Member of Parliament

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A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. In many countries the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a unique title, such as Senate, and thus also have unique titles for its members, such as "Senators." Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary parties with members of the same political party.


[edit] Australia

In Australia, the term Member of Parliament refers to the Australian House of Representatives, and in some jurisdictions it also refers to members of the State Parliament.

See also: List of members of the Australian House of Representatives
  • Queensland Members of the Legislative Assembly, the unicameral (single house) Parliament of Queensland were known as Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) until 2001 and are now known as Members of Parliament (MPs) <ref>It was resolved at a meeting (19/10/2000) of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (Qld branch) that Members of the Legislative Assembly should be known as MP rather than MLA.. </ref>.

[edit] Canada

In Canada, the term Member of Parliament refers specifically to a member of the Canadian House of Commons.

See also: Members of the Canadian Senate

[edit] India

In India, the term Member of Parliament refers to the Sansad or the Indian Parliament chambers of the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. MPs to the Lok Sabha are elected popularly by constituencies in the Indian states and union territories, while MPs to the Rajya Sabha are elected by State legislatures. Central government is formed by the party having the plurality of MPs in the Lok Sabha. Each state is allocated a fixed number of elected MPs. The Indian state, Uttar Pradesh, represents the maximum number of MPs in the Lok Sabha. erh

[edit] Ireland

In Ireland, the term Member of Parliament can refer to the members of the pre-1801 Irish House of Commons of the Parliament of Ireland. It can also refer to Irish members elected to the British House of Commons from 1801 to 1922.

See also: Member of Parliament (pre-Union Ireland)

[edit] Malaysia

The Malaysian Parliament is modeled after the Parliament of the United Kingdom and consists of two houses, known as the Dewan Rakyat, which is the House of Representatives, and Dewan Negara, the Senate.

The members of the Dewan Rakyat are elected in general elections or by-elections, whereas the members of the Dewan Negara are either appointed by the king, in recognition of outstanding service to their country or chosen by the states. Each state appoints a number of senators proportional to its size.

Currently, the Dewan Negara has 70 seats while the Dewan Rakyat has 219. Of the 219 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, as of 2006, 199 are held by the ruling Barisan Nasional and 20 by opposition parties.

Members of Parliament are styled Yang Berhormat ("Honourable") with the initials Y.B. appended prenominally. A prince who is a Member of Parliament is styled Yang Berhormat Mulia.

[edit] New Zealand

New Zealand has a single-chambered (unicameral) parliament. In New Zealand, Member of Parliament is the term for a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, although parliament technically consists of both the House and the Queen. The New Zealand House of Representatives normally has 120 MPs, elected every three years. There are 69 electorate (constituency) MPs, 7 of whom are elected by Māori who have chosen to vote in special Māori seats. The remaining 51 MPs are elected from party lists. As of 2006, the speaker of the house is Margaret Wilson.

Before 1951, New Zealand had a two-chambered (bicameral) parliament, and there were two designations — MHR (Member of the House of Representatives, the body which survives today) and MLC (Member of the Legislative Council).

See also: New Zealand Parliament and New Zealand elections

[edit] Pakistan

In Pakistan, Member of Parliament refers to a member of Parliament (National Assembly of Pakistan, Qaumi Assembly). The National Assembly is based in Islamabad.

[edit] Poland

Further information: Poseł

[edit] Singapore

In Singapore, Members of Parliament refers to elected members of the Parliament of Singapore, the appointed Non-Constituency Members of Parliament from the opposition, as well as the Nominated Members of Parliament, who may be appointed from members of the public who have no connection to any political party in Singapore.

See also: Cabinet of Singapore and Members of the Singapore Parliament

[edit] Sweden

In Sweden, Member of Parliament refers to elected members of the Riksdag (Swedish parliament).

See also: Elections in Sweden, Politics of Sweden, and Government of Sweden

[edit] United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has members of three different parliaments:

The Welsh Assembly does not have the powers to make primary legislation and forms the Welsh Assembly Government which unusually combined legislative and executive functions [1].The National Assembly consists of 60 elected members, they use the title Assembly Member (AM) or Aelod y Cynulliad (AC).

The Northern Ireland Assembly's 108 members are elected from 18 six-member constituencies on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The constituencies used are the same as those used for elections to the Westminster Parliament. Elected members are known as Members of the Legislative Assembly [MLA]. The Assembly has authority to legislate in a field of competences known as "transferred matters" [2]. These matters are not explicitly enumerated in the Northern Ireland Act 1998. Rather they include any competence not explicitly retained by the Parliament at Westminster. Uniquely, Assembly legislation is open to judicial review.

MPs in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are elected in general elections and by-elections to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system of election, and may remain MPs until Parliament is dissolved. (Parliaments can last up to five years.) The members of the House of Lords are officially appointed by the Monarch, but the selection is actually done by an independent appointments commission, who receive nominations from the Prime Minister among others.

There are several special members of Parliament, including the Prime Minister, other government ministers, the Chief Whip of each party, Privy Counsellors, and the Speaker of the House.

A candidate to become a Member of Parliament must be a British or Irish or Commonwealth citizen, must be over 21, and must not be a public official or officeholder, as set out in the schedule to the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 [3]

Members of Parliament are technically forbidden to resign their seats. They either die, or take advantage of the rule that appointment to a "paid office under the Crown" disqualifies an MP from sitting in the Commons, and two nominally paid offices - the Chiltern Hundreds and the Manor of Northstead - exist to allow members to resign from the House. For more information, see the article Resignation from the British House of Commons.

The basic salary of an MP in the House of Commons was increased to £59,686 per annum on 1 April 2006 and will rise to £60,277 on 1 November 2006. Many MPs (ministers, the speaker, senior opposition leaders etc) receive a supplementary salary for their specific responsibilities. As of the 1 April 2006 increment these range from £25,255 for junior whips to £126,085 for the Prime Minister. [4]

See also: List of British MPs, List of Parliaments of the United Kingdom, MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005, and Number of British MPs

[edit] Notes

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Member of Parliament

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