London railway station

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The National Rail network of the United Kingdom does not have one main London railway station in London.

For reasons linked to the original construction of the railways in London it is instead served by several main terminus stations, which form a ring around Central London (the majority of which are connected by the Circle Line of the London Underground) and are served by different lines connected to parts of the country. Many lines split in order to serve termini in or near both the City of London and the West End of London, and some stations have terminal and/or through platforms with connections to other principal London railway stations. Stations on lines to different places are sometimes located near to each other, but can also be up to 4 miles (6.4 km) apart. Only one railway line - Thameslink - passes directly through the central area without terminating.

All the main stations are located in Travelcard Zone 1, and most are managed by Network Rail, unlike most other railway stations in the United Kingdom, which are owned by Network Rail but managed by a train operating company. Most stations are also a principal destination for routes which serve the London suburbs, and all have either direct or nearby connections to the London Underground network.

Contents

[edit] List of stations

There are around 350 further stations served by National Rail in the Greater London area, of which all can be reached from one of the main central stations. Nine of the ten busiest UK stations are in London. The main central London stations are:

Station Location Managed by London
services
National
services
Annual
entry/exit
(millions)
2002/3
Annual
entry/exit
(millions)
2004/5
Open
date
Terminal
platforms
Through
platforms
Blackfriars City of London First Capital Connect NW, S, SE, SW Thameslink
Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
1.444 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 7.782 1886 3 2
Cannon
Street
City of London Network Rail SE Kent
East Sussex
1.93 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 17.460 1866 7
Charing
Cross
Westminster Network Rail SE Kent
East Sussex
4.825 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 28.822 1864 6
City
Thameslink
City of London First Capital Connect NW, S, SW Bedford-Brighton
Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
12.951 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 4.010 1988 2
Euston Camden Network Rail NW West Coast Main Line
Watford DC Line
27.787 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 26.256 1837 18
Farringdon Islington London Underground NW, S, SW Bedford-Brighton
Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
14.392 ¹ Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 15.255 ¹ 1863 4
(incl. 2 LU)
Fenchurch
Street
City of London Network Rail E Thurrock
Southend-on-Sea
17.019 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 16.086 1841 4
Kings Cross Camden Network Rail N East Coast Main Line
Cambridge
49.137 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 20.805 1852 11
Kings Cross
Thameslink
Camden First Capital Connect NW, S, SW Bedford-Brighton
Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
2.361 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 7.715 1863 2
Liverpool
Street
City of London Network Rail E, NE Great Eastern Main Line
East of England
Stansted Airport
38.968 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 50.469 1874 18
London
Bridge
Southwark Network Rail S, SE, NW Kent
East Sussex
Thameslink
Gatwick Airport
Luton Airport
80.773 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 37.020 1836 9 6
Marylebone Westminster Chiltern Railways NW Buckinghamshire
Birmingham
6.354 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 6.949 1899 6
Moorgate City of London London Underground NW, N Bedford
Luton Airport
Hertfordshire
832 4 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 7.135 1865 6
(incl. 1 LU)
4
(all LU)
Paddington Westminster Network Rail W Great Western Main Line
Heathrow Airport
25.262 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 25.788 1854 14
St Pancras Camden Midland Mainline None Bedford
Midland Main Line ²
4.429 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 5.471 1868 4
Victoria Westminster Network Rail S, SE, SW Kent
Sussex
Gatwick Airport
61.647 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 48.046 1862 19
Waterloo Lambeth Network Rail SW Surrey
Hampshire
South West England ³
68.431 Image:Red Arrow Down.svg 62.388 1848 19 + 5
Waterloo
East
Lambeth Southeastern S, SE Kent
East Sussex
0.439 Image:Green Arrow Up.svg 4.905 1869 4

[edit] Key

Notes on sources for figures: 2004/5, 2002/3

¹ - figure includes London Underground passengers
² - will also become the terminus of Eurostar and of high-speed services from Kent in 2007
³ - also the terminus of Eurostar services until 2007
4 - not in millions
Image:London Underground Zone 1.png
Stations shown with London Underground connections

[edit] Closed stations

The large number of major railway stations has broadly escaped any rationalisation despite coming into common ownership in the 1940s. However, a number of stations have closed for one reason or another:

  • 19th Century closures
    • Bishopsgate - closed in 1874 and replaced by Liverpool Street
    • Minories - closed in 1854 and replaced by Fenchurch Street

Bishopsgate was converted into a major freight terminal and was in use until 1964 when it was damaged by fire. The majority of the buildings were demolished in 2004 to make way for the new Shoreditch High Street railway station. Minories was utilised as an alternative terminus until the resiting of Fenchurch Street in 1854. The original site was reused for Tower Gateway DLR station.

  • 20th Century closures

Holborn Viaduct was a significant terminal station located close to Blackfriars until it was made redundant by the reopening of the Snow Hill tunnel through route and replaced by City Thameslink. Broad Street was the terminus of a network of commuter lines in east and west London linked using the North London Line. It suffered by the expansion of the bus, tram and tube networks and was finally closed in 1986.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

Railway stations of London
Central area | Greater London
Managed by Network Rail: Cannon StreetCharing CrossEustonFenchurch StreetKing's CrossLiverpool StreetLondon BridgePaddingtonVictoriaWaterloo
Managed by train operator: BlackfriarsMaryleboneMoorgateSt Pancras


de:Eisenbahnknoten London

London railway station

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