Mount Elbrus

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For the Soviet-era computer, see Elbrus (computer).
For the R-300 Elbrus missile, see Scud.
Mount Elbrus

<tr><td style="border-top:1px solid #999966; text-align: center;" colspan=2>Image:Elbrus.jpg
Two peaks of Mount Elbrus</td></tr>

Elevation 5,642 metres (18,510 feet)
Location Russia

<tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Range</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">Caucasus</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Prominence</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">4,741 m Ranked 10th</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Coordinates</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">43°21′18″N, 42°26′21″E</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Type</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">Stratovolcano (dormant)</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Age of rock</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">Unknown</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Last eruption</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">50 AD ± 50 years</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">First ascent</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">22 July 1829 by Khilal Khachirov - Karachay (Alan) by nationality</td></tr><tr><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; border-right: 1px solid #999966; background: #e7dcc3; width: 85px">Easiest route</td><td style="border-top: 1px solid #999966; width: 220px">basic snow/ice climb</td></tr>

Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a peak located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Russia, near the border of Georgia. A stratovolcano that has lain dormant for about 2,000 years, it is the highest mountain in the Caucasus which belongs to Europe (if the border between Europe and Asia is located south of Mount Elbrus—at the Kura and Qvirila rivers). Mt Elbrus (west summit) stands at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) and can be considered to be the highest mountain in Europe. The east summit is slightly lower: 5,621 m (18,442 ft).

Contents

[edit] Etymology

It is an Iranian name that as same as Alborz is consist of:

[edit] Location

Elbrus stands 20 km (12 mi) north of the main range of the Greater Caucasus and 65 km (40 mi) south-southwest of the Russian town of Kislovodsk. Its permanent icecap feeds 22 glaciers which in turn give rise to the Baksan, Kuban, and Malka Rivers.

[edit] History

The ancients knew the mountain as Strobilus, the Latin word for pine cone, derived from the Greek word strobilos, meaning a twisted object, a long established botanical term that describes the shape of the volcano's summit. Myth held that here Zeus had chained Prometheus, the titan who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to ancient man, a clear reference to the volcano's historical activity. The lower of the two summits was first ascended in 1868 by Douglas Freshfield, A. W. Moore, and C. C. Tucker, and the higher (by about 40 m) in 1874 by a British expedition led by F. Crauford Grove. During the early years of the Soviet Union, mountaineering became a popular sport of the masses, and there was tremendous traffic on the mountain. In the winter of 1936, a very large group of inexperienced Komsomol members attempted the mountain, and ended up suffering many fatalities when they slipped on the ice and fell to their deaths. The Germans briefly occupied the area surrounding the mountain during World War II with 10,000 soldiers of a Gebirgsjäger (Mountain Troop) division. A possibly apocryphal story tells of a Soviet pilot being given a medal for bombing the main mountaineering hut, Priyut 11 ("Refuge of the 11"), while it was occupied. He was then later nominated for a medal for not hitting the hut, but instead the fuel supply, leaving the hut standing for future generations. When news reached Adolf Hitler that a detachment of mountaineers was sent by the general officer commanding the German division to summit Elbrus and plant the swastika flag at its top, he reportedly flew into a rage, called the achievement a "stunt" and threatened to court martial the general.<ref>Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: Nemesis 1936-1945.</ref>

The Soviet Union encouraged ascents of Elbrus, and in 1956 it was climbed en masse by 400 mountaineers to mark the 400th anniversary of the incorporation of Kabardino-Balkaria, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in which Elbrus was located.

From 1959 through 1976, a cable car system was built in stages which can take visitors as high as 3,800 meters. There are a wide variety of routes up the mountain, but the normal route, which is free of crevasses, continues more or less straight up the slope from the end of the cable car system. During the summer, it is not uncommon for 100 people to be attempting the summit via this route each day. The climb is not technically difficult, but it is physically arduous because of the elevations and the frequent strong winds. The average annual death toll on Elbrus is 15-30, primarily due to many unorganized and poorly equipped attempts to summit the mountain [1].
Image:Albours.jpg
Old view of Elbrus from Kislovodsk.

Mount Elbrus should not be confused with the Alborz (also called Elburz) mountains in Iran, which also derive their name from the legendary mountain Harā Bərəzaitī in Persian mythology.

Parts of this article are from the NASA Earth Observatory; [2]

In 1997 a Land Rover Defender drove to the summit, breaking into the Guinness Book of Records.

[edit] Reference

[edit] External links


bs:Elbrus

bg:Елбрус cs:Elbrus da:Elbrus de:Elbrus et:Elbrus es:Monte Elbrus fr:Elbrouz gl:Elbrus - Эльбрус ko:엘브루스 산 hr:Elbrus it:Elbrus he:אלברוס ka:იალბუზი la:Mons Elbrus lt:Elbrusas nl:Elbroes ja:エルブルス山 no:Elbrus pl:Elbrus pt:Monte Elbrus rm:Elbrus ru:Эльбрус sk:Elbrus (vrch) fi:Elbrus sv:Elbrus vi:Elbrus tg:Кӯҳи Элбрус tr:Elbrus uk:Ельбрус zh:厄尔布鲁士峰

Mount Elbrus

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