Music of New York City
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The music of New York City is a diverse and important field in the world of music; no American city has as central a place in music history as New York City. It has long been a thriving home for jazz, rock and the blues, and is the birthplace of salsa and hip hop. The city's culture, a melting pot of nations from around the world, has produced vital folk music scenes like Irish-American music and Jewish klezmer. Beginning with the rise of popular sheet music in the early 20th century, New York's Broadway musical theater and Tin Pan Alley's songcraft, New York has been a major part of the American music industry.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
Music author Richie Unterberger has described the New York music scene, and the city itself, as "(i)mmense, richly diverse, flashy, polyethnic, and engaged in a never-ending race for artistic and cosmopolitan supremacy".<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref> Despite the city's historic importance in the development of American music, there are those who feel that its status has declined in recent year, due to a combination of increased corporate control over music media, an increase in the cost-of-living and the rise of local music scenes whose success is facilitated by the cheap communication provided by the Internet <ref>Gotham Gazette The Gotham Gazette specifically notes the rise of Pitchfork, based out of Chicago, as a source for New York music info; since Pitchfork is not a New York-based company, this is held to be evidence of a decline in New York's importance (note: Pitchfork's popularity is cited to the New York Observer)</ref>.
 Institutions and venues
Main article: New York City arts organizations
New York has been a center for the American music industry since the earliest phonograph records in the early 20th century. Since then, a number of companies and organizations have set up headquarters in New York, from the Tin Pan Alley publishers and Broadway to modern independent rock and hip hop labels, non-profit organizations and others. Many music magazines are headquartered in New York, including Blender Magazine, Punk Magazine, Spin and Rolling Stone.<ref name="Gotham">Template:Cite web</ref>
Carnegie Hall is one of the most important music venues in the world, especially for classical music; the Hall is noted for its excellent acoustics. The venue was named for philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, but fell into disrepair in the 20th century until being renovated between 1983 and 1995. Radio City Music Hall was also a major venue after opening 1932, and was also recently renovated; it is now a significant architectural attraction as an example of the Art Deco style.<ref name="RadioMusicHall">Template:Cite web</ref>
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, located in New York, is the largest performing arts center in the world and the Center is home to twelve resident organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York Philharmonic, New York City Ballet, New York City Opera, Juilliard School, Lincoln Center Theater, and Jazz at Lincoln Center.<ref name="Lincoln">Template:Cite web</ref> The New York Philharmonic, which performs at Avery Fisher Hall, is the oldest orchestra in the United States, founded in 1842. As of 2005, Lorin Maazel is the conductor. The Philharmonic has made more than 500 recordings since 1917, and was one of the first to broadcast live performances, beginning in 1922.<ref name="Philharmonic">Template:Cite web</ref> The New York Philharmonic produced celebrated composers like George Bristow and Theodore Thomas; Bristow was a fiercely nationalistic composer who left the Philharmonic because he felt it did not glorify American music adequately, a situation he, and later Thomas, attempted to rectify.<ref name="Ferris">Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5.</ref>
Other institutions and organizations in New York include the Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York City Ballet and the Jazz Foundation of America. The Apollo Theater has long been a place for African American performers to begin their careers; it has such an iconic status that Congress has declared it a national landmark. The New York club scene is an important part of the city's music scene, birthplace to many styles of music from disco to punk rock; some of these clubs, like Studio 54, Max's Kansas City, Mercer Arts Center and CBGB's have reached an iconic status across the United States. New York is home to several major jazz clubs, including Birdland, Sweet Basil, Village Vanguard and Blue Note, the latter being one of the premier spots for jazz lovers. The Greenwich Village folk scene is home to venues like the long-standing landmark The Bottom Line. New York's rock scene includes clubs like Irving Plaza and Maxwell's, while the city's avant-gard "downtown" scene includes The Kitchen, Roulette and Knitting Factory. The Latin and world music scene features venues like S.O.B.'s and the Wetlands Preserve.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
 Festivals, holidays and parades
New York City has a long history of using music in various festivals and parades, though the vibrant local music scene has meant that festivals aren't as big a draw as in many cities, since residents are near major sources of live music all the time. The diverse groups of immigrants living in New York have each brought with them their own holiday traditions. As a result, major festivals of music in New York include the Chinese New Year celebrations, Pulaski Day Parade and the St. Patrick's Day Parade run by the Ancient Order of Hibernians; New York is home to the largest St. Patrick's Day Parade in the world, a tradition that has continued since 1762 due to the large Irish population in New York. Irish folk music and folk-rock are the major styles at the two-day Guinness Fleadh festival. The College Music Journal Network's annual Music Marathon has been held since 1980, providing a major showcase for new music. The Central Park SummerStage, a series of free concerts hosting performers of many kinds, is also a major part of New York's summer music scene, which also includes the July Intel New York Music Festival. There are numerous New York jazz festivals, including the Texaco New York Jazz Festival, Panasonic Village Jazz Festival and the JVC Jazz Festival.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
 Music history
The first music performed in the area that is now New York City was that of the Lenape Native Americans who lived there. However, little is known of these peoples' musical lives. The earliest documented music comes after the foundation of the city (then called New Amsterdam) by Dutch explorers, who controlled the area until the British conquest in 1664. The music of New York City's colonial era was primarily British in character, gradually evolving as the United States became independent and developed a distinct culture; the influence of African American music became very important as the city's African American population increased throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.
By the 1830s, New York City was gradually becoming the most important cultural center in the United States, and was a home for many varieties of folk, popular and classical music. Late in the 19th century, many influential conservatories and venues were founded, including the world-famous Metropolitan Opera House and Carnegie Hall. New York's status as a center for musical development continued into the 20th century, leading to the foundation of many companies associated with the American music industry in the city. These companies included sheet music publishers, based around an area called Tin Pan Alley, and later record labels and other organizations and institutions. The rise of the Broadway theatres began in the early part of the century; the songs from Broadways musicals became some of the earliest American popular music, and eventually came to be treated as pop standards.
 Early history
As the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, New York City was populated by Dutch settlers who left little musical trace behind, excepting some songs ilke "Dutch Prayer of Thanksgiving", "Rosa" and "The Little Dustman". Under English rule, sea shanties, open-air singing gardens, sometimes with fireworks, ballads and other Anglo-Irish traditions became widespread. New York's colonial ballads were often topical, concerning the events of the day and the local gossip. Beginning in 1732, ballads were placed together with a story tying them together, forming a performance genre called the ballad opera, the best-known of which is The Beggar's Opera, first performed in 1752. The same period, the early to mid-18th century, also saw the first concerts held in New York City, and the arrival of William Tuckey, who helped establish church music in the city.<ref name=Burke>Burk, Cassie, Virginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, America's Musical Heritage</ref>
New York's rise as the intellectual and artistic center of the United States occurred in the 1830s. This period, which coincided with an upsurge in American nationalism, saw major growth in choral music, with musical societies being formed in most major cities, like New York; these choral societies remained a fixture of American music throughout the 19th century. Military bands were also common throughout the country, as was singing family troupes like the Hutchinson Family. Later still, minstrel shows, comic and musical acts performed by whites in blackface, spread across the country. In New York, Italian operas were very popular throughout much of the century.<ref name="Ferris">Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5.</ref>
Near the end of the 19th century, modern conservatories opened in many cities, and New York became the home of the Metropolitan Opera House in 1882 and Carnegie Hall in 1891, the latter's opening being marked by an appearance by the famed Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. In 1892, Antonín Dvořák became Director of the National Conservatory of Music. Dvořák, a Bohemian composer, was fascinated with Native and African American folk music, and he was enthusiastic about encouraging a nationalist American field of music that utilized those fields. Dvořák only stayed on for three years before returning to Bohemia, though he influenced later composers like his pupil, the African American composer Harry Thacker Burleigh.<ref name="Ferris">Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5.</ref>
George Bristow was an important composer of the latter 19th century. He was a violinist with the New York Philharmonic, later conducting an orchestra called the Harmonic Society. He attempted to popularize an indigenous American sound in his music, using nationalist elements like a Native American melody in his Symphony No. 4. Theodore Thomas also worked at the New York Philharmonic before forming the New York Symphony Orchestra. He hired many of the best performers of the day in an attempt to lure in audiences, and he promoted a more casual atmosphere to encourage attendance and enthusiasm.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
 Classical and art music history
New York's position as a center for European classical music can be traced back to the early 19th century. The New York Philharmonic, formed in 1842, did much to help establish the city's reputation. The first two major New York composers were William Fry and George Bristow, both of whom were involved in a well-known 1854 controversy over the Philharmonic's programming choices. The controversy consisted of a series of letters published in the Musical World and Times following a poor review of Fry's Santa Claus Symphony. Fry's first letter, responding angrily to the review, claimed that the Philharmonic had played no pieces by American composers, to which Bristow responded that the Philharmonic had played one piece, an overture he had composed. Henry C. Timm, one of the founders of the Philharmonic, responded by noting a number of recently-composed works.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
Both Fry and Bristow, despite their support for American compositions, were very European in style. Fry's most notable composition was the opera Leonora, which received mixed reviews upon its opening and was criticized for its debt to Vincenzo Bellini's bel canto style. Bristow was also very European in his style, and was a violinist and conductor with the Philharmonic until the 1854 controversy, though he later rejoined. His most important work was the opera Rip Van Winkle, and was very popular at the time; most influentially, Rip Van Winkle used an American folktale rather than European imitations.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
The New York native Edward MacDowell was a major late 19th century composer, though he spent most of his productive time in Boston. His first concerto was premiered in New York in 1888, and he returned the following year to premier another concerto. MacDowell eventually began using elements of American folk music in his compositions, especially the Woodland Sketches. The Bohemian composer Antonín Dvořák came to New York in 1892 to head the National Conservatory. A fervent nationalist, Dvořák used the folk music of his native land in his music, and encouraged American composers to do the same. One of the Conservatory's students, the African American Harry Burleigh, introduced him to the songs of the minstrel shows and spirituals, and Dvořák was deeply moved, enough to write a well-known essay in an 1895 issue of Harper's declaring that American composers should use the diverse folk elements of their country in their compositions.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
In the early 20th century, the New York classical music scene included Charles Griffes, originally from Elmira, New York, who began publishing his most innovative material in 1914. His collaboration with other area performers and composers on The Kairn of Koridwen was an early attempt to use musical themes adopted from non-Western cultures, specifically, Japanese and Javanese music. He was to continue in this vein with the score for Rupert Brooke's "Wai Kiki", the ballet Sho-Jo, or — the Spirit of Wine, A Symbol of Happiness and his orchestral composition The Pleasure-Dome of Kubla Khan. Besides Griffes, New York composers included Marion Bauer, Leo Ornstein and Rubin Goldmark,<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref> all three of which were either Jewish immigrants or the children of Jewish immigrants.
The best-known New York composer, indeed, the best-known American classical composer of any kind, was George Gershwin. Gershwin was a songwriter with Tin Pan Alley and the Broadway theatres, and his works were strongly influenced by jazz, or rather the precursors to jazz that were extant during his time. It is not clear that he was a classical musician, though neither is it clear that he worked in jazz, popular music or any other field — he primarily synthesized and utilized elements of many styles, including the music of New York's Yiddish theatre, vaudeville, ragtime, operetta, jazz, Tin Pan Alley and Broadway songs, the music of the Gullah people and the impressionist and post-Romantic music of European composers. Some of his most famous compositions were the Rhapsody in Blue and Concerto in F, both of which utilized jazz idioms. Gershwin's work made American classical music more focused, and attracted an unheard of amount of international attention <ref> Struble, pg. 122 . After Gershwin, American classical music became focused as it had never been focused before. And the world began to sit up and listen.</ref>.
Following Gershwin, the first major composer was Aaron Copland from Brooklyn, who used elements of American folk music, though it remained European in technique and form. His works included the Organ Symphony (which was well-received, earning him comparisons to Stravinsky), the jazz-affected Music for the Theatre, the music for the ballet Appalachian Spring and the Piano Variations. Later, he turned to the ballet and then serial music.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
The early to mid 20th century New York classical music scene also produced composers like Roger Sessions, an academically oriented composer known for operas like Motezuma. The similarly academic William Schuman became known for writing symphonies like Symphony No. 2, New England Triptych and the Third Symphony; Schuman also became president of Juilliard, changing the school by forming the Juilliard String Quartet and merging the Institute of Musical Art with the Juilliard Graduate School, as well as hiring teachers like Williams Bergsma, Peter Mennin and Hugo Weisgall, who went on to teach future luminaries like Steve Reich and Philip Glass.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
In the middle of the 20th century, the most influential New York composers included the Massachusetts native and conductor and composer Leonard Bernstein, known for his works Prelude, Fugue and Riffs, Serenade, Chichester Psalms and the musicals On the Town and West Side Story. Another major composer was Elliott Carter, whom John Warthen Struble claimed would likely be remembered as "the most significant of the mid-20th century... composers [because he] reconceived and restructured the fundamental language of Western art music in evolving his powerful personal style... his music has earned immense respect from colleagues of virtually every esthetic stripe, as well as three generations of performing musicians and audiences". Carter's compositions included the Wind Quintet and the Sonata for Cello and Piano. In addition to Carter and Bernstein, in the mid-20th century, New York produced the film composer Bernard Herrmann, Gunther Schuller and serialist Leon Kirchner.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
Many of the later 20th century composers in various modernist and minimalist styles came from outside of New York City, such as John Cage from Los Angeles, though many studied, performed or conducted in New York, the center for American music. John Corigliano, however, is a New York native who has worked exclusively in tonal idioms for most of his career. Steve Reich innovated a technique known as phasing, in which two musical activities are begun simultaneously and repeated, gradually drifting out of sync with each other in a natural evolution; Reich was also very interested in non-Western music, incorporating African rhythmic techniques in his compositions Drumming.<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref>
Most recently, New York has become home to a Manhattan-based scene sometimes vaguely called New Music. These composers and performers are strongly influenced by the minimalist works of Philip Glass, a Baltimore native based out of New York, Meredith Monk and others. The most famous person from this scene is easily John Zorn, often cited as a jazz musician though he works in many fields and idioms. Others include Arto Lindsay, John Lurie, Laurie Anderson and Bill Laswell.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
 Popular music
New York is the center of the American music industry, and by extension, is one of the major centers for popular music worldwide. The city attained an iconic musical status in the early 20th century. Later, New York retained its position as the major center for the American music industry, despite the rise of other cities like Chicago, Los Angeles, Nashville, Tennessee|Nashville]], and San Francisco
The African American genre of jazz was closely associated with New York by the middle of the 20th century, when a number of avant-garde performers helped created styles like hard bop and free jazz. Later still, New York was the major American home for the punk rock and New Wave movements, and was the scene for the invention of both African American hip hop music and Latino salsa music. Musicians from New York have also dominated the Jewish-American klezmer scene, the Greenwich Village old-time music revival, and the straight 1960s pop music exemplified by the Brill Building sound.
 Tin Pan Alley
Main article: Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley was a center for music publishing around the turn of the 20th century. Numerous professional songwriters lived in the area, churning out songs ready for mainstream America during a time that music, like other aspects of American culture, was becoming a national rather than a regional affair.<ref name="Clarke">Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3.</ref> Tin Pan Alley was originally in an area called Union Square, and it had become the major center for music publishing by the mid-1890s.<ref name="Ewen">Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall.</ref> The songwriters of this era wrote formulaic songs, many of them sentimental ballads <ref>Ewen, pg. 94 (T)hese publishers devised formulas by which songs could be produced with speed and dispatch... Songs were now to be produced from a serviceable matrix, and issued in large quantities: stereotypes for foreign songs, Negro songs, humorous ditties, and, most important of all, sentimental ballads.</ref>. Some of the most notable publishers included Willis Woodward, the Witmark house of publishing, Charles K. Harris, and Edward B. Marks and Joseph W. Stern. Stern and Marks began writing together as amateurs in 1894, with "The Little Lost Child"; the song became a hit after it attracted the attention of popular stage performer Della Fox. However, Paul Dresser was, in the words of David Ewen, the "richest contributor of sentimental ballads to Union Square". He was an original composer, less maudlin, less cloyingly sentimental and less cliché-ridden than his contemporaries <ref> Ewen, pg. 98 Less disposed toward clichés than so many of his rivals, elss inclined to stretch an emotion to the point of maudlin and cloying sentimentality, Dresser was a composers whose finest ballads have a winning charm and a lingering fragrance.</ref>.
In addition to the popular, mainstream ballads and other clean-cut songs, some Tin Pan Alley publishers focused on rough songs like "Drill Ye Tarriers" in 1888, believed to have been written by an unskilled laborer turned stage performer named Thomas F. Casey. Coon songs were another important part of Tin Pan Alley, derived from the watered-down songs of the minstrel show with the "verve and electricity" brought by the "assimilation of the ragtime rhythm". The first popular coon song was "New Coon in Town", introduced in 1883, and was followed by a wave of coon shouters like Ernest Hogan and May Irwin <ref>Ewen, pg. 101 and Clarke, pg. 62Ewen attributes "New Coon in Town" to Paul Allen, though Clarke attributes it to J. S. Putnam, though both agree on the year, 1883</ref>.
 Musical theatre
The early 20th century also saw the growth of Broadway theatre, a group of theatres specializing in musicals. Broadway became on the preeminent locations for musical theater in the world, and produced a body of songs that led Donald Clarke to call the era (ca. 1914 to 1950), the golden age of songwriting. The need to adapt enjoyable songs to the constraints of a theater and a plot enabled and encouraged a growth in songwriting and the rise of composers like George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Irving Berlin and Jerome Kern. Most of these songwriters were Jewish, descended from Jews who fled the persecution of the Russian Empire.<ref name="Clarke">Clarke, The Rise and Fall of Popular Music</ref>
Professional Yiddish theater in New York began in 1882 with a troupe founded by Boris Thomashefsky. The plays in the late 19th century were realistic, while in the beginning of the 20th century, they became more political and artistic in orientation. Some performers were well-respected enough to move back and forth between the Yiddish theatre and Broadway, including Bertha Kalich and Jacob Adler. Some of the major composers included Abraham Goldfaden, Joseph Rumshinsky and Sholom Secunda,<ref name="Struble">Struble, The History of American Classical Music</ref> while playwrights included David Pinski, Solomon Libin, Jacob Gordin and Leon Kobrin.
 Blues and jazz
The New York blues was a type of blues music, characterized by significant jazz influences and a more modernized, urban feel than the country blues. It arose in New York City in the early part of the 20th century, and quickly spread to other urban areas and, often, more affluent listeners than country blues, which is distinctively rural in nature. Prominent musicians from this field include Lionel Hampton and Joe Turner.
In New York City, jazz was fused with stride (an advanced form of ragtime) and became highly evolved. Fletcher Henderson's jazz orchestra, first appearing in 1923, included Coleman Hawkins and later, Louis Armstrong, became wildly popular and helped invent swing music. Though Henderson was among the first major New York jazz musicians, he was not as able to adapt to the rapidly changing style as some of his contemporaries, like Duke Ellington. When Ellington moved to New York City, he inaguarated a legion of jazz musicians that did the same and moved the center of jazz's development from Chicago to New York.
The style that developed from New York's big jazz bands became known as swing music; it was a very danceable and catchy style, played originally by large black orchestras. Later, white bands led by people like Jimmy Dorsey and Benny Goodman began to dominate. These large orchestras produced a number of instrumentalists that had a profound effect on the later evolution of jazz, including Coleman Hawkin's tenor saxophone innovations, electric guitarist Charlie Christian and improvisational Lester Young. Star vocalists also emerged, mainly women like the bluesy Billie Holiday and the scat singer Ella Fitzgerald.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
New York's jazz scene was the home of bebop, which evolved over many years and reached its full identity in the mid-1940s. Charlie Christian, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk were among the major innovators of the style. Bebop "polarized listers, critics and musicians alike" because it differed from swing in many important ways, including a lack of typical riffs and danceable beats, the use of melodic progression and the chords as the basis for all soloing and improvising.
In the 1950s, jazz began to diversify into a number of new genres, spread out into many cities. The West Coast became a home for cool jazz, though the style's major innovator was New York-based Miles Davis. New York was also a major center for hard bop, and was home to Sonny Rollins and Art Blakely. Late in the 1950s, the Los Angeles-based Ornette Coleman moved to New York, bringing with him the nascent style of free jazz. He was later joined by a number of others, most famously including John Coltrane; Coltrane and his contemporaries, like Albert Ayler and Sun Ra.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
The last few decades have seen a further diffusion of jazz from New York and other major long-time capitals, to cities and regions across the United States and the world. Many New York jazz performers during this period played fusions of jazz with rock and other styles; among the earliest of these modern musicians was Carla Bley, cofounder of the Jazz Composers Orchestra Association, an independent distribution company for avant-garde and jazz artists. The city has also been home to the well-known modern performer Wynton Marsalis and the large M-Base Collective, as well as people like John Zorn who use jazz as a prominent part of their experimental music in many different styles.<ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, pgs. 1-65</ref>
 Greenwich Village
Main article: Greenwich Village
Beginning in the 1940s, New York City was the center for a roots revival of American folk music. Many New Yorkers, especially young people, became interested in blues, Appalachian folk music and other roots styles. In Greenwich Village, many of these people gathered; the area became a hotbed of American folk music as well as leftist political activism.
The performers associated with the Greenwich Village scene, many of whom were not originally from New York, had sporadic mainstream success in the 1940s and 50s; some, like Peter Seeger and the Almanac Trio, did well, but most were confined to local coffeehouses and other venues. Performers like Dave Van Ronk and Joan Baez helped expand the scene by appealing to college students, while Bob Dylan became a mainstream folk-rock star in the 1960s.
 Disco and house
Disco is an up-tempo style of dance music that originated in the early 1970s, with its center in the United States in New York. As discotheques grew more popular later in the decade, they began moving to larger venues. Many of these were in New York, including Paradise Garage and Studio 54.
In the early 1980s, house music, a direct descendent of disco, was forged in the underground clubs of Chicago and New York. The common element of most house music is a 4/4 beat generated by a drum machine or other electronic means (such as a sampler), together with a solid (usually also electronically generated) bassline. Upon this foundation are added electronically generated sounds and samples of music such as jazz, blues and synth pop.
Salsa is a style of Latin music that incorporates multiple styles and variations. It was developed by mid-1970s groups of New York City-area Cuban and Puerto Rican immigrants to the United States, and stylistic descendants like 1980s salsa romantica </ref>. Salsa, along with other Latin American genres, has become extremely popular in New York City. Latin dancing is also very popular.
 Hip hop
- For more details on this topic, see East Coast hip hop.
New York City is a prominent part of hip hop music. The genre began there at neighborhood block parties when DJs, like DJ Kool Herc, began isolating percussion breaks in funk and R&B songs, eventually rapping while the audience danced. For many years, New York was the only city with a major hip hop scene, and all of the early recordings came from New York. People like Kurtis Blow and LL Cool J brought hip hop to the mainstream for the first time, while so-called East Coast rap was perfected by artists including Eric B. & Rakim.
By the early 1990s, however, West Coast rap, from Los Angeles, was gaining national fame. In 1992, Dr. Dre's The Chronic became a national hit and made the West Coast the most popular center of hip hop. The East Coast, however, included multi-platinum artists like Puff Daddy, Jay-Z and Notorious B.I.G., along with critically acclaimed acts like Wu-Tang Clan, Nas, Big L, and Busta Rhymes.
 New Wave
 Punk and alternative rock
New York City had the earliest documented punk rock scene in the United States. Drawing on local influences like The Velvet Underground, Richard Hell and the New York Dolls, punk music developed at clubs such as CBGB and Max's Kansas City. Patti Smith, Talking Heads and other artsy New Wave artists were popular in the mid to late 1970s, as bands like the Ramones were establishing an American punk rock sound.
In the early 1980s, hardcore punk was developing primarily in Southern California and Washington, D.C.. The New York hardcore scene was founded by 1981, and bands like Reagan Youth, and Kraut led the initial charge. By 1985, the New York hardcore scene had become inhabited by straight edgeers and skinheads, including bands like Agnostic Front, Cro-Mags, Heart Attack, Kraut, Youth of Today and Murphy's Law.
With the collapse of the CBGB hardcore matinees, due to constant violence, a more activist DIY scene began to develop around ABC No Rio and the squats of the Lower East Side. One of the bands that developed from this was the punk/ska band Choking Victim, which evolved into Leftöver Crack.
New York has been at the center of the United States ska punk scene since the foundation of Moon Ska Records in the early 1980s by Robert 'Bucket' Hingley. Some of the bands to come from this scene were Skinnerbox, The Toasters, Agent 99, and Stubborn All-Stars. The record label released bands from many different cities, such as Floridians Less Than Jake.
 Alternative rock
- Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 09229157177.
- Burk, Cassie, Virginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips (1942). America's Musical Heritage. Laidlaw Brothers.
- Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3.
- Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall.
- Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5.
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- Template:Cite web
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- Unterberger, Richie (1999). Music USA: The Rough Guide. The Rough Guides, 1-65. ISBN 1-85828-421-X.
 See also
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