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Manama, Bahrain
Manama and Bahrain from space, June 1996.
Coordinates: 26°13′N 50°35′E
Governorate Capital Governorate
Governor Humood bin Abdullah bin Hamad Al Khalifa
 - City km²
 - City (2001) 162,000
 - Density 5,304/km²
 - Metro 345,000

Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the country's largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of the country's entire population. Manama is located at 26.21667° N 50.5833° E.

Manama has emerged as the capital of independent Bahrain after periods of domination by the Portuguese and Persians earlier in its history. Today, it is a modern capital with an economy based around the service sector, banking and finance as oil takes a less pronounced role in the economy. (See Economy of Bahrain.)


[edit] History

Main article: History of Manama

Manama was mentioned in Islamic chronicles at least as far back as 1345. It was conquered by the Portuguese in 1521 and then by the Persians in 1602.<ref name="britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica - Manama (retrieved 25 November 2006)</ref> Since 1783 it has been under the control of the Al-Khalifa dynasty. Manama was declared a free port in 1958, and in 1971 became the capital of independent Bahrain.<ref name="lexicorient">Encyclopaedia of the Orient - Manama (retrieved November 25 2006)</ref>

[edit] Climate

In common with the rest of Bahrain, Manama has extremely hot, humid summers, and mild winters. Temperatures may rise as high as 38°C (100°F) in summer, as is the case in the rest of the country. <ref name="lonelyplanetweather">Lonely Planet - Bahrain - Weather (retrieved 2 December 2006)</ref>. Winters are generally a lot milder, with average temperatures in January around 17°C (63°F)<ref="ameweather">AME Info - Bahrain Country Guide - Climate (retrieved 2 December 2006)</ref>.

[edit] Geography

The city is located in the far north-eastern corner of Bahrain island on a small peninsula. As in the rest of Bahrain island, the land is generally flat (or gently rolling) and arid.

Manama is served by Bahrain International Airport on the nearby island of Al Muharraq, to which it is connected via a causeway.

The major places within Manama are:

[edit] Law and Government

Manama is part of the Capital Governorate, one of five Governorates of Bahrain. Until 2002 it was part of the municipality of Al-Manamah. Councils exist within the governorates; eight constituencies are voted upon within Capital Governorate in 2006. <ref name="bahrainnewsagency">Bahrain News Agency - ELECTION 2006 (retrieved 2 December 2006)</ref>

[edit] Economy

Manama is the focal point of the Bahraini economy. While oil has decreased in importance in recent years due to depleting reserves, petroleum is still the mainstay of the economy, while heavy industry (e.g. aluminum smelting, ship repair), banking and finance, and tourism are increasing in importance. Several multinationals have facilities and offices in and around Manama. <ref name="cia">CIA World Factbook - Bahrain (retrieved 2 December 2006)</ref>

The economic base for Manama itself is financial services, with over two hundred financial institutions and banks based in the Diplomatic Area. There is also a large retail sector in the shopping malls around Seef, while the centre of Manama is dominated by small workshops and traders.

[edit] Transport

Bahrain International Airport is located approximately 15 kilometers from the city.

[edit] Demographics

Manana forms the bulk of the Capital Governorate, the exact population of which was given in 2001 as 163,696. 103,235 of these were male, the other 60,641 female. The majority of Manama residents are non-Bahrainis: only 55,230 residents have Bahraini citizenship.<ref name="cgdatabank>Capital Governorate Databank - Population by Nationality and Sex (retrieved 25 November 2006)</ref>

[edit] Neighborhoods

The major places within Manama are:

[edit] Culture

Bahrain is strongly Islamic and Arabic; while Manama shares these traits, it also contains a large number of foreigners and foreign influences, with just under a third of the populace hailing from abroad.<ref name="tripadvisor">- Trip Advisor - Manama Culture (retrieved 2 December 2006)</ref>. Alcohol is legal in the country, with bars and nightclubs operating in the city.

Soccer is a popular sport, with three teams from Manama participating in the Bahraini Premier League.

[edit] Education

The University of Bahrain has its main campus in Manama.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] Notes and references


ang:Manama ar:منامة bn:মানামা bs:Manama bg:Манама ca:Al-Manama cs:Manáma da:Manama de:Manama es:Manama eo:Manamo fr:Manama fy:Manama ko:마나마 hy:Մանամա hr:Manama io:Al Manamah id:Al-Manamah os:Манамæ it:Manama he:מנאמה la:Manama lt:Manama ms:Manama nl:Manamah ja:マナーマ


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