Lyndon B. Johnson

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Lyndon Baines Johnson
Image:Lbj2.jpg

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In office
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
Vice President(s)   None (1963-1965),
Hubert Humphrey (1965-1969)
Preceded by John F. Kennedy
Succeeded by Richard Nixon

In office
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
President John F. Kennedy
Preceded by Richard Nixon
Succeeded by Hubert Humphrey

Born August 27, 1908
Stonewall, Texas
Died January 22, 1973
The Texas 'White House', LBJ Ranch, Stonewall, Texas
Political party Democratic
Spouse Lady Bird Johnson
Profession Teacher, career politician
Religion Disciple of Christ
Signature Image:Lyndon B. Johnson signature.JPG


Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). After serving a long career in the U.S. Congress, Johnson became the 37th Vice President; in 1963, he succeeded to the presidency following President John F. Kennedy's assassination. He was a major leader of the Democratic Party and as President was responsible for designing his Great Society, comprising liberal legislation including civil rights laws, Medicare (health care for the elderly), Medicaid (health care for the poor), aid to education, and a major "War on Poverty". Simultaneously he escalated the Vietnam War, from 16,000 American soldiers in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, of whom over 1,000 were killed every month.

He was elected President in his own right in a landslide in 1964, but his popularity steadily declined after 1966 and his reelection bid in 1968 collapsed as a result of turmoil in his party. He withdrew from the race to concentrate on peacemaking. Johnson was renowned for his domineering personality and arm twisting of powerful politicians. His long-term legacy is hard to judge, as advances he made in civil rights and his "Great Society" are claimed by some to be offset by the Vietnam War.[citation needed]

Contents

[edit] Early years

Johnson was born in Stonewall, Texas, on August 27, 1908, in a small farmhouse in a poor area on the Pedernales River. His parents, Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. and Rebekah Baines, had three girls and two boys: LBJ and his brother, Sam Houston, and sisters Rebekah (1910-1978), Josefa (1912-1961), and Lucia (1916-1997). The nearby small town of Johnson City, Texas was named after LBJ's father's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth with a tendency to lie and was elected president of his eleventh-grade class. He graduated from Johnson City High School in 1924.<ref>Caro vol 1</ref>

In 1926, Johnson enrolled in Southwest Texas State Teachers' College (now Texas State University-San Marcos). He worked his way through school, participated in debate and campus politics, edited the school newspaper, and graduated in 1931. The college years refined his remarkable skills of persuasion. One year Johnson taught mostly Mexican children at the Welhausen School in Cotulla, Texas. When he returned to San Marcos in 1965, after having signed the Higher Education Act, Johnson looked back:

"I shall never forget the faces of the boys and the girls in that little Welhausen Mexican School, and I remember even yet the pain of realizing and knowing then that college was closed to practically every one of those children because they were too poor. And I think it was then that I made up my mind that this Nation could never rest while the door to knowledge remained closed to any American."<ref>Template:Cite web </ref>

[edit] Political career

After graduation Johnson briefly taught public speaking at Genesee Community College and debate in a Houston high school, then entered politics. Johnson's father had served five terms in the Texas legislature and was a close friend to one of Texas's rising political figures, Congressman Sam Rayburn. In 1931, Johnson campaigned for Texas state Senator Welly Hopkins in his run for Congress. Hopkins recommended him to Congressman Richard M. Kleberg, who appointed Johnson as Kleberg's legislative secretary. LBJ was elected speaker of the "Little Congress," a group of Congressional aides, where he cultivated Congressmen, newspapermen and lobbyists. Johnson's friends soon included aides to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as fellow Texans such as Vice President John Nance Garner. He became a surrogate son to Sam Rayburn.

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FDR, Governor Allred of Texas, & LBJ. In later campaigns, Johnson edited out the picture of Governor Allred to assist his campaign

Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor, of Karnack, Texas on November 17, 1934. They had two daughters, Lynda Bird, born in 1944, and Luci Baines Johnson, born in 1947. Johnson enjoyed giving people and animals his own initials; his daughters' given names are examples, as was his dog Little Beagle Johnson. (His wife was already nicknamed "Lady Bird".)

In 1935, Johnson was appointed head of the Texas National Youth Administration, which enabled him to use the government to create educational and job opportunities for young people. He resigned two years later to run for Congress. Johnson was a notoriously tough boss throughout his career, often demanding long workdays and work on weekends; he worked as hard as any of them.<ref> Wood (2006) p. 131 </ref>

[edit] Texas Congress

In 1937, Johnson ran for Congress in a special election for the 10th Congressional District of Texas to represent Austin, Texas and the surrounding Hill Country. He ran on a New Deal platform and was effectively aided by his wife, Lady Bird Johnson.

President Roosevelt found Johnson to be a welcome ally and conduit for information, particularly with regards to issues concerning internal politics in Texas (Operation Texas) and the machinations of Vice President Garner and House Speaker Sam Rayburn. Johnson was immediately appointed to the Naval Affairs Committee. He worked for rural electrification and other improvements for his district. Johnson steered the projects towards contractors which he personally knew, such as the Brown Brothers, Herman and George, who would finance much of Johnson's future career.<ref>Caro (1982) is full of details.</ref> (The Brown & Root company would eventually be a subsidiary of Halliburton.) In 1941, he ran for the U.S. Senate in a special election against the sitting governor, radio personality W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel. Johnson was not expected to win against the popular governor, but he ran a strong race and was declared the winner in unofficial returns. He ultimately was defeated by controversial official returns in an election marked by massive fraud on the part of both campaigns.

[edit] War record

After America entered the war in December 1941, Johnson, a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserves, then asked Undersecretary of the Navy James Forrestal for a combat assignment<ref>Hove, Duane (2003). American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Burd Street Press. ISBN 1-57249-0.</ref>, but he was sent to inspect the shipyard facilities in Texas and on the West Coast. In the spring of 1942, President Roosevelt needed his own reports on what conditions were like in the Southwest Pacific. He felt information that flowed up the military chain of command needed to be supplemented by a highly trusted political aide. From a suggestion by Forrestal, President Roosevelt assigned Johnson to a three-man survey team of the Southwest Pacific.

Johnson reported to General Douglas MacArthur in Australia. Johnson and two Army officers went to the base of the 22nd Bomb Group, which was assigned the high risk mission of bombing the Japanese air base at Lae on New Guinea. A colonel took Johnson's original seat on the one bomber; it was shot down and everyone died. Reports vary on what happened to the B-26 Marauder Johnson was on. Some accounts say it was also attacked by Japanese fighter-planes but survived, while others claim it turned back before reaching the objective and never came under fire. Whichever it was, MacArthur awarded LBJ the Silver Star, the military's third-highest medal, for his plane ride. Johnson protested that he had done nothing to deserve a medal, but nevertheless did not return it and often wore the medal on his lapel in later years.

Johnson reported back to Roosevelt, to the Navy leaders, and to Congress, that conditions were deplorable and unacceptable. He argued the theatre urgently needed a higher priority and a bigger share of war supplies. The warplanes sent there, for example, were "far inferior" to Japanese planes, and morale was bad. He told Forrestal that the Pacific Fleet had a "critical" need for 6,800 additional experienced men. Johnson prepared a twelve-point program to upgrade the effort in the region, stressing "greater cooperation and coordination within the various commands and between the different war theatres." Congress responded by making Johnson chairman of a high-powered subcommittee of the Naval Affairs committee. With a mission similar to that of the Truman Committee in the Senate, he probed into the peacetime "business as usual" inefficiencies that permeated the naval war and demanded admirals shape up and get the job done. However, Johnson went too far when he proposed a bill that would crack down on the draft exemptions of shipyard workers if they were too often absent. Organized labor blocked the bill and denounced Johnson. Johnson's mission thus had a significant impact in upgrading the South Pacific theater and in helping along the entire naval war effort. Johnson’s biographer concludes, "The mission was a temporary exposure to danger calculated to satisfy Johnson's personal and political wishes, but it also represented a genuine effort on his part, however misplaced, to improve the lot of America's fighting men."<ref>Dallek, Lone Star Rising p. 237</ref>

[edit] Senate years

[edit] 1948 contested election

In 1948, Johnson again ran for the Senate and won. This election was highly controversial: a three-way Democratic Party primary saw Johnson facing a well-known former governor, Coke Stevenson, and a third candidate. Johnson drew crowds to fairgrounds with his rented helicopter dubbed "The Flying Windmill". He raised money to flood the state with campaign circulars, and won over conservatives by voting for the Taft-Hartley act curbing unions and by criticizing unions on the stump. Stevenson came in first but lacked a majority, so a runoff was held. Johnson campaigned even harder, while Stevenson's efforts were poor. The runoff count took a week as the two candidates see-sawed for the lead. The state Democratic committee handled the count (not the state, because it was a party primary), and it finally announced Johnson won by 87 votes.<ref> There were many allegations of fraud on both sides; see Woods (2006) 217. Thus one writter alleges that Johnson's campaign manager, John Connally, was connected with 202 ballots in Duval County that had curiously been cast in alphabetical order. Dugger, Ronnie (1984). The Politician: The Life and Times of Lyndon Johnson. New York: W W Norton & Co, 311. ISBN 0-393-01598-X. Caro (1989) argued that Johnson had rigged the election in Duval as well as rigging 10,000 ballots in Bexar County alone. </ref>

The state Democratic convention upheld Johnson. Stevenson went to court but, with timely help from his friend Abe Fortas, Johnson prevailed. Johnson was elected Senator in November, and went to Washington tagged with the sobriquet "Landslide Lyndon".

[edit] Freshman Senator

Once in the Senate, Johnson was known among his colleagues for his highly successful "courtships" of older senators, especially Senator Richard Russell, patrician leader of the Conservative coalition and arguably the most powerful man in the Senate. Johnson proceeded to gain Russell's favor in the same way as he had "courted" Speaker Sam Rayburn and gained his crucial support in the House.

Johnson was appointed to the Armed Services Committee, and later in 1950, he helped create the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee. Johnson became its chairman and conducted investigations of defense costs and efficiency. These investigations tended to dig out old forgotten investigations and demand actions that were already being taken by the Truman Administration, although it can be said that the committee's investigations caused the changes. However, Johnson's brilliant handling of the press, the efficiency at which his committee issued new reports, and the fact that he ensured every report was endorsed unanimously by the committee all brought him headlines and national attention.

[edit] Senate Democratic leader

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Johnson gives "The Treatment" to Rhode Island Senator Theodore Green in 1957

January 1953, he was chosen by his fellow Democrats to be the minority leader. Thus, he became the youngest man ever named to the post. One of his first actions was to eliminate the seniority system in appointment to a committee, while retaining it in terms of chairmanships. The senate majority leader, Robert A. Taft of Ohio, died July 31, 1953. The Republicans elected William F. Knowland of California as new senate majority leader. In 1954, Johnson was re-elected to the Senate, and since the Democrats won the majority in the Senate, Johnson became majority leader. Bill Knowland was elected minority leader. LBJ's duties were to schedule legislation and help pass measures favored by the Democrats. He, Rayburn and President Dwight D. Eisenhower worked smoothly together in passing Eisenhower's domestic and foreign agenda. In 1959, Knowland retired from the Senate. Everett M. Dirksen of Illinois was elected minority leader. Historians Caro and Dallek consider Lyndon Johnson the most effective Senate majority leader in history. He was unusually proficient at gathering information. One biographer suggests he was "the greatest intelligence gatherer Washington has even known," discovering exactly where every Senator stood, his philosophy and prejudices, his strengths and weaknesses, and what it took to win him over.<ref>Woods (2006) p. 262</ref> Central to Johnson's control was "The Treatment",<ref>http://www.afterimagegallery.com/nytjohnson.htm</ref> described by two journalists:<ref>Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, Lyndon B. Johnson: The Exercise of Power (1966) p, 104. </ref>

The Treatment could last ten minutes or four hours. It came, enveloping its target, at the LBJ Ranch swimming pool, in one of LBJ's offices, in the Senate cloakroom, on the floor of the Senate itself-- wherever Johnson might find a fellow Senator within his reach.
Its tone could be supplication, accusation, cajolery, exuberance, scorn, tears, complaint, the hint of threat. It was all of these together. It ran the gamut of human emotions. Its velocity was breathtaking, and it was all in one direction. Interjections from the target were rare. Johnson anticipated them before they could be spoken. He moved in close, his face a scant millimeter from his target, his eyes widening and narrowing, his eyebrows rising and falling. From his pockets poured clippings, memos, statistics. Mimicry, humor, and the genius of analogy made The Treatment an almost hypnotic experience and rendered the target stunned and helpless.

[edit] Vice Presidency

Johnson's success in the Senate made him a possible Democratic presidential candidate. He was Texas' "favorite son" candidate at the party's national convention in 1956. In 1960, Johnson received 409 votes on the first and only ballot at the Democratic convention which nominated John F. Kennedy.

Tip O'Neill, then a representative from Kennedy's home state of Massachusetts, recalled that Johnson approached him at the convention and said, "Tip, I'd like to have you with me on the second ballot." O'Neill, understanding the influence of the Kennedy name, replied, "Senator, there's not going to be any second ballot."<ref>John A. Farrell (2001). Tip O'Neill and the Democratic Century: A Biography. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-26049-5.</ref>

During the convention, Kennedy designated Johnson as his choice for vice president. Some later reports (such as Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.) say that Kennedy offered the position to Johnson as a courtesy and did not expect him to accept. Others (such as W. Marvin Watson) say that the Kennedy campaign was desperate to win the 1960 election against Richard M. Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. and needed Johnson on the ticket to help carry Southern states.

While he ran for vice president with John F. Kennedy, Johnson also sought a third term in the U.S. Senate. His popularity was such that Texas law was changed to permit him to run for two offices at the same time. Johnson was reelected senator, with 1,306,605 votes (58 percent) to Republican John Tower's 927,653 (41.1 percent). Fellow Democrat William A. Blakley was appointed to take Johnson's place as Senator, but Blakley lost a special election in May 1961 to Tower.

After the election, Johnson found himself powerless. Kennedy and his senior advisors rarely consulted the Texan and prevented him from assuming the vital role that Vice President Richard Nixon had played in energizing the state parties. Kennedy appointed him to nominal jobs such as head of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, through which he worked with African Americans and other minorities. Though Kennedy probably intended this to remain a nominal position Taylor Branch in Pillar of Fire contends that Johnson served to force the Kennedy administration's actions for civil rights further and faster than Kennedy intended to go. Branch notes the irony of Johnson, who the Kennedy family hoped would appeal to conservative southern voters, being the advocate for civil rights. In particular he notes Johnson's Memorial Day 1963 speech at Gettysburg as being a catalyst that led to much more action than otherwise would have occurred.

Johnson took on numerous minor diplomatic missions, which gave him limited insights into international issues. He was allowed to observe Cabinet and National Security meetings. Kennedy did give Johnson control over all presidential appointments involving Texas, and he was appointed chairman of the President's Ad Hoc Committee for Science. When, in April 1961, the Soviets beat the U.S. with the first manned spaceflight Kennedy tasked Johnson with coming up with a 'scientific bonanza' that would prove world leadership. Johnson knew that Project Apollo and an enlarged NASA were feasible, so he steered the recommendation towards a program for landing an American on the moon.

[edit] Presidency 1963-1969

[edit] Assassination of President John F. Kennedy

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Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in aboard Air Force One by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Alongside Johnson is Jacqueline Kennedy, wife of slain President John F. Kennedy.

Johnson was sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas at Love Field Airport after the assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963. He was sworn in by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a very close friend of his family, making him the first President sworn in by a woman.

To investigate Kennedy's murder, Johnson created a special panel called the Warren Commission. This panel, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, conducted hearings about the assassination and concluded that Oswald shot the President and did not conspire with anyone. Not everyone agreed with the Warren Commission, however, and numerous public and private investigations continued for decades after Johnson left office.<ref> The Assassination Records Review Board noted in 1998 that Johnson became skeptical of some of the Warren Commission findings. See, Final Report Chapter One footnote 17 http://www.fas.org/sgp/advisory/arrb98/index.html</ref>.

A number of conspiracy theories exist which place Lyndon Johnson as a co-conspirator to the assassination. This is contributed from the fact that Johnson strongly disagreed with some of John F. Kennedy's policies.

[edit] 1964 Presidential election

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In the 1964 election, LBJ often appealed to the memory of JFK in his electoral campaign

On September 7, 1964, Johnson's campaign managers for the 1964 presidential election broadcast the "Daisy ad." It portrayed a little girl picking petals from a daisy, counting up to ten. Then a baritone voice took over, counted down from ten to zero and a nuclear bomb exploded. The message was that Barry Goldwater meant nuclear death. Although it was soon pulled off the air, it escalated into a continuously very heated election. Johnson won by a sweeping landslide that defeated many conservative Republican congressmen, giving him a majority that could overcome the Conservative coalition.

Johnson won the presidency with 61 percent of the vote and the then widest popular margin in the 20th century — more than 15 million votes (this was later surpassed by Nixon's defeat of McGovern in 1972).

However, 1964 was also the year that Johnson supported the conservative Democratic delegates from Mississippi and denied the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) seats at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. To appease the MFDP, the convention offered an unsatisfactory compromise, and the MFDP rejected it. In the same year, Johnson lost the popular vote to Republican challenger Barry Goldwater in the Deep South states of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina, a region that had voted for Democrats since Reconstruction.

[edit] Civil Rights

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President Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In response to the civil rights movement, Johnson overcame southern resistance and achieved passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which effectively outlawed most forms of racial segregation. In 1965 he achieved passage of a second civil rights bill that outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time.

In other actions on the civil rights front, Johnson nominated civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall to the positions of Solicitor General and later Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, making him the first African-American to serve in either capacity. After the murder of civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo, Johnson went on television to announce the arrest of four Ku Klux Klansmen implicated in her death. He angrily denounced the Klan as a "hooded society of bigots", and warned them to "return to a decent society before it's too late." He turned the themes of Christian redemption to push for civil rights, thereby mobilizing support from churches North and South.<ref> Woods (2006) pp, 759-187</ref> On June 4, 1965 at the Howard University commencement address, he said that both the government and the nation needed to help achieve goals: ...To shatter forever not only the barriers of law and public practice, but the walls which bound the condition of many by the color of his skin. To dissolve, as best we can, the antique enmities of the heart which diminish the holder, divide the great democracy, and do wrong--great wrong--to the children of God...'<ref> Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965. Volume II, entry 301, pp. 635-640. (1966). </ref>

[edit] Great Society

The Great Society program became Johnson's agenda for Congress in January 1965: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote. Congress, at times augmenting or amending, rapidly enacted Johnson's recommendations.

[edit] Federal aid to education

Johnson had a lifelong commitment to the belief that education was the cure for both ignorance and poverty, and was an essential component of the American Dream, especially for minorities who endured poor facilities and tight-fisted budgets from local taxes. He made education a top priority of the Great Society, with an emphasis on helping poor children. After the 1964 landslide brought in many new liberal Congressmen, he had the votes for the “Elementary and Secondary Education Act” (ESEA) of 1965. For the first time large amounts of federal money went to public schools. In practice ESEA meant helping all public school districts, with more money going to districts that had large propositions of students from poor families (which included all the big cities.) However for the first time private schools (most of them Catholic schools in the inner cities) received services, such as library funding, comprising about 12% of the ESEA budget. As Dallek reports, researchers soon found that poverty had more to do with family background and neighborhood conditions than the quantity of education a child received. Early studies suggested initial improvements for poor kids helped by ESEA reading and math programs, but later assessments indicated that benefits faded quickly and left students little better off than those not in the programs. Johnson’s second major education program was the “Higher Education Act of 1965" which focused on funding for lower income students, including grants, work-study money, and government loans. He set up the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Arts, to support humanists and artists (as the WPA once did). Although ESEA solidified Johnson's support among K12 teachers' unions, neither the Higher Education act nor the Endowments mollified the college professors and students growing increasingly uneasy with his war in Vietnam.<ref>Woods (2006) pp 563-68; Dallek (1988) pp 196-202</ref>

[edit] War on Poverty

In 1964, upon Johnson's request, Congress passed a tax-reduction law and the Economic Opportunity Act, which was in association with the War on Poverty.

[edit] Medicare and Medicaid

Millions of elderly people were aided by the 1965 Medicare amendment to the Social Security Act. Poor people received federal money for medical care through the medicaid program. <ref>Patricia P. Martin and David A. Weaver. "Social Security: A Program and Policy History," Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1, 2005 online version</ref>

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President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. Harry Truman and his wife, Bess, are on the far right

[edit] Space race

NASA made spectacular explorations in the space program Johnson had championed since its start. When three astronauts successfully orbited the moon in December 1968, Johnson congratulated them: "You've taken … all of us, all over the world, into a new era …."

[edit] Urban Riots

As Martin Luther King and other black leaders broke with Johnson on the Vietnam issue, major riots in black ghettos caused of series of "long hot summers." They started with a violent disturbance in Harlem in 1964 and the Watts district of Los Angeles in 1965, and extended to 1970. The biggest wave came in April, 1968, when over 100 cities simultaneously had riots after the assassination of Dr. King. City after city burst into flames. Newark burned in 1966, where 6 days of rioting left 26 dead, 1500 injured, and the inner city a burned out shell. In Detroit in 1967, Governor George Romney sent in 7400 national guard troops to quell fire bombings, looting, and attacks on white-owned businesses and on police. Johnson finally sent in federal troops with tanks and machine guns. Detroit continued to burn for three more days until finally 40 lay dead, 2250 were injured, 4000 were arrested, property damage ranged into the hundreds of millions; much of inner Detroit was never rebuilt. The great cities had been Democratic strongholds--now one after another they exploded in flame. Johnson called for even more billions to be spent in the cities, and another federal civil rights law regarding housing. But his political capital had been spent, his Great Society was in its death throes. Johnson's popularity plummeted as a massive white political backlash took shape, reinforcing the sense Johnson had lost control of the streets of major cities as well as his party.<ref> Woods (2006) 790-5; Michael W. Flamm, Law And Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s (2005)</ref>

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October 23, 1966: Presidents Ferdinand Marcos and Lyndon Johnson during arrival ceremonies at the Manila International Airport

[edit] Backlash against Johnson: 1966-67

Johnson problems began to mount in 1966. By year's end the Democratic governor of Missouri warned that Johnson would lose the state by 100,000 votes, despite a half-million margin in 1964. "Frustration over Vietnam; too much federal spending and . . . taxation; no great public support for your Great Society programs; and . . . public disenchantment with the civil rights programs" had eroded the President's standing, the governor reported. There were bright spots, however. In January 1967 Johnson boasted that wages were the highest in history, unemployment was at a thirteen-year low, and corporate profits and farm incomes were greater than ever; however a 4.5% jump in consumer prices was worrisome, as well as the rise in interest rates. Johnson asked for a temporary 6% surcharge in income taxes to cover the mounting deficit caused by increased spending. Johnson's approval ratings stayed below 50 percent; by January 1967 the number of his strong supporters had plunged to 16% from 25% four months before. He ran about even with Republican George Romney in trial matchups that spring. Asked to explain why he was unpopular, Johnson responded, "I am a dominating personality, and when I get things done I don't always please all the people." Johnson also blamed the press, saying they showed "complete irresponsibility and lie and misstate facts and have no one to be answerable to." He also blamed "the preachers, liberals and professors." who had turned against him.<ref> Dallek, Flawed Giant p. 391-96; quotes on 391 and 396.</ref> In the congressional elections of 1966 the Republicans gained 47 seats, reinvigorating the Conservative coalition and making it impossible for Johnson to pass any additional Great Society legislation.

[edit] Vietnam War

President Johnson increasingly focused on the American military effort in Vietnam. He firmly believed his containment policy required America to make a serious effort to stop all Communist expansion. At Kennedy's death, there were 16,000 American military advisors in Vietnam. Johnson expanded their numbers and roles following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (less than three weeks after the Republican Convention of 1964, which had nominated Barry Goldwater for President).
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LBJ visits Shriners Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in September 1964.
By 1968 there were 550,000 American soldiers inside Vietnam; in 1967 and 1968 they were being killed at the rate of over 1000 a month.<ref>http://siwmfilm.net/Vietnam_War/Military_Casualty_Information.html</ref>

Politically, Johnson closely watched the public opinion polls. His goal was not to adjust his policies to follow opinion, but rather to adjust opinion to support his policies. Until the Tet Offensive of 1968, he systematically downplayed the war: few speeches, no rallies or parades or advertising campaigns. He feared that publicity would charge up the hawks who wanted victory, and weaken both his containment policy and his higher priorities in domestic issues. Jacobs and Shapiro conclude, "Although Johnson held a core of support for his position, the president was unable to move Americans who held hawkish and dovish positions." Polls showed that beginning in 1965, the public was consistently 40-50% hawkish and 10-25% dovish. Johnson's aides told him, "Both hawks and doves [are frustrated with the war] ... and take it out on you."<ref> Lawrence R. Jacobs and Robert Y. Shapiro. "Lyndon Johnson, Vietnam, and Public Opinion: Rethinking Realist Theory of Leadership." Presidential Studies Quarterly 29#3 (1999). pp 592+.</ref>

It was domestic issues that were driving his polls down steadily from spring 1966 onward. Analysts report that "Vietnam had no independent impact on President Johnson's popularity at all after other effects, including a general overall downward trend in popularity, had been taken into account."<ref>John E. Mueller. War, Presidents amd Public Opinion (1973) p. 108 </ref>

He often privately cursed the Vietnam War, and in a conversation with Robert McNamara, Johnson assailed "the bunch of commies" running the New York Times for their articles against the war effort. <ref>http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061117/ap_on_re_us/lbj_tapes</ref> He referred to the war as his "bitch mistress," [citation needed] but believed that America could not afford to lose and risk appearing weak in the eyes of the world. In a discussion about the war with former President Dwight Eisenhower, Johnson said he was "trying to win it just as fast as I can in every way that I know how" and later stated that he needed "all the help I can get." <ref>http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/Press.hom/tape_release_11_2006.shtm</ref> Johnson escalated the war effort continuously from 1964 to 1968 and the number of American deaths rose. In two weeks in May 1968 alone, American deaths numbered 1,800 with total casualties at 18,000. Alluding to the Domino Theory he said, "If we allow Vietnam to fall, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii, and next week in San Francisco." When reporters repeatedly pressed Johnson in late 1967 on why he was so committed to the war, Johnson exposed himself to them and said, 'That is why'".<ref> Dallek, Robert (1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon B. Johnson and his Times, 1961 – 1973.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 754. ISBN 0-19-505465-2. </ref>

Image:L B Johnson Model Khe Sanh.jpeg
Walt Whitman Rostow showing President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area in February 1968

After the Tet offensive of January 1968, his presidency was dominated by the Vietnam War more than ever. As casualties mounted and success seemed further away than ever, Johnson's popularity plummeted. College students and others protested, burned draft cards, and chanted, "Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" Johnson could scarcely travel anywhere without facing protests, and was not allowed by the Secret Service to attend the 1968 Democratic National Convention, where hundreds of thousands of hippies, yippies, Black Panthers, and other opponents of Johnson's policy both in Vietnam and in the ghettoes converged to protest. Thus by 1968, the public was polarized, with the "hawks" rejecting Johnson's refusal to win the war, and the "doves" rejecting his continuation of containment. Support for Johnson's middle position continued to shrink until he finally rejected containment and sought a peace settlement. By late summer, however, he realized that Nixon was closer to his position than Humphrey.<ref>Gould (1993) p. 98</ref>

[edit] 1968 Presidential election

Entering the 1968 election campaign, initially, no prominent Democratic candidate was prepared to run against a sitting President of his own party. Only Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota challenged Johnson as an anti-war candidate in the New Hampshire primary, hoping to pressure the Democrats to oppose the war. On March 12, McCarthy won 42% of the primary vote to Johnson's 49%, an amazingly strong showing for such a challenger. Four days after this, Robert F. Kennedy entered the race. Internal polling by Johnson's campaign in Wisconsin, the next state to hold a primary election, showed the President trailing badly. Johnson did not leave the White House to campaign. Johnson had lost control of the Democratic party, which was splitting into four factions, each of which despised the other three. The first comprised Johnson (and Humphrey), labor unions, and local party bosses (led by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley). The second group comprised students and intellectuals who were vociferously against the war, and rallied behind McCarthy. The third group comprised Catholics, ethnics and blacks; they rallied behind Robert Kennedy. The fourth group were traditional white Southerners, who rallied behind George C. Wallace and his third party. Vietnam was one of many issues that splintered the party and Johnson could see no way to unite the party long enough for him to win reelection. On the other hand, he could avoid defeat in November by withdrawing from the race, keeping control of the party machinery by giving the nomination to Humphrey, and assure his place in history by ending the war before the election.<ref> Lewis L. Gould, 1968: The Election that Changed America (1993).</ref>

Then at the end of a March 31 speech, he shocked the nation when he announced he would not run for re-election: "I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President,"(Text and audio of speech). He did rally the party bosses and union to give Humphrey the nomination. In what was termed the October surprise, Johnson announced to the nation on October 31, 1968, that he had ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam" effective November 1, should the Hanoi Government be willing to negotiate and citing progress with the Paris peace talks.

LBJ wasn't disqualified from running for a second term under the provisions of the 22nd Amendment because he had served less than 24 months of JFK's term.

[edit] Legislation and programs

Image:LBJCabinet68-enhanced.jpg
Lyndon B. Johnson and his cabinet in 1968

[edit] Major legislation signed

[edit] Administration and Cabinet

(All of the cabinet members when Johnson became President in 1963 had been serving under John F. Kennedy previously.)

Image:Lyndon B. Johnson - portrait.gif
Official White House portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963–1969
Vice President None1963–1965
  Hubert H. Humphrey 1965–1969
National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy 1963–1966
  Walt Rostow 1966–1969
C.I.A. Director John McCone 1963–1965
  William Raborn 1965–1966
  Richard M. Helms 1966–1969
F.B.I. Director J. Edgar Hoover 1963–1969
State Dean Rusk 1963–1969
Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1963–1965
  Henry H. Fowler 1965–1968
  Joseph W. Barr 1968–1969
Defense Robert S. McNamara 1963–1968
  Clark M. Clifford 1968–1969
Justice Robert F. Kennedy 1963–1964
  Nicholas deB. Katzenbach 1964–1966
  Ramsey Clark 1966–1969
Postmaster General John A. Gronouski 1963–1965
  Lawrence F. O'Brien 1965–1968
  W. Marvin Watson 1968–1969
Interior Stewart L. Udall 1963–1969
Agriculture Orville L. Freeman 1963–1969
Commerce Luther H. Hodges 1963–1965
  John T. Connor 1965–1967
  Alexander B. Trowbridge 1967–1968
  Cyrus R. Smith 1968–1969
Labor W. Willard Wirtz 1963–1967
HEW Anthony J. Celebrezze 1963–1965
  John W. Gardner 1965–1968
  Wilbur J. Cohen 1968–1969
HUD Robert Clifton Weaver 1966–1968
  Robert Coldwell Wood 1969
Transportation Alan Stephenson Boyd 1967–1969

[edit] Supreme Court appointments

Johnson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

[edit] Retirement, death, and honors

After leaving the presidency in 1969, Johnson went home to his ranch in Johnson City, Texas. In 1971, he published his memoirs, The Vantage Point. That year, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum opened on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin. It is the most visited presidential library in the nation with over a quarter million visitors per year. He donated his Texas ranch in his will to the public to form the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, with the proviso that the ranch "remain a working ranch and not become a sterile relic of the past".<ref> Template:Cite journal</ref>

Johnson died at 4:33 p.m. on January 22, 1973 from a third heart attack at his ranch, at age 64. His health was ruined by years of heavy smoking and stress, and the former President had severe heart disease. He was found in his bed, reaching for his phone. Johnson was honored with a state funeral in which Texas Congressman J.J. Pickle and former Secretary of State Dean Rusk eulogized him at the Capitol.

The final services took place on January 25. The funeral was held at the National City Christian Church in Washington, D.C., where he worshipped often when president. The service, presided over by President Richard Nixon and attended by foreign dignitaries, led by former Japanese prime minister Eisaku Sato, was the first presidential funeral to feature eulogies, and they were given by the Rev. Dr. George Davis, the church's rector and W. Marvin Watson, former postmaster general. Nixon did not speak, though he attended, as customary for presidents during state funerals, but the eulogists turned to him and lauded him for his tributes, as Rusk did the day before.

Johnson was buried in his family cemetery (which can be viewed today by visitors to the Lyndon B. Johnson National Park in Stonewall, Texas), with eulogies by John Connally and Reverend Billy Graham. The state funeral, the last until Ronald Reagan's in 2004, was part of a busy week for the Military District of Washington (MDW), beginning with Nixon's second inauguration.<ref>Elsen, William A., "Ceremonial Group Had Busy 5 Weeks." The Washington Post, January 25, 1973.</ref>

The Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, and Texas created a legal state holiday to be observed on August 27 to mark LBJ's birthday. It is known as Lyndon Baines Johnson Day. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac was dedicated on September 27, 1974.

LBJ was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1980.

Johnson's widow, Lady Bird Johnson (born 1912), is still alive, and will turn 94 on December 22, 2006.

[edit] Trivia

  • Lyndon Johnson was 6 feet 3 inches (190 cm) tall and weighed about 216 pounds (98 kg), the second tallest President, behind Abraham Lincoln at 6 feet 4 inches (193 cm) tall.
  • Had he stayed in the 1968 race and won re-election, he would have served nine years, second only to Franklin D. Roosevelt's 12 years. LBJ's death, on January 22, 1973, occurred only two days after this presidential term would have ended, and followed the death of former President Harry S. Truman by less than a month. This left the U.S. with no living former presidents until the resignation of Richard Nixon in August 1974.
  • He was baptized in the Pedernales River as a member of the Disciples of Christ in 1923.<ref>Template:Cite web </ref>
  • Johnson was famously frugal. Even as President, White House tapes recorded him asking a photographer to take his family portraits for free, saying he was a very poor man living on a weekly paycheck and had a very great deal of financial debt. In fact Johnson was a multimillionaire, but he still received the photographic portraits gratis. The White House press corps made jokes at his expense regarding his habit of turning off all lights in the White House when the rooms were not in use. Johnson's secretary revealed years later that he would wash and reuse Styrofoam cups. [Caro 2002]
  • His favorite soft drink was Fresca, which he drank constantly. Johnson had a small control box installed in the writing desk in the small personal office adjacent to the Oval Office. This control box contained two buttons, marked "Coffee" and "Fresca". Pushing one of these buttons would summon Johnson's military aide bringing the appropriate drink.<ref>

Gulley, Bill, Mary Ellen Reece (1980). Breaking Cover. New York: Simon & Schuster, 78-79. ISBN 0-671-24548-1. </ref>

  • Johnson, while using the White House bathroom, was known to insist that others accompany him and continue to discuss official matters or take dictation. Among those who received this "privilege" was Katherine Graham, publisher of the Washington Post.<ref>

Caro, Robert (2002). Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson. New York: Knopf, 122. ISBN 0-394-52836-0. </ref>

  • Lake Granite Shoals, a reservoir of the Colorado River in central Texas was renamed Lake LBJ in 1965 in honor of the sitting President.
  • He was the only American President to have ever visited Malaysia (1966). In Labu, state of Negeri Sembilan, the village called FELDA L.B. Johnson was named after him during his visit to the village, with Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first Malaysian prime minister.
  • He was the first American President to visit Turkey and Australia while in office.
  • Robert F. Kennedy greatly disliked Johnson and the feeling was mutual. Kennedy felt that Johnson was not worthy of the vice presidency, while Johnson merely regarded Kennedy as "Jack's Little Brother", a spoiled brat who was riding his older brother's coattails to success. [Dallek 2004 p 139]
  • Two Austin, Texas, area broadcast radio stations using the call sign KLBJ, (590 kHz AM and 93.7 MHz FM), were once owned by the Johnson family before being sold to other commercial interests. The Johnsons also owned the first broadcast television station in the Austin area, KTBC (channel 7).
  • Born in 1908, LBJ was the first American president born in the 20th century (chronologically). However, the younger Kennedy was the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president.
  • He was one of only three southern Senators who refused to sign the Southern Manifesto.
  • When he was a young school teacher, Johnson petitioned the local Masonic Lodge for membership. He was accepted and received his Entered Apprentice degree, but never advanced beyond that.
  • Barbara Garson wrote a notorious 1966 counterculture drama entitled MacBird, which satirically depicts then-President Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth - the Scottish king whose lust for power carried him to the throne.
  • He was famously implicated by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison in the alleged plot to assassinate President John F. Kennedy.

[edit] Portrayals

[edit] Movies

[edit] Fiction

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] Primary sources

  • Beschloss Michael R. Taking Charge: The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964. 1997. transcribed recordings of LBJ's phone calls
  • Califano Joseph A., Jr. The Triumph & Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson., 1991. by a cabinet member
  • Gallup, George H. ed, The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935-1971, volume 3: 1959-1971. 1972. summary of poll data
  • Johnson Lyndon B. The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963-1969 1971. LBJ's memoirs
  • Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson. 10 vols. GPO , 1965-70. all speeches and official statements

[edit] Secondary resources

[edit] General biographies

  • Robert A. Caro. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. (3 volumes as of 2006): The Path to Power (1982); Means of Ascent (1990); Master of the Senate (2002). The most detailed biography, extends to 1960.
  • Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960 (1991); Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (1998); also: Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President (2004), 400-page abridged version of his 2 volume scholarly biography
  • Kearns Goodwin, Doris. Lyndon Johnson & the American Dream. (1977), a character study
  • Reedy, George Lyndon B. Johnson: A Memoir (1982) ISBN 0-8362-6610-2, a memoir by the press secretary
  • Woods, Randall. LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (2006) highly detailed scholarly biography (1000 pages)

[edit] Presidential years

  • Altschuler, Bruce E.; LBJ and the Polls U Presses of Florida, 1990
  • Bernstein, Irving. Guns or Butter: The Presidency of Lyndon Johnson 1994.
  • Bornet, Vaughn Davis. The Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson. 1983
  • Divine, Robert A., ed. The Johnson Years. Vol. 1: Foreign Policy, the Great Society and the White House. 1981; essays by scholars
  • Divine, Robert A., ed. The Johnson Years. Vol. 2: Vietnam, the Environment, and Science. 1987; essays by scholars
  • Divine, Robert A., ed. The Johnson Years. Vol. 3: LBJ at Home and Abroad. 1994; essays by scholars
  • Firestone, Bernard J., and Robert C. Vogt, eds. Lyndon Baines Johnson and the Uses of Power. (1988); essays by scholars
  • Gould, Lewis L. Lady Bird Johnson and the Environment. 1988.
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson, ed. Political Profiles: The Johnson Years. 1976. short biographies of 400+ key politicians
  • Mann, Robert. The Walls of Jericho: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Russell, and the Struggle for Civil Rights. 1996.
  • Redford, Emmette S., and Marlan Blissett. Organizing the Executive Branch: The Johnson Presidency. 1981.
  • Shesol, Jeff. Mutual Contempt: Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, and the Feud That Shaped a Decade 1997.
  • White, Theodore H. The Making of the President, 1964 1965.
  • Zarefsky, David. President Johnson's War on Poverty 1986.

[edit] Vietnam

  • Barrett, David Marshall. Advice and Dissent: An Organizational Analysis of the Evolution of Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam Advisory System, 1965-1968. (University of Notre Dame, 1990)
  • Berman, Larry. Lyndon Johnson's War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (1991)
  • Brands, H. W. The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon Johnson and the Limits of American Power (1997)
  • Casey, Francis Michael. The Vietnam Policy of President Lyndon Baines Johnson in Response to the Theory of the Protracted Conflict as Applied in the Politics of Indochina: A Case Study of Threat Perception and Assessment in the Crisis Management Process of a Pluralistic Society. (Claremont Graduate School, 1976)
  • Cherwitz, Richard Arnold. The Rhetoric of the Gulf of Tonkin: A Study of the Crisis Speaking of President Lyndon B. Johnson. (University of Iowa, 1978)
  • Goodnight, Lisa Jo. The Conservative Voice of a Liberal President: An Analysis of Lyndon B. Johnson's Vietnam Rhetoric. (Purdue University, 1993)
  • Kaiser, David E. American tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the origins of the Vietnam War. (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000) ISBN 0-674-00225-3
  • Logevall, Fredrik Bengt Johan. Fear to Negotiate: Lyndon Johnson and the Vietnam War, 1963-1965. (Yale University, 1993)
  • Turner, Kathleen Jane. The Effect of Presidential-Press Interaction on Lyndon B. Johnson's Vietnam War Rhetoric. (Purdue University, 1978)
  • Vandiver, Frank E. Shadows of Vietnam: Lyndon Johnson's Wars (1997)

[edit] Endnotes

<references/>

[edit] External links

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Preceded by:
James P. Buchanan
U.S. Representative for Texas's 10th district
1937 – 1949
Succeeded by:
Homer Thornberry
Preceded by:
W. Lee O'Daniel
United States Senator (Class 2) from Texas
1949 – 1961
Served alongside: Thomas T. Connally, Price Daniel, William A. Blakley, Ralph W. Yarborough
Succeeded by:
William Blakley
Preceded by:
Francis J. Myers
U.S. Senate Majority Whip
1951 – 1953
Succeeded by:
Leverett Saltonstall
Preceded by:
H. Styles Bridges
U.S. Senate Minority Leader
1953 – 1955
Succeeded by:
William F. Knowland
Preceded by:
William F. Knowland
U.S. Senate Majority Leader
1955 – 1961
Succeeded by:
Michael J. Mansfield
Preceded by:
Estes Kefauver
Democratic Party Vice Presidential candidate
1960 (won)
Succeeded by:
Hubert H. Humphrey
Preceded by:
Richard Nixon
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1961November 22, 1963
Preceded by:
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States
November 22, 1963January 20, 1969
Succeeded by:
Richard Nixon
Democratic Party Presidential Nominee
1964 (won)
Succeeded by:
Hubert H. Humphrey


bg:Линдън Б. Джонсън

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Lyndon B. Johnson

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