-22). “Transcript”, The Center of the World - New York: A Documentary Film. PBS. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.</ref> Yet like many large American cities New York suffered a decline in manufacturing and rising crime rates, race riots, and white flight in the 1960s. By the 1970s the city had gained a reputation as a crime-ridden relic of history. In 1975, the city government avoided bankruptcy only with help from the federal government. The city's malaise seemed confirmed by the twin catastrophes of anarchic looting during the New York City blackout of 1977 and the Son of Sam serial murderer's continued slayings in the late 1970s. Reformist mayor Ed Koch was elected for three terms beginning in 1978 and is credited with restoring fiscal stability to the city.

Image:LOC Lower Manhattan New York City World Trade Center August 2001.jpg
Lower Manhattan's skyline with the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, 2001.

New York's social and economic upheavals abated in the 1980s as a resurgance in the critical financial industry improved the city's fiscal health. By the 1990s racial tensions had calmed, crime rates dropped dramatically, and waves of new immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy and New York's population reached an all-time high in the 2000 census.

The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people were killed in the destruction of the city's tallest buildings, Towers 1 and 2 of the World Trade Center. The Freedom Tower, intended to be exactly 1,776 feet tall (a number symbolic of the year the Declaration of Independence was written), is to be built on the site and is scheduled for completion in 2012.<ref>Dunlap, David W.. "Blocks; Capturing the Spirit of 1776, but With a Different Number", New York Times, 2004-01-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

[edit] Geography

Image:Aster newyorkcity lrg.jpg
Satellite image showing most of the five boroughs, portions of eastern New Jersey, and the main waterways around New York harbor.

New York City is located on the coast of the Northeastern United States at the mouth of the Hudson River in southeastern New York state. The city's geography is characterized by its coastal position at the meeting of the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean in a naturally sheltered harbor. This position helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and western Long Island, making land scarce and driving the city's high population density. Environmental issues are chiefly concerned with managing this density, which is also a factor in making New York among the most energy efficient and least automobile-dependent cities in the United States.

The Hudson River flows from the Hudson Valley into New York Bay, becoming a tidal estuary that separates the city from New Jersey. The East River, actually a tidal strait, flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx.

The city's land has been altered considerably by human intervention, with substantial land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most notable in Lower Manhattan with modern developments like Battery Park City. Much of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, particularly in Manhattan.<ref>Lopate, Phillip (2004). Waterfront: a walk around Manhattan. Anchor Press.</ref>

The city's total land area is 321 square miles. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 409.8 feet above sea level is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.

See also: Geography of New York Harbor

[edit] Boroughs

Image:5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map Julius Schorzman.png
The five boroughs: 1: Manhattan, 2: Brooklyn,
3: Queens, 4: Bronx, 5: Staten Island

New York City is comprised of five boroughs, an unusual form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city. Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character all their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.

  • Manhattan (New York County, pop. 1,593,200<ref name="census">Template:Cite web</ref> is the most superlatively urban of all the boroughs, the most densely populated, and home to most of the city's skyscrapers and famous landmarks. Manhattan is the business center of the city and the location of many entertainment and cultural attractions. It is loosely divided into downtown, midtown, and uptown regions.
  • The Bronx (Bronx County, pop. 1,357,589<ref name="census" />) is the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture,<ref>Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail.</ref> as well as the home of the New York Yankees and the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. Excluding some of its surrounding minor islands, the Bronx is the only borough of the city that is entirely on the mainland of the United States.
  • Brooklyn (Kings County, pop. 2,486,235<ref name="census" />) is the city's most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. With the largest business district outside of Manhattan and many historic residential neighborhoods, the borough has a strong native identity. The borough also features a long beachfront and Coney Island, famous as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.
  • Staten Island (Richmond County, pop. 464,573<ref name="census" />) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs and is connected to Manhattan by the free Staten Island Ferry. Until 2001 the borough was home to the Fresh Kills Landfill, formerly the largest landfill in the world, and now being reconstructed as one of the largest urban parks in the United States.

[edit] Climate

Although located at a more southern latitude than the Italian capital city of Rome, New York has a humid continental climate resulting from prevailing wind patterns that bring cool air from the interior of the North American continent. New York winters are typically cold with moderate snowfall averaging a total of about 2 feet (60 cm) annually. The Atlantic Ocean helps keep temperatures warmer in the city than in the interior Northeast. However, there has never been a winter since record keeping began in 1869 in which enough snow to cover the ground did not fall at least once. April, May, and November are usually the wettest months. Spring and Fall in New York City are mild while Summer can be extremely hot and humid.

New York City's climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms in the region.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F (°C) 38
Avg low temperature °F (°C) 25
Rainfall in. (mm) 3.4
Source: Weatherbase

[edit] Environment

Image:Centralpark 20040520 121402 1.1504.jpg
Central Park is nearly twice as big as the world's second-smallest country, Monaco. Historically its reservoirs were important components of the city's water supply.

New York's population density has environmental benefits and dangers. It facilitates the highest mass transit use in the United States, but also concentrates pollution. Although gasoline consumption in the city is at the rate the national average was in the 1920s,<ref>Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press.</ref> New York City has some of the dirtiest air in the United States. Pollution varies greatly from borough to borough, and residents of Manhattan face the highest risk in the country of developing cancer from chemicals in the air.<ref>"1999 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment", Environmental Protection Agency, 2006-02. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

Recently, the city has focused on reducing its environmental impact. The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing.<ref>DePalma, Anthony. "It Never Sleeps, but It's Learned to Douse the Lights", The New York Times, 2005-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> New York has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country, and some of the first hybrid taxis.<ref>Template:Cite web and Sierra Club (2005-07-01). New York City’s Yellow Cabs Go Green. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> The city is also a leader in energy-efficient "green" office buildings, such as Hearst Tower and 7 World Trade Center.<ref name="greenbuilding">Pogrebin, Robin. "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers", New York Times, 2006-04-16. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

The city is supplied with water by the vast Catskill Mountains watershed, one of the largest protected wilderness areas in the United States. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration process, New York City drinking water that originates from this reservoir does not require purification by water treatment plants, and under normal conditions, only chlorination is necessary to ensure its purity at the tap.<ref>Miele, Joel A., Sr (1998-11-20). "Maintaining Water Quality that Satisfies Customers: New York City Watershed Agricultural Program". International Water Supply Symposium Tokyo 1998, New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.</ref><ref>Template:Cite paper</ref>

[edit] Demographics

Image:Majestic Liberty Large.jpg
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, a World Heritage Site, has greeted millions of immigrants.

New York is the largest city in the United States, with a population about double the next largest city, Los Angeles. According to 2005 New York City Department of City Planning estimates, there are 8,213,839 people (up from 7.3 million in 1990), 2,984,544 households, and 1,802,009 families residing in the city.<ref name="census" /> This amounts to about 40% of New York State's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. Over the last decade the city has been growing rapidly. Demographers estimate New York's population will reach 9.4 million by 2025.<ref>Roberts, Sam. "By 2025, Planners See a Million New Stories in the Crowded City", New York Times, 2006-02-19. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

The two key demographic features of the city are its density and diversity. The city has an extremely high population density of 26,402.9/mi² (10,194.2/km²), about 10,000 more people per square mile than the next densest American city, San Francisco. Manhattan's population density is 66,940.1/mi² (25,845.7/km²).<ref name="census2000">"Census 2000 Data for the State of New York", U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

New York City is exceptionally diverse. Throughout its history the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants; the term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side, and according to some estimates as many as one out of every four Americans trace their ancestry roots back to New York City. In 2000, 36% of the city's population was foreign-born; 16% Naturalized citizens, 20% not citizens. Among American cities this proportion was higher only in Los Angeles and Miami.<ref name="census2000" /> While the immigrant communities in those cities are dominated by a few nationalities, in New York no single country or region of origin dominates. The five largest countries of origin are the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Russia and Italy.

New York City Compared
2000 CensusNY CityNY StateU.S.
Total population8,008,27818,976,457281,421,906
Population, percent change, 1990 to 2000+9.4%+5.5%+13.1%
Population density26,403/mi²402/mi²80/mi²
Median household income (1999)$38,293$43,393$41,994
Bachelor's degree or higher27%27%24%
Foreign born36%20%11%
Hispanic (any race)27%15%13%

The city and its metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside of Israel. It is also home to nearly a quarter of the nation's Indian-Americans, and the largest African American community of any city in the country. Among Latino New Yorkers Puerto Ricans have long been the city's largest ethnic group, but that has begun to change with new immigration from other Latin American nations. The Irish also have a notable presence; although relatively small in number in contemporary New York, a 2006 genetic survey by Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland found that one in 50 New Yorkers of European origin carry a distinctive genetic signature on their Y chromosomes inherited from Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the fifth century A.D.<ref>Wade, Nicholas. "If Irish Claim Nobility, Science May Approve", New York Times, 2006-01-18. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.</ref> Another historically significant ethnic group in the city are Italians, particularly southern Italians who emigrated in large numbers from Sicily and Naples in the early twentieth century. New York City has long had a large gay community, estimated to be between 360,000 and 500,000 people.<ref>The 2000 U.S. Census recorded 25,906 gay households in New York City, or about 52,000 people, three times larger than was reported in 1990 but significantly less than other estimates. Demographers suggest Census methodology undercounts the actual number.Beveridge, Andrew. "Counting Gay New York", Gotham Gazette, 2001-07. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

[edit] Crime

Since 1991, New York City has seen a continuous fifteen-year trend of decreasing crime. Violent crime in the city has dropped by 75% in the last twelve years and the murder rate in 2005 was at its lowest level since 1963: there were 537 murders that year, for a murder rate of 6.57 per 100,000 people, compared to 2245 murders in 1990. New York City is now the safest major city in the United States with a population greater than 1 million and the fourth safest among cities with populations over 500,000.<ref>2005 Ten Safest Big Cities</ref> In 2004 New York City had a rate of 2,800 crimes per 100,000, compared with 8,959.7 in Dallas; 7,903.7 in Detroit; and 7,402.3 in Phoenix. While some criminologists credit the continuous drop in crime to innovations implemented by the NYPD in the 1990s, such as CompStat, economist Steven Levitt and others have pointed instead to improved socioeconomic trends.

[edit] Government

Image:Municipal Building.jpg
The Manhattan Municipal Building, which houses many city agencies, is one of the largest government buildings in the world.

Since its consolidation in 1898, New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a "strong" mayor-council form of government. The government of New York is more centralized than that of most other U.S. cities. In New York City, the central government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

The mayor and councillors are elected to four-year terms. The New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 Council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. The mayor and councilors are limited to two four-year terms.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. 66% of registered voters in the city are Democrats.<ref>"County enrollment totals", New York State Board of Elections, 2006-04-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> Party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Labor politics are important in the city. New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and John Kerry.<ref>"2006 election overview: top zip codes", Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. New York City receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). The city also sends an additional $11 billion more each year to the state of New York than it receives back.<ref>New York City Finance Division. "A Fair Share of State Budget: Does Albany Play Fair with NYC?", 2005-03-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

The mayor is Michael Bloomberg, a former Democrat elected as a Republican in 2001 and re-elected in 2005 with 59% of the vote.<ref>"Statement and return report for certification: General Election 2005", New York City Board of Elections, 2005-11-08. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> He is known for taking control of the city's education system from the state, rezoning and economic development, sound fiscal management, and aggressive public health policy. In his second term he has made school reform and strict gun control central priorities of his administration.

As the host of the United Nations, New York City is also home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates.<ref>Society of Foreign Consuls, About us. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

[edit] Economy

360° Panorama of Manhattan seen from the Empire State Building


New York City is a major center for international business and commerce and is one of three "command centers" for the global economy (along with London and Tokyo).<ref>Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, 2nd edition, Princeton University Press.</ref> The city is a major center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in the United States. Other important sectors include the city's television and film industry, second largest in the country after Hollywood; medical research and technology; non-profit institutions and universities; and fashion.

The New York metropolitan area had an estimated gross metropolitan product of $901.3 billion in 2004, the largest in the United States. The city's economy accounts for the majority of the economic activity in the states of New Jersey and New York.<ref>"The role of metro areas in the U.S. economy", Global Insight, 2006-01-13. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

The city's stock exchanges are among the most important in the world. The New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest stock exchange by dollar volume, while the NASDAQ is the world's largest by number of listings. Many major corporations have headquarters in New York; it has more Fortune 500 companies than any other city.<ref>McGeehan, Patrick. "Top executives return offices to Manhattan", New York Times, 2006-07-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.</ref> New York is also unique among American cities for its large number of foreign corporations. One out of every ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.<ref>"Keeping the Economy Growing", Gotham Gazette, 2006-01-23. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

Creative industries, like new media, advertising, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment. High-tech industries like software development, game design, and Internet services are also growing; because of its position at the terminus of the transatlantic fiber optic trunk line New York City is the leading Internet gateway in the United States.<ref>"Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action", New York City Economic Development Corporation, 2005-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

Manufacturing accounts for a large but declining share of employment. Garments, chemicals, metal products, processed foods, and furniture are some of the principal products.<ref>"Protecting and growing New York City's industrial job base", The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business, 2005-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> International shipping has always been a major part of the city's economy because of New York's natural harbor, but with the advent of containerization most cargo shipping has moved from the Brooklyn waterfront across the harbor to the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in New Jersey. Some cargo shipping remains; for example, Brooklyn still handles the majority of cocoa bean imports to the United States.<ref>Century, Douglas. "My Brooklyn; Still a Contender on the Waterfront", New York Times, 1999-03-12. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

See also: List of major corporations based in New York City

[edit] Education

The city's public school system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest in the United States. Over one million students are taught in more than 1,200 separate primary and secondary schools. New York is also home to many major libraries, universities, and research centers.

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions. The city receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities.<ref>"Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan", New York City press release, 2004-11-18. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Rockefeller University.

There are 594,000 university students in New York City, the highest number of any city in the United States.<ref>Template:Cite paper</ref> The City University of New York, the nation's third-largest public university system, provides post-secondary higher education in all five boroughs. There are also many private universities, including Columbia University, a prestigious Ivy League university established in 1754 and the oldest educational institution in the state, and New York University, the largest private, non-profit university in the United States.

The New York Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the country. Its Library for the Humanities research center has 39 million items in its collection, among them the first five folios of Shakespeare's plays, ancient Torah scrolls, and Alexander Hamilton's handwritten draft of the United States Constitution.

[edit] Culture

Writer Tom Wolfe said of New York that "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather." Many major American cultural movements began in the city. The Harlem Renaissance established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was the epicenter of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. Punk rock developed in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has also been a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.

Wealthy industrialists in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that became internationally established. Artists are drawn to the city by opportunity, as well; there are 2,000 arts and cultural non-profits and 500 art galleries of all sizes, and the city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.<ref>"Creative New York", Center for an Urban Future, 2005-12. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.</ref>

The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theatre productions, and in the 1880s New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began showcasing a new stage form that came to be known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, these productions used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. Today these productions are a mainstay of the New York theatre scene. The city's 39 largest theatres (with more than 500 seats) are collectively known as "Broadway," after the major thoroughfare that crosses the Times Square theatre district.

The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, which includes Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Opera, the New York Philharmonic and the New York City Ballet, is the largest performing arts center in the United States.

See also: Broadway theatre, Music of New York City, and List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City

[edit] Media

Image:NYC subway riders with their newspapers.jpg
New York's use of mass transit gives the city a large newspaper readership base.<ref>Ivry, Sara. "Since Riders Had No Subways, Commuter Papers Struggled, Too", New York Times, 2005-12-26. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

New York is a major global center for the television, music, newspaper and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in the United States. Some of the city's media conglomerates include Time Warner, the News Corporation, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom. Three of the "Big Four" record labels are also based in the city. One-third of all independent films in the world are produced in New York. More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city. The book-publishing industry employs about 13,000 people.<ref>"Media and Entertainment", New York City Economic Development Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers, The New York Times (circulation 1.1 million) and the The Wall Street Journal (circulation 2.1 million). Other major newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News (circulation 730,000), The New York Post (circulation 650,000), founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a major ethnic press, with newspapers published in more than twenty languages. El Diario La Prensa (circulation 265,000) is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.<ref>"eCirc", Audit Bureau of Circulations. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> The Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African-American newspaper.

The television industry developed in New York and is a major employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, FOX and NBC, are all headquartered in New York. Many cable channels are based in the city as well, including MTV, BET, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. In 2005 there were more than 100 television shows taped in New York City.<ref>"2005 is banner year for production in New York", The Mayor's Office of Film, Theater and Broadcasting, 2005-12-28. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

New York is also a center for non-commercial media. Public access television began in the city in 1968. WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary provider of national PBS programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.<ref>Template:Cite paper</ref> The City of New York runs NYC-TV that broadcasts several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods.

[edit] Tourism

40 million foreign and American tourists visit New York City each year.<ref>"NYC Statistics", NYC & Company. Retrieved on 2006-08-03.</ref> Major destinations include the Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty, Broadway productions, scores of museums from the El Museo del Barrio to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, the Bronx Zoo and New York Botanical Garden, luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues, and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village and the Tribeca Film Festival. Many of the city's ethnic enclaves, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing, and Brighton Beach are major shopping destinations for first and second generation Americans up and down the East Coast.

New York City has 28,000 acres (113 km²) of parkland and 14 miles (22 km) of public beaches. Manhattan's Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, is the most visited city park in the United States.<ref>"City Park Facts", The Trust for Public Land, Center for City Park Excellence, June 2006. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> Prospect Park in Brooklyn, also designed by Olmsted and Vaux, has a 90 acre (360,000 m²) meadow. Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, the city's third largest, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and 1964 World's Fair.

New York's food culture, influenced by the city's immigrants and large number of dining patrons, is diverse. Jewish and Italian immigrants made the city famous for bagels and New York style pizza. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafels and kebabs standbys of contemporary New York street food. The city is also home to many of the finest haute cuisine restaurants in the United States.<ref>Bleyer, Jennifer. "Kebabs on the Night Shift", The New York Times, 2006-05-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. Collins, Glenn. "Michelin Takes On the City, Giving Some a Bad Taste", New York Times, 2005-11-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

[edit] Sports

View of a night time baseball game at Yankee Stadium Between the New York Yankees and the Minnesota Twins.

New York is home to teams in each of the major American professional sports leagues. Baseball is the city's most closely followed sport. There have been fourteen World Series championship series between New York City teams; such matchups are called Subway Series. The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Yankees and the New York Mets, which enjoy a fierce rivalry. The New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers were each originally based in New York City before relocating to California prior to the addition of the Mets. Today they compete as the San Francisco Giants and the Los Angeles Dodgers, respectively. New York City is also home to two minor league baseball teams, the New York-Penn League's Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees, which are affiliated with the Mets and Yankees, respectively.

In American football the city's teams are the NFL's New York Giants and New York Jets, who share a stadium outside the city limits in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The New York Rangers represent the city in ice hockey, although two other teams are in close proximity of the city, namely the New York Islanders and New Jersey Devils. The National Hockey League is headquartered in Manhattan.

New York has a rich basketball history. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. Rucker Park in Harlem is a celebrated court where many NBA athletes play in the summer league. New York City's NBA team is the New York Knicks.

As a global city, New York supports many events outside the big four American sports, including the U.S. Tennis Open, the New York City Marathon, and many amateur leagues in sports such as soccer, cricket and stickball. The New York Cosmos (1971-1985) was a former franchise in the North American Soccer League, renowned for signing the great Brazilian player Pelé. Red Bull New York, formerly known as the MetroStars, is a professional soccer club based in New Jersey that participates in Major League Soccer.

[edit] Architecture

See also: Tallest buildings in New York City

The skyline of New York is one of the most recognizable in the world. New York actually has three separately recognizable skylines: Midtown Manhattan, Lower Manhattan, and Downtown Brooklyn. New York City has architecturally important buildings in a variety of styles, including French Second Empire (The Kings County Savings Bank Building), gothic revival (the Woolworth Building), Art Deco (the Empire State Building and Chrysler Building), international style (the New School, Seagram Building and Lever House), and post-modern (the AT&T Building). The Condé Nast Building is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.<ref name="greenbuilding" />

The residential parts of the city have a distinctive character from the skyscrapers of the commercial cores that is defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and apartment buildings which were built during the city's rapid expansion from 1870–1930. Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.<ref>B. Diamonstein–Spielvoegel (2005). The Landmarks of New York. Monacelli Press. See also the WPA Guide to New York City.</ref>

[edit] Transportation

Image:Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf.jpg
The Brooklyn Bridge, the world's first steel wire suspension bridge
Image:Grand Central test.jpg
New York is home to the two busiest rail stations in the country, including Grand Central Terminal seen here.

New York City is home to the most complex and extensive transportation network in the United States, with more than 12,000 iconic yellow cabs,<ref>"The State of the NYC Taxi", New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.</ref> 120,000 daily bicyclists,<ref>Schaller, Bruce. "Biking It", Gotham Gazette, 2006-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.</ref> subway, bus and railroad systems, immense airports, landmark bridges and tunnels, ferry service and even an aerial commuter tramway. While nearly 90% of Americans drive to their jobs, only about 30% of New Yorkers do; about one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its suburbs.<ref>"The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region", Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.</ref><ref name="nhts"> (2001) Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.</ref> Data from the 2000 U.S. Census reveals that New York City is the only major city in the United States where more than half of all households do not own a car (the figure is even higher in Manhattan, over 75%; nationally, the rate is 8%).<ref name="census2000" /><ref name="nhts" /> New York's high rate of public transit use and its pedestrian-friendly character makes it one of the most energy-efficient cities in the country. A study by the environmental organization SustainLane found New York to be the city in the United States best able to endure an oil crisis with an extended gasoline price shock in the range of US$3 to US$8 per gallon.<ref>"U.S. Cities’ Preparedness for an Oil Crisis", SustainLane, 2006-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.</ref>

The New York City Subway is the largest subway system in the world when measured by track mileage (656 miles or 1,056 km of mainline track) and the world's fourth largest when measured by annual ridership (1.449 billion passenger trips in 2005).<ref>"About NYC Transit - Subways", MTA New York City Transit. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.</ref> New York City's public bus fleet and vast commuter rail network are the largest in North America. The rail network, which connects the suburbs in the tri-state region to the city, has more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.<ref>"The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region", Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. "About the MTA Long Island Rail Road", Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. In addition to the MTA lines, NJ Transit also operates four lines terminating in New York City.</ref> The commuter rail system converges at the two busiest rail stations in the United States, Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, both in Manhattan.<ref>More than half a million people pass through Grand Central, the main terminus for the Metro North rail system, each day. Grand Central Terminal Page. Retrieved on 2006-07-19. Penn Station, the main station for New York's intercity trains and the regional Long Island Railroad, is Amtrak's busiest station. Amtrak facts. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> Long-haul buses depart from the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the nation's busiest bus station.<ref>"Port Authority Bus Terminal", Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref>

Three major airports serve New York City and its surrounding suburbs: John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) and LaGuardia Airport (LGA), both in Queens, and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) in nearby Newark, New Jersey. About 100 million travelers used these New York-area airports in 2005 as the metropolitan region surpassed Chicago to become the busiest air gateway in the nation.<ref>"Port Authority Airports set all-time Record for Passenger Traffic in 2005", NYC & Company, 2006-01-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.</ref> Rail service is now available to Kennedy Airport via AirTrain JFK. The service connects with the Long Island Rail Road at Jamaica and the city subway system at Howard Beach.

See also: Mass transit in New York City, New York City Subway, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and Long Island Rail Road

[edit] Sister cities

New York City has ten sister cities.<ref>Sister City Program of the City of New York. "NYC's Sister Cities", 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.</ref> The year each relationship was formed is shown in parentheses below.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] Notes


[edit] External links


[edit] Miscellaneous

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