Learn more about Ljubljana
|Coat of Arms|
|Image:Wappen Ljubljana si.png|
|Map: Ljubljana in Slovenia|
|Image:Karte Ljubljana si.png|
|Mayor and governor||Zoran Jankovič|
|Governing Party||Lista Zorana Jankovića|
|Location:|| 46°03' - 45°03' n. Br. |
15°57' - 14°30' ö. L.
IPA: [ljub'ljʌna]) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. The city of Ljubljana is the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative center of Slovenia. It is situated in central Slovenia, between the Alps and the Mediterranean.(
Its transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position. Ljubljana is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies and all government ministries. It is also the seat of Parliament and the Office of the President of Slovenia.
Historians disagree as to where the name Ljubljana comes from. The name could have evolved from the Latin term for a flooding river, alluviana. Some also believe the source of the present-day name is Laburus, an old Slavic mythology deity and supposed patron of the original settlement. Other linguists reconstruct an earlier *Lablana, rejecting both a Latin or Slavic source, but without settling on an etymology <ref>Paliga, Sorin. Pre-Slavic place-names. 2002.</ref>.
The German name was forbidden in Slovenia after 1918 and became especially controversial during the Second World War. Nowadays most Germans use the term Ljubljana. On the other hand, Laibach is still widely used especially in Austria, as well as by the German embassy in Ljubljana.
 Geography and demographics
Ljubljana is located at 46.03°N, 14.30°E on the outfall of the river Ljubljanica into the Sava. It lies at an altitude of 298 meters AMSL. The temperature varies between 0°C (32 °F) in December and 21.9°C (71.4 °F) in July. Annual rainfall is 1350 mm (53.2 inches).
In 2002, the city had a population of 265,881.
Although the Roman settlement Emona (Colonia Emona (Aemona) Iulia tribu Claudia) was erected in 15 AD, the first records mentioning Ljubljana by its modern name date to 1144 (by its German name Laibach) and 1146 (by the name Luwigana).
The settlement received town rights in 1220, and in 1335 came under Austrian Habsburg rule, lasting until 1918. During this time Ljubljana was the capital of the duchy of Carniola. Ljubljana also became the seat of a diocese in 1461 and developed into a Slovenian cultural centre during the late Middle Ages. Ljubljana experienced an earthquake in 1511.
The Habsburg rule was shortly interrupted by the Napoleonic wars, and between 1809 and 1813 Ljubljana was the capital of the French Illyrian provinces. In 1821 the city hosted the Congress of Laibach. Once again an earthquake damaged large parts of the city in 1895 and the following reconstruction gave Ljubljana its new contemporary image.
With the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Ljubljana became the provincial seat of the Drava Banovina within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In April 1941 it was occupied by Italy and on February 23 1942 Italians completely encircled it with 32 km of barbed wire. For the achievements during this time Josip Broz Tito awarded Ljubljana in 1955 with the title "Hero City" (not to be confused with the Soviet title of the same name).
After World War II it became the capital of the Yugoslav socialist republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana remained the capital city when Slovenia gained independence in 1991 after a ten day war against the Yugoslav National Army.
Ljubljana has a strong Austrian/Alpine feeling to it and the architecture underlines this impression. Ljubljana was devastated by earthquakes several times. After an earthquake in 1511, Ljubljana was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, and after an earthquake in 1895 severely damaged the city, the city was rebuilt in Neo-Classicist and Secession (Austrian Art Nouveau) styles. There are also a number of churches and cathedrals in Austrian Baroque style. One of the main features of the city, the castle, which dates back to prehistory, is undergoing renovation. Large areas of the city built in the early 20th century feature the work of native architect Jože Plečnik, including several bridges.
The National Gallery (Narodna galerija) and the Museum of Modern Art (Moderna galerija) are both situated in Ljubljana, showing the greatest Slovenian artists. There is also a large counterculture centre on Metelkova Street, in a former Yugoslav military complex. Metelkova hosts lectures, films and concerts of mainly alternative music (e.g., Laibach).
In 1693 the Scholar Society (Academia operosorum Labacensis) was established in Ljubljana. This fell into decline in 1801 but was a forerunner to the present Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts which opened in 1938. The city's only university, the University of Ljubljana, was established in 1919. The city also has the Philharmonic Society (Academia Philharmonicorum), established in 1701.
 Sister Cities
- Image:Flag of Serbia (state) (bordered).svg - Belgrade, Serbia, since 2003
- Image:Flag of Slovakia.svg - Bratislava, Slovakia, since 1967
- Image:Flag of Germany.svg - Chemnitz, Germany, since 1966
- Image:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg - Chengdu, People's Republic of China, since 1981
- Image:Flag of the United States.svg - Cleveland, USA
- Image:Flag of Austria.svg - Klagenfurt, Austria
- Image:Flag of Germany.svg - Leverkusen, Germany
- Image:Flag of Russia (bordered).svg - Moscow, Russia, since 2000
- Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg - Nottingham, England
- Image:Flag of Austria.svg - Vienna, Austria, since 1999
- Image:Flag of Germany.svg - Wiesbaden, Germany
- Image:Flag of Croatia.svg - Zagreb, Croatia, since 2001
- Ljubljana hosted the 2001 Bush-Putin Summit where US President George W. Bush met with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
- Ljubljana hosted the 2006 International Mathematical Olympiad from July 6 to July 18, 2006.
- It also hosted the 2006 World Saxophone Congress from July 5 to 9, 2006.
- It also hosted the IAESTE SID (Seminar of IAESTE Development) from 21st to 24th of April 2005.
- Ljubljana is the hometown of world-renowned Lacanian psychoanalist and critical theorist Slavoj Žižek, who occasionally teaches at the University of Ljubljana.
 See also
 External links
- The Website of the City of Ljubljana (official)
- Official tourist site
- Ljubljana Hotels and Travel
- Ljubljana travel guide from Wikitravel
- Ljubljana Brnik Airport
- Ljubljana Life Magazine: Guide to Culture, Entertainment, and Expatriate Living in the Slovenian Capital
- Metelkova mesto
- University of Ljubljana
- Pictures of Ljubljana by night
- The Ljubljana Blog A blog about life and events in Ljubljana.
- Europe on the Matrix: Ljubljana, Slovenia — Photographs and information.
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