Middle East

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The traditional Middle East and the G8's Greater Middle East.
Image:Middle east graphic 2003.jpg
Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East.

The Middle East is a historical and cultural region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition; it traditionally includes countries or regions in Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa.


[edit] Characteristics

In the Western world, the Middle East is generally thought of as a predominantly Arab community, although this is not necessarily true of all states in the region. The ethnic groups in the region may include Africans, Arabs, Assyrians, Armenians, Azeris, Berbers, Chaldeans, Druze, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Kurds, Maronites, Persians, Tajiks, Turks and Turkmen. The main language, by far the most widely-spoken, is Arabic in its numerous varieties; other languages spoken in the region include Armenian, Assyrian (a form of Aramaic), Azeri, the Berber languages, Hebrew, Kurdish, Persian, Turkish, Greek, and Urdu (Greater Middle East). The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the derived noun is Middle-Easterner.

Many Western definitions of the "Middle East" — in both established reference books and common usage — define the region as 'nations in Southwest Asia, from Iran to Egypt' <ref> "From Iran to Egypt" [1],[2],www.meactivist.org/graphics/pdfs/Mighty%20Fortresses.pdf,[3],[4],www.springerlink.com/index/K667233G528T7R13.pdf </ref> Egypt, with its Sinai Peninsula in Asia, is often considered part of the 'Middle East', although most of the country lies geographically in North Africa. North African nations without Asian links, such as Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, are increasingly being called North African — as opposed to Middle Eastern (Iran to Egypt-Asia) — by international media outlets. However, North African countries can also be considered part of the Middle East. Somalia, in the Horn of Africa, is also considered part of the "Greater Middle East".

One widely used definition of "Middle East" is that of the airline industry,[5] maintained by the IATA standards organization. This definition — as of early 2006 — includes Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza strip), Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen [6]. This definition is used in world-wide airfare and tax calculations for passengers and cargo.

[edit] History

Image:Middle east.jpg
A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East

The Middle East (specifically, the Fertile Crescent) was one of the first centers of agriculture (see history of agriculture), and therefore of civilization. It lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of the Bahá'í Faith, Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Yezidi and Zoroastrianism. The Garden of Eden was also thought to be located between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, making the Middle East the cradle of civilization, as God created the first man and the first woman in the Garden of Eden. Thus, throughout its history it has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. Starting in the 20th century, its significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. The region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict and war. After the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire the modern Middle East was formed.

See also: List of conflicts in the Middle East.

[edit] Geography

Further information: Geography of Asia

Middle East defines a cultural area, so it does not have precise borders. The most common and highly arbitrary definition includes: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and Palestinian Territories. Iran is often the eastern border, but Afghanistan is also occasionally included because of their close relationship (ethnically and religiously) to the larger group of Iranian peoples as well as historical connections to the Middle East including being part of the various empires that have spanned the region such as those of the Persians and Arabs among others. Afghanistan, Tajikistan and western parts of Pakistan, share close cultural, linguistic, and historical ties with Iran and are also part of the Iranian plateau, whereas Iran's relationship with Arab states is based more upon religion and geographic proximity.

North Africa or the Maghreb, although often placed outside the Middle East proper, does have strong cultural and linguistic links to the region, and historically has shared many of the events that have shaped the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions including those prompted by Phoenician-colonized Carthage and Greco-Roman civilization as well as Muslim Arab-Berber and Ottoman empires. The Maghreb is sometimes included, sometimes excluded from the Middle East by the media and in informal usage, while most academics continue to identify North Africa as geographically a part of Africa, but being closely related to southwestern Asia in terms of politics, culture, religion, language, history, and genetics.

The Caucasus region (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia) and Cyprus is often grouped into Southwest Asia, but are generally considered European because of historical, cultural and recently also political ties to Europe, examples are a Christian majority, Indo-European linguistic background and membership (Cyprus) or aspirations to membership (Armenia and Georgia) in mainly European organisations (NATO, OSCE and EU). Throughout their histories, Armenia as well as Georgia have been distancing themselves from surrounding Islam. Since the beginning of 19th century, all three South Caucasian states were also strongly influenced by the dominion of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Currently they are viewed more as 'European' than Middle Eastern and generally viewed as the separate regional bloc of Caucasus.

Other countries of the Middle Eastern countries speak Indo-European languages (Iran for example) or have a Christian majority (Cyprus), but are still considered Middle Eastern. Turkey possesses neither of these European traits, but is partly geographically in Europe and it was the site of the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire that included large parts of Europe. Turkey distanced itself from Islamic law via Atatürk's Reforms during early 20th century and the Turkish Constitution puts strong emphasis upon the principles of laïcité and democracy. It is a long-time member of NATO and the Council of Europe, is currently in accession talks to join the European Union and has a Latin alphabet. Even so Turkey is in some contexts considered Middle Eastern, because of its Muslim population and geographic proximity.

Central Asian countries from the former Soviet Bloc also show varying degrees of affinity and historical ties to the Middle East, but not in any uniform fashion. While the southern states of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan display many cultural, historical, and socio-political similarities to the Middle East, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan have a more remote and mixed culture. These states are often viewed as Eurasian and their Soviet past has set them apart from the Middle East. In some countries, like Tajikistan there has been a movement to re-establish ties to the region based upon their kinship with Iran and Afghanistan. Like the Caucasus and Turkey, Central Asia has a strong secular and ‘western’ culture from their Soviet legacies. This may change with the renaissance and resurgence of Islamic identity that were suppressed by Soviet authorities.

The State of Israel is unique in the Middle East. Predominantly Jewish, geographically in the Middle East, it is in continuous conflict with Islamic neighbour countries. Therefore it is often not considered "culturally" Middle Eastern. It has, however, a large population of Middle Eastern descent (including Sephardic Jews,and Israeli Arabs), but was mainly founded by immigrants from Jewish Diaspora.

Some Israelis and Turks have a more European appearance rather than Middle Eastern. The original Turks were nomads from Central Asia who mixed with the European communities of Turkey's Asian side, giving many a more European appearance. Some Turks also have Russian descent. Israel, on the other hand, was founded by Jewish immigrants from Europe, giving many Israelis a more European appearance.

[edit] Changes in meaning over time

Until World War II, it was customary to refer to the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the Near East. The Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East (which includes areas such as India). The sense described in this article evolved during the war, perhaps influenced by the ancient idea of the Mediterranean as the "sea in the middle".

[edit] Criticism and usage

Some have criticized the term Middle East for its perceived Eurocentrism[7], because it was originally coined by Europeans and reflects the geographical position of the region from a European perspective. Today the term is used by Europeans and non-Europeans alike, unlike the similar term Mashreq, used exclusively in Arabic-language contexts. The region is only east from the perspective of Europe. To an Indian, it lies to the west; to a Russian, it lies to the south. The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Persia, Kurdistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia, Turkistan and the Caucasus. In contrast, Far East refers to the countries of East Asia, e.g. China, Japan, Koreas, Hong Kong (China), Taiwan, etc. Such critics usually advise using an alternative term, such as "West Asia". The official UN designation of the area is "Southwest Asia".

With the disappearance of the Ottoman Turkish Empire in 1918, Near East largely fell out of common use in English, while Middle East came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage of Near East was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East). So in shorter words, the term Middle East came about when the UK/French part of the world used the term. In German the Term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use and in Russian Ближний Восток (Near East) remains as the only appropriate term for the region.

[edit] Indirect translations

There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but, since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. See fr:Proche-Orient, fr:Moyen-Orient, de:Naher Osten, and 'Blizhniy Vostok' ru:Ближний Восток for examples.

[edit] Regions

Main article: Middle Eastern Regions

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

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[edit] External links

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