Ljubljana

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Ljubljana
General Information
State Capital: Ljubljana
Founded: 15 AD
Vehicle Registration: LJ
Area code: 01
Homepage: http://ljubljana.si
Coat of Arms
Image:Wappen Ljubljana si.png
Map: Ljubljana in Slovenia
Image:Karte Ljubljana si.png
Politics
Mayor and governor Zoran Jankovič
Governing Party Lista Zorana Jankovića
Population
Population: 265,881 (2002)
Geography
Area: 275 km²
Location: 46°03' - 45°03' n. Br.
15°57' - 14°30' ö. L.

Ljubljana  (IPA: [ljub'ljʌna]) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. The city of Ljubljana is the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative center of Slovenia. It is situated in central Slovenia, between the Alps and the Mediterranean.

Its transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position. Ljubljana is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies and all government ministries. It is also the seat of Parliament and the Office of the President of Slovenia.

Contents

[edit] Name

Historians disagree as to where the name Ljubljana comes from. The name could have evolved from the Latin term for a flooding river, alluviana. Some also believe the source of the present-day name is Laburus, an old Slavic mythology deity and supposed patron of the original settlement. Other linguists reconstruct an earlier *Lablana, rejecting both a Latin or Slavic source, but without settling on an etymology <ref>Paliga, Sorin. Pre-Slavic place-names. 2002.</ref>.

Laibach (/'lɑɪbax/), the German name for the city, may derive from Laubach (a lukewarm beck in German). The Italian name is Lubiana (/lʊb'jɑ:na/). These are important for historical reasons.

The German name was forbidden in Slovenia after 1918 and became especially controversial during the Second World War. Nowadays most Germans use the term Ljubljana. On the other hand, Laibach is still widely used especially in Austria, as well as by the German embassy in Ljubljana.

[edit] Geography and demographics

Ljubljana is located at 46.03°N, 14.30°E on the outfall of the river Ljubljanica into the Sava. It lies at an altitude of 298 meters AMSL. The temperature varies between 0°C (32 °F) in December and 21.9°C (71.4 °F) in July. Annual rainfall is 1350 mm (53.2 inches).

In 2002, the city had a population of 265,881.

[edit] History

Although the Roman settlement Emona (Colonia Emona (Aemona) Iulia tribu Claudia) was erected in 15 AD, the first records mentioning Ljubljana by its modern name date to 1144 (by its German name Laibach) and 1146 (by the name Luwigana).

Image:Ljubljana cathedral.jpg
Cathedral (Stolnica)
Image:Ljubljana-skyline.jpg
Ljubljana skyline including Ljubljana Castle

The settlement received town rights in 1220, and in 1335 came under Austrian Habsburg rule, lasting until 1918. During this time Ljubljana was the capital of the duchy of Carniola. Ljubljana also became the seat of a diocese in 1461 and developed into a Slovenian cultural centre during the late Middle Ages. Ljubljana experienced an earthquake in 1511.

The Habsburg rule was shortly interrupted by the Napoleonic wars, and between 1809 and 1813 Ljubljana was the capital of the French Illyrian provinces. In 1821 the city hosted the Congress of Laibach. Once again an earthquake damaged large parts of the city in 1895 and the following reconstruction gave Ljubljana its new contemporary image.

With the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Ljubljana became the provincial seat of the Drava Banovina within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In April 1941 it was occupied by Italy and on February 23 1942 Italians completely encircled it with 32 km of barbed wire. For the achievements during this time Josip Broz Tito awarded Ljubljana in 1955 with the title "Hero City" (not to be confused with the Soviet title of the same name).

After World War II it became the capital of the Yugoslav socialist republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana remained the capital city when Slovenia gained independence in 1991 after a ten day war against the Yugoslav National Army.

[edit] Architecture

Image:Ljubljana triplebridge.jpg
Tromostovje with the Franciscan church (Frančiškanska cerkev) in baroque style in the back

Ljubljana has a strong Austrian/Alpine feeling to it and the architecture underlines this impression. Ljubljana was devastated by earthquakes several times. After an earthquake in 1511, Ljubljana was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, and after an earthquake in 1895 severely damaged the city, the city was rebuilt in Neo-Classicist and Secession (Austrian Art Nouveau) styles. There are also a number of churches and cathedrals in Austrian Baroque style. One of the main features of the city, the castle, which dates back to prehistory, is undergoing renovation. Large areas of the city built in the early 20th century feature the work of native architect Jože Plečnik, including several bridges.

[edit] Art

The National Gallery (Narodna galerija) and the Museum of Modern Art (Moderna galerija) are both situated in Ljubljana, showing the greatest Slovenian artists. There is also a large counterculture centre on Metelkova Street, in a former Yugoslav military complex. Metelkova hosts lectures, films and concerts of mainly alternative music (e.g., Laibach).

There are a number of music festivals with mainly classical music and jazz such as the Ljubljana Summer Festival (Ljubljanski poletni festival) and Druga Godba, a world music festival.

[edit] Education

Image:Ljubljana parliament.jpg
Parliament (Državni zbor)

In 1693 the Scholar Society (Academia operosorum Labacensis) was established in Ljubljana. This fell into decline in 1801 but was a forerunner to the present Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts which opened in 1938. The city's only university, the University of Ljubljana, was established in 1919. The city also has the Philharmonic Society (Academia Philharmonicorum), established in 1701.

[edit] Sister Cities

[edit] Trivia

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

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[edit] References

[edit] External links

Look up Ljubljana in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

[edit] Miscellaneous

[edit] Photographs

 
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