Migration

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For the human context, see Human migration
Image:Human mtDNA migration.png
mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations.

Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. In most cases organisms migrate to avoid local shortages of food, usually caused by winter. Animals may also migrate to a certain location to breed, as is the case with some fish.

The species that periodically migrate are called migratory, those that do not are called resident (or sedentary).

Bird migration is common. The longest known migration of a bird is that of the Arctic Tern, which migrates from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back each year. Flyways are routes that certain bird species take to migrate.

Whales and other animals, such as gnus, butterflies, moths, salmon, eels, and lemmings are also known to migrate. The periodic migration of plagues of locusts is a phenomenon recorded since Biblical times. Occasionally (and usually unexplainedly) an animal may deviate markedly from its customary migration. A widely publicized incident involved Humphrey the whale, a humpback whale who errantly entered San Francisco Bay.

Human migrations also happen on a large scale, in history and in modern times. Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles.

In archaeology, migrationism describes an interpretative framework where all major cultural changes are explained by large-scale movements of people.

Modern transport, particularly the volume and speed of air transport has facilitated the rapid migration of bacteria and viruses which cause diseases. One of the earliest examples is the infamous plague epidemics or "Black Death" which arrived in Europe along trade routes via the Middle East from the Orient. More recently, virulent strains of influenza and AIDS.

The term "migration" may also be applied to the movement of non-living things:

  • In geophysics, migration is a process which keeps in account the correct positions of samples in sections with dipping reflectors and structural complexity.
  • A piercing migration is said to occur when a piece of body jewelry, during or after healing, shifts or is rejected by the body.
  • In computer clusters, process migration refers to what happens when one instance of a program is being moved from one of the cluster computers to another.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

es:Migración animal fr:Migration animale he:נדידה nl:migratie ja:渡り pl:Migracja pt:Migração fi:Migraatio kn:ವಲಸೆ

Migration

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