Music of Sudan

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Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan. Beginning with the imposition of strict sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent musicians, like Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin and Mohammed Wardi, fled to Cairo. Traditional music suffered too, with traditional Zar ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated <ref name="roughguide">Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds) with James McConnachie and Orla Duane (2000). Rough Guide to World Music, Vol. 1. Rough Guides Ltd.. 1858286360. - "Yearning to Dance" by Verney, Peter with Helen Jerome and Moawia Yassin, pgs. 672-680</ref>. At the same time, however, the European militaries contributed to the development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. The march March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk.

Sudan is very diverse, with five hundred plus ethnic groups spread across the country's territory, which is the largest in Africa. The country has been a crossroads between North, East and West Africa for hundreds of years, and is inhabited by a mixture of Sub-Saharan Arabs and Africans.

Contents

[edit] Traditional music

[edit] Dervish

The Sufi Dervishes are a mystical sense that use music and dance to achieve a demon-like state in a tradition called zikr. The drumming sessions of the women's zar cult are a prominent part of Dervish music <ref name="roughguide" />. The Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies. Each order or lineage within an order has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, singing, instrumental music, dance, costumes, incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance <ref>Habib Hassan Touma (1996). The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-88-8. pg. 162</ref>. Dhikr in a group is most often done on Thursday and/or Sunday nights as part of the institutional practice of the orders.

[edit] Southern Sudanese folk music

South Sudan has reach folk music that reflect the diverse cultures of the region. For example; the folk music of the Dinka people include poetry, while the Azande are known - beside many other traditions and beliefs - for story-telling that feature a good wizard figure prominently.

Radio Juba, under control of the current Sudanese regime has erased the unique tapes of Yousif Fataki, a renowned southern singer.

[edit] Nuba

The Nuba live between the north and south of Sudan, and have long been caught in the middle of the Sudanese civil war. The traditional band Black Stars are affiliated with the SPLA, while other well-known singers include Jamus, Jelle, Tahir Jezar and Ismael Koinyi <ref name="roughguide" />.

[edit] Haqibah

Modern Northern Sudanese music has its roots in haqibah (pronounced hagee-ba). It originated in the early 1920s, and was originally derived from the Muslim gospel style known as madeeh. Haqibah is essentially an harmonic a cappella and vocal style, with percussion coming from the tambourine-like riq and from other instruments. Occasionally tonal instruments such as the piano and the qanun (a stringed instrument) are used.

[edit] Northern Sudanese lyrical music

Northern Sudan has a tradition of lyrical music that utilizes oblique metaphors, and has historically been used as part of the Sudanese independence movement and in other political movements. The tambour (a lyre) was originally used as accompaniment, but this was replaced by the oud when it was imported from Arabia. The method of playing the oud continues to use a plucking method developed with the tambour, making a distinctive and characteristic sound <ref name="roughguide" />.

In the 1930s, a number of music companies opened in Sudan, among them the Gordon Memorial College Musical company, which included Mohamed Adam Adham, whose Adhamiya was one of the earliest formal Sudanese compositions, and is still often played <ref>Template:Date=December 15</ref>.

The early pioneers were mostly singer-songwriters, including the prolific Karoma, author of several hundred songs, the innovative Ibrahim al-Abadi and Khalil Farah, who was active in the Sudanese independence movement <ref name="roughguide" />. al-Abadi was known for an unorthodox style of fusing tradition wedding poetry with music. Other songwriters of the era included Mohammed Ahmed Sarror, Al-Amin Burhan]], Mohamed Wad Al Faki and Abdallah Abdel Karim <ref name="update">Template:Cite web</ref>. al Faki was one of many musicians from the area around Kabou-shiya, a region known for folk music.

[edit] Modern popular music

Northern Sudanese popular music evolved into what is generally referred to as "post-Haqibah", a style dominating in the 1940s, 50s and 60s. This period was marked by the introduction of tonal instruments from both East and West, such as the violin, accordion, oud, tabla and bongo. A big band style came into existence, mirroring trends in the West. Post-haqibah, like haqibah, was based on the pentatonic scale. Haqibah mixed with Egyptian and European elements is called al-afgani' al-hadith.

The 40s saw an influx of new names because of the rise of Omdurman Radio and World War II. Early performers included Ismail Abdul Mennen, Hassan Atya, Ibrahim Al Kashif and Ahmed al Mustafa. One of the most famous pioneers of this era was Ismael Abdul Queen, who was followed by Ahmed Ibrahim Falah and Ibrahim Alkashif (father of modern singing).

In this respect Ismael Abdul Queen was a pioneer who strived to adapt to the new conditions and desert the old style. He was followed by a poet-singer called Ahmed Ibrahim Falah. But both were soon overtaken by Ibrahim Alkashif who became known as the "Father of modern singing". Al Kashif began to sing under the influence of Haj Mohamed Ahmed Sarour and relied on what Karouma had started, but he renewed singing in three main facets:

The 1960s saw the importation of American pop stars, which had a profound effect on Sudanese musicians like Osman Alamu and Ibrahim Awad, the latter becoming the first sudanese musician to dance onstage <ref name="roughguide" />. From the 1970s to the present, Northern Sudanese music saw a further Westernisation, with the introduction of guitars and brass instruments; guitars came from the south of the country, from the Congolese guitar styles. Congolese music like soukous, as well as Cuban rhumba, exerted a profound influence on Sudanese popular music <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>.

An important shift in modern Sudanese music was introduced by the group Sharhabil and His Band - formed by a group of friends from Omdurman - namely Sharhabil Ahmed, Ali Nur Elgalil Farghali, Kamal Hussain, Mahaddi Ali, Hassan Sirougy and Ahmed Dawood. They introduced modern rhythms relating to popular and soul music using for the first time electric guitars, double bass, and brass instruments, with the emphasis on rhythm section. The lyrics were also informal and popular. Now Sharhabil's band is one of the leading establishments in Sudanese music.

For the first time in the 60s, female singers became socially acceptable with the rise of Mihera bint Abboud, Um el Hassan el Shaygiya and Aisha el Fellatiya, who became famous for performing in front of the Sudan Defence Force during World War 2. In the 1960s, a wave of female duos became prominent, including Sunai el Samar, Sunai Kordofani and Sunai el Nagam, while a few women with highly-charged erotic images found audiences, including Gisma and Nasra. Later prominent female musicians include the band Balabil, who formed in the early 1970s and became very popular across East Africa. The 80s also saw the rise of Hanan Bulu-bulu, a singer whose performances were sensual and provocative; she was eventually detained by the authorities and beaten <ref name="roughguide" />.

Introduced genres have had a profound effect on modern Sudanese music, especially British brass military bands, which attracted many young recruits who carried the model to recreational music. The result was a kind of dance music referred to as jazz, though unrelated to the American style of jazz, similar to analogous styles throughout East Africa. Prominent big bandleaders in the modern era include Abdel Gadir Salim and Abdel Aziz El Mubarak, both of whom have achieved some international fame <ref name="roughguide" />.

The imposition of sharia law in 1989 came along with the imprisonment of Mahjoub Sharif, a singer and songwriter who continued writing even in prison. The singer Abu Araki al-Bakheit was banned from performing political songs in the early 1990s, but he claimed to prefer remaining silent than not performing the objectionable material; the news of his retirement, prompted intense reactions from his fans, which eventually led him to continue performing in defiance of authorities. The Southern Sudanese celebrated singer Yousif Fataki had all his tapes erased by Radio Umdurman - the official government media. Southern Sudanese popular music was important in the 1970s and '80s, with the capital Juba hosting nightclub bands like Rejaf Jazz and the Skylarks <ref name="roughguide" />.

Other popular imported musicians included reggae superstar Bob Marley and American pop singer Michael Jackson, while the funk of James Brown inspired Sudanese performers like Kamal Kayla, to adopt the same style. Other modern popular performers include Abdel Karim el Kabli, with a notably long and diverse history of performance, Mohammed el Amin and Mohammed Wardi <ref name="roughguide" />.

[edit] Southern Sudanese modern music

The city of Juba, the capital of southern Sudan, was home to the thriving nightlife prior to the current strife in that area. Top local bands of the 1970s and 80s included the Skylarks and Rejaf Jazz <ref name="update" />.

[edit] Modern tribal music

The Dinka, on the front lines between the north and the south of Sudan, have retained a vibrant folk tradition. The musical Kambala, a harvest festival, is still a major part of Nuba culture. The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) include a group called the Black Stars, an unit dedicated to "cultural advocacy and performance". Members include the guitarist and singer Ismael Koinyi, as well as Jelle, Jamus and Tahir Jezar <ref name="update" />.

[edit] References

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