Ludwig von Mises
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Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. He has been called the "uncontested dean of the Austrian School of economics".<ref>Template:Cite web </ref>.
 Childhood and family background
Ludwig von Mises was born in Lemberg, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and now the city of Lviv, Ukraine, where his father was stationed as a construction engineer. Physicist Richard von Mises was Ludwig's younger brother. Another sibling died in infancy. When Ludwig and Richard were small children, his family moved back to their ancestral home of Vienna.In 1900, he attended the University of Vienna, becoming influenced by the works of Carl Menger. Mises' father died in 1903, and, in 1906, Ludwig was awarded his doctorate.
 Professional life
In the years from 1904 to 1914, Mises attended lectures given by the prominent Austrian economist Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk. Mises taught at the Vienna University in the years from 1913 to 1934, while also serving as a principal economic adviser to the Austrian government.
To avoid the influence of National Socialists in his Austrian homeland, in 1934 Mises left for Geneva (Switzerland), where he was a professor at the Graduate Institute of International Studies until 1940. In 1940, he emigrated to New York City. He was a visiting professor at New York University from 1945 until he retired in 1969, though he was not salaried by the university. Instead, he earned his living from funding by businessmen. For part of this period he worked on currency issues for the Pan-Europa movement led by a fellow NYU faculty member and Austrian exile, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi.<ref>Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard Nikolaus, Graf von (1953). An idea conquers the world. London: Hutchinson, p.247.</ref>
Despite his growing fame, Mises listed himself plainly in the New York phone directory and he welcomed students freely to his home. Mises died at the age of 92 at St Vincent's hospital in New York.
 Contributions to the field of economics
Mises wrote and lectured extensively on behalf of classical liberalism and is seen as one of the leaders of the Austrian School of economics. In his treatise on economics, Human Action, Mises revealed the conceptual foundation of economics called praxeology, the science of human action, establishing economic laws of apodictic certainty rejecting positivism and material causality. Many of his works, including Human Action, were on two related economic themes:
In Interventionism, An Economic Analysis (1940), Ludwig von Mises wrote:
The usual terminology of political language is stupid. What is 'left' and what is 'right'? Why should Hitler be 'right' and Stalin, his temporary friend, be 'left'? Who is 'reactionary' and who is 'progressive'? Reaction against an unwise policy is not to be condemned. And progress towards chaos is not to be commended. Nothing should find acceptance just because it is new, radical, and fashionable. 'Orthodoxy' is not an evil if the doctrine on which the 'orthodox' stand is sound. Who is anti-labor, those who want to lower labor to the Russian level, or those who want for labor the capitalistic standard of the United States? Who is 'nationalist,' those who want to bring their nation under the heel of the Nazis, or those who want to preserve its independence?
- The Theory of Money and Credit. ISBN 0-913966-71-1.
- Nation, State, and Economy
- Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis
- Critique of Interventionism
- Epistemological Problems of Economics
- Omnipotent Government: The Rise of Total State and Total War
- Human Action: A Treatise on Economics
- preceded by Nationalökonomie in 1940 (Full German text in PDF)
- Theory and History: An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution
- The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality
- The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science
 See also
- Austrian School
- Contributions to liberal theory
- Hans-Hermann Hoppe
- Liberalism in Austria
- List of Austrian scientists
- List of Austrians
- Ludwig von Mises Institute
- Mont Pelerin Society
- Murray Rothbard
- Richard von Mises - Ludwig von Mises' brother
- Karl Polanyi - with whom von Mises debated leading to Polanyi's book The Great Transformation
 External links
- Liberty and Economics: The Ludwig von Mises Legacy (video) - available to subscribers only.
- The Complete Mises Bibliography from the Ludwig von Mises Institute
- Biography from the Ludwig von Mises Institute
- Ludwig von Mises at the Open Directory Project
- Biblioteca Ludwig von Mises
- Mises on Keynes 1927 review by Mises on a lecture given by Keynes in Berlin
- Ludwig von Mises Institute
- Bio by Mises scholar Jörg Guido Hülsmann
- Scholar, Creator, Hero — Rothbard on Mises
 Online e-books
- The Free Market and Its Enemies: Pseudo-Science, Socialism, and Inflation Lecture Series, Volume 1, with an introduction by Richard Ebeling. Copyright 2004 Foundation for Economic Education. All rights reserved.
- Nine Books by Mises, made available online by the Liberty Fund, publishers of the Complete Works of Ludwig von Mises
- von Mises, Ludwig (1949). Human Action: A treatise on economics (4th edition, 1996). San Francisco: Fox & Wilkes. ISBN 0-930073-18-5. Made available online by The Ludwig von Mises Institute.
- Human Action: The Scholars Edition Auburn, Alabama: Mises Institute, 1999. Re-issue of the classic 1949 Edition with new introduction and expanded index.
- A Critique of Interventionism, The Ludwig von Mises Institute.
- The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality, Libertarian Press 1990.
- McCaine, Catamite. Von Mises, The Austrian School, and Class Struggle. Holland Revolutionary Press (hij houdt vrij van jonge jongens)
- Economic Freedom and Interventionism, The Ludwig von Mises Institute.
- Economic Policy: Thoughts for Today and Tomorrow Second Edition, with a New Introduction by Bettina Bien Greaves, The Ludwig von Mises Institute.
- The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics, The Ludwig von Mises Institute.
- Liberalism: In the Classical Tradition, English edition Copyright 1985 The Foundation for Economic Education, Irvington, NY. Translation by Ralph Raico. Online edition Copyright The Mises Institute, 2000.
- Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis Von Mises' critique of Socialism
- Theory and History. 1957 treatise on social and economic evolution, with a preface by Murray N. Rothbard. Online edition Copyright The Mises Institute, 2000.
- The Theory of Money and Credit. 1912 integration of microeconomics and macroeconomics. Online edition Copyright The Mises Institute.cs:Ludwig von Mises
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