Marsh Arabs

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The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. The marshlands, known as the Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh, had for some time been considered a refuge for elements persecuted by the Saddam government, and, in centuries past, refuges for escaped slaves and serfs.

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[edit] Culture

Traditionally, the society of the Marsh Arabs is split into two groups based on occupation. The group known as the Ma'dan breed and raise buffalo, while the majority cultivate crops such as rice, barley, wheat and millet and some sheep and cattle. The farmers look down on the Ma'dan, viewing them as inferior in both birth and occupation. More recently a third main occupation has entered Marsh Arab life; the weaving of reeds on a commercial scale. Long used for personal use, reed mats have recently become a commercial commodity all across southern Iraq. Though often paying far more than the agriculture, weavers are looked down upon by both Ma'dan and farmers alike, though financial concerns mean that gradually it is gaining acceptance as a respectable profession..

As with most tribes of southern Iraq, the sheik of a Marsh Arab group will collect a tribute from his tribesmen in order to maintain the mudhif, the tribal guesthouse which acts as the political, social, judicial and religious centre of Marsh Arabic life. The mudhif is used as a place to settle disputes, carry out diplomacy with other tribes and the gathering point for religious celebrations and prayer. It is also the place where visitors are offered hospitality. Most Marsh Arabs are Shia Muslims.

[edit] Recent events

After the First Gulf War (1991) Saddam Hussein aggressively revived a program to divert the flow of the Tigris River and the Euphrates River away from the marshes in retribution for a failed Shia uprising. The plan also systematically converted the wetlands into a desert, forcing the Marsh Arabs out of their settlements in the region. Less than 5% of the marshes remain today.

The 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq and subsequent coalition and Iraqi efforts to restore the marshes have led to signs of their gradual revivification as water is restored to the former desert, but the restoration of the ecosystem may take far longer to rebuild than it took to destroy. Only a few thousand of the nearly half million original inhabitants remain. Most of the rest that can be accounted for are refugees living in other Shi'a areas in Iraq, or have emigrated to Iran.

[edit] Literature

The way of life of the Marsh Arabs was chronicled by Sir Wilfred Thesiger in his classic book The Marsh Arabs (1964). Thesiger lived with the Marsh Arabs for months at a time over a seven-year period (1951-1958), building excellent relationships with virtually all he met, and recording the details of day-to-day life in various regions of the marshes. Many of the areas that he visited have since been drained.

[edit] Link to Sumerians

Many academic authorities believe the Marsh Arabs to be the direct descendants of the Sumerians.[citation needed] It is also believed that their culture is highly reflective of their ancient ancestors.[citation needed]

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

pl:Mad'an

Marsh Arabs

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