List of unrecognized countries
Learn more about List of unrecognized countries
Several geo-political entities in the world have no general international recognition, but they want to be recognized as sovereign states. The degree in which those have de facto control over the teritorry they claim is variable.
Most are subnational regions with an ethno-national identity of its own that have "broken off" (i.e. separated themselves) from their original parent state, and hence they are commonly referred to as "break-away" states. Some of these entities are in effect internally self-governing protectorates that enjoy military protection and informal diplomatic representation abroad through another state to prevent its forced reincorporation into its original state.
Note that the word "control" in this list refers to control over the area occupied, not occupation of the area claimed. Virtually no unrecognized country controls all the area it claims. Unrecognized countries can be separated into those which have full control over their occupied territory (such as, for instance, Republic of China) and those with only partial control (such as Tamil Eelam). The main difference is that in the former, the de jure governments of the areas in question have no (or nearly no) influence in the areas under question, whereas in the latter they can have varying degrees of control, and may provide essential services to people living in the areas.
Partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory
States that are recognized by the majority but not the totality of the other states are listed here
- Image:Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China, which governs only Taiwan and some other small islands since losing the Chinese Civil War in 1949, lost most of its diplomatic recognition and UN seat to the People's Republic of China in October 25, 1971 by UN General Assembly Resolution 2758 and now is currently officially recognized by only 24 states as well as Vatican City of the Holy See. It conducts de facto (in all but name) relations with most countries through de facto embassies such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office. (See political status of Taiwan).
- Image:Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was set up in the northern part of the island of Cyprus after an invasion of forces from the Republic of Turkey in 1974, following a Greek Cypriot coup, which, backed by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974, overthrew president Makarios. TRNC declared independence in 1983 and has been recognized only by Turkey. In 2004, its territory was accepted de jure into the EU as part of the Republic of Cyprus, though it remains de facto outside the EU.
Unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory
- Image:Flag of Abkhazia.svg Abkhazia in Georgia is a self-declared and partially functioning independent state; it is not recognised by any state. It is situated between the Caucasus and the Black Sea, recognized as a part of northwestern Georgia.
- Image:Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh.svg Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan is (since 1991) a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any other nation, including Armenia. It is internationally recognized as being part of Azerbaijan, but has an ethnic-Armenian majority.
- Image:Flag of Somaliland.svg Somaliland (since 1991). Located in northwest Somalia. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes five of the eighteen administrative regions of Somalia, corresponding to British Somaliland which is located between Ethiopia, Djibouti, Puntland and the Gulf of Aden.
- Image:Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia in Georgia is a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any other nation. After occupation of independent Georgia by Soviet Russia in 1921 during the Russian Civil War it became the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within Soviet Georgia. It proclaimed independence from Georgia in 1991, and a ceasefire was declared in 1992.
- Image:Flag of Transnistria.svg Transnistria is the part of Moldova east of the river Dniester and (since 1990) a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any sovereign state. Transnistria is home to three major groups, roughly equal in numbers: Russians and Ukrainians as well as a Moldovan plurality.
Unrecognized states with partial control over their territory
- Islamic Emirate of Waziristan in Pakistan is a self-declared independent Islamic State with no international recognition from any other nation. It is situated on North-West Frontier Province, recognized as a part of Pakistan.
- Image:Flag of Tamil Eelam.png Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka is a self-declared independent state in the North East of the island with no international recognition from any other nation.
Partially recognized states largely under military occupation
- Image:Flag of Western Sahara.svg Western Sahara is a territory claimed and largely administered by Morocco since Spain abandoned the territory in 1976. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic controls the remainder of Western Sahara; it was proclaimed by the Front Polisario in 1976, is recognized by 48 states, and a full member of the African Union. Sovereignty is unresolved and the United Nations is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue through the mission MINURSO. The UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991. Western Sahara is on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
- Image:Palestinian flag.svg State of Palestine was declared in 1988 and recognized by a series of Arab and Muslim countries. (See also proposals for a Palestinian state, Palestinian territories, Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Israel all of which include articles about areas in the Palestine region.)
Internationally administered territory
- Image:Flag of the United Nations.svg Kosovo, although not recognized as an independent entity, has functioned under UN administration independently of Serbia since 1999 (on the basis of Security Council resolution 1244). Legally, it is a Serbian autonomous province.
Partially unrecognized states
The following states are all recognised by the majority of the world's sovereign states. Barring the Holy See, they are all members of the United Nations. They all conduct relations with the majority of the world's nations. However, some of them are not recognized by certain countries. These partially unrecognized states are:
- Image:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Republic of China has, since 1971, been recognized by the majority of the world's states and now conducts relations with 168. 24 states, however, still recognize the Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of Mainland China.
- Image:Flag of Israel (bordered).svg Israel is not recognised by the majority of Arab or Muslim states (24, relations with 4 others are suspended), though it has been recognized by Egypt, Jordan, Turkey, Mauritania and others. It has relations with 161 states and is a member of the United Nations and many other international organisations.
- Holy See - the Episcopal See of the Catholic Church - has been considered a sovereign entity since Medieval times, and today is officially recognised by 174 states <ref>Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See</ref>. Its territory is the State of the Vatican City and it is ruled by the Pope. In particular, it is not recognised by the People's Republic of China, due to its support for the Republic of China.
Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory
- Alsace-Lorraine (proclaimed in 1918). Now part of France.
- Banat Republic (proclaimed in 1918). Now part of Romania, Serbia, and Hungary.
- Baranya-Baja Republic (proclaimed in 1921). Now part of Hungary and Croatia.
- Image:Carpatho-ukraine 1939 flag.PNG Carpatho-Ukraine (1939). Now part of Ukraine.
- Image:Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg Chechnya (1996-1999). Now controlled by Russia. See also Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
- Image:Flag of Catalonia.svgCatalonia (proclaimed in 1932); autonomous, not sovereign. Now part of Spain and France.
- Republic of Connaught Now part of the Republic of Ireland.
- Image:Flag of Croatia Ustasa.svg Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945). Between 1945 and 1991, Croatia was a people's/socialist republic within Yugoslavia. Since 1991, Croatia is an independent country. Recognized since 1992.
- Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919). Now part of Hungary.
- Idel-Ural State (1917-1918). Republic on territory of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan was suppressed by Red Army.
- Irish Republic (1919-1922). Now it is part of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
- Southern Ireland (1922). Now it is part of the Republic of Ireland.
- Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (1918)
- Image:Gagauzia Flag.PNG Gagauzia (1990-1994). Now part of Moldova.
- Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (1992-1994). Now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Lajtabansag State (1921). Now part of Austria.
- Munich Soviet Republic (1919). Now part of Germany.
- Munster Republic (1922). Now part of Republic of Ireland.
- Republic of Serbian Frontier (1991-1995). Now part of Croatia.
- Slovak Soviet Republic (1919). Now part of Slovakia.
- Slovakia (1939-1945). Between these years, Slovakia was a puppet state of Nazi Germany. From 1918 until 1939, and again between 1945 and 1993, Slovakia was part of Czechoslovakia. Since 1993, Slovakia is an independent country.
- Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). Now one of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Republic of Tatarstan (1991-1994). From 1994-2000 Tatarstan was associated state of Russian federation on confederal status, and since 2000 it is a subject (republic) of Russian Federation.
- Republic of Užice (1941). Now part of Serbia.
- Republic of West Bosnia (1993-1995). Now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Image:Flag of Ajara, 2000-2004.svg Adjara (1991-2005). De-facto self-governing in past state now reintegrated into Georgia.
- Image:KNOFLAG.PNG Kachin State / Kachinland is the northernmost state of Myanmar, controlled since 1962 by the Kachin Independence Organization but not diplomatically recognized by any country. In 1994, KIO and the Union of Myanmar agreed to formalize the status quo by creating the "Kachin State Special Region #1", officially still a part of the Union of Myanmar but de facto controlled by KIO.
- Image:Flag of Kurdistan.svg Kurdish Autonomous Region (1991-2003). A ‘‘de facto’’ independent state in Northern Iraq. Now part of Iraq.
- Image:Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo (1932-1945). Out of 80 then existing nations 23 recognized the new state.(dubious; discuss) Now part of the People's Republic of China.
- Image:Flag of Nakhichevan.svg Nakhichevan (1990). Now part of Azerbaijan.
- Image:Philippines flag original.png República Filipina (1899-1901) Declared independence in 1898 but was conquered by the United States due to the Philippine-American War. Now independent as Philippines.
- Image:Flag of South Moluccas.svg Republic of South Moluccas Now part of Indonesia.
- Image:Flag of the Talysh-Mughan Republic.svg Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic (1993). Now part of Azerbaijan.
- Image:Flag of Tibet.svg Tibet (1913-51). A unified Tibetan empire was created in the 8th century, and fell apart a century later. Mongol conquests in the 13th century made Tibet part of the Mongol Empire (but separately from China proper) while four centuries later the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty incorporated Tibet as a Chinese dependency.  In 1913 the 13th Dalai Lama unilaterally declared independence  but two years later indicated his willingness to sign a treaty granting Chinese suzerainty over "Inner Tibet" with "Outer Tibet" an independent state.  Chinese sovereignty was confirmed by both Beijing and the Tibetans in 1951, but repudiated by the Dalai Lama in 1959. <ref> Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp. 812-813 </ref>
- Image:Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (February – May 1918). Now Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
- Image:Flag of Tuva.svg Tuva (1921-1944). Now part of Russia
- Image:Flag of West Papua.svg Republic of West Papua Now part of Indonesia.
- Republic of West Melanesia Now part of Indonesia.
- Image:Flag of Aceh.svg Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Now part of Indonesia.
- Image:Anjouanflag.png Anjouan (1997-2002). Now part of Comoros.
- Image:Flag of Biafra.svg Biafra controlled territory in eastern Nigeria between the time of its secession in May 1967 until its final military collapse in January 1970. It was recognized by 12 nations.
- Image:FlagofBophuthatswana.png Bophuthatswana (1977-1994). Former apartheid homeland, formed and only recognized by South Africa, Transkei, Ciskei, and Venda. Now part of South Africa.
- Image:Flag of Ciskei.svg Ciskei (1981-1994). Former apartheid homeland, formed and only recognized by South Africa, Bophuthatswana, Transkei, and Venda. Now part of South Africa.
- Image:Jubaland.PNG Jubaland (1998-2001). Now part of Southwestern Somalia.
- Image:Flag of Katanga.svg Katanga controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation, between 1960 and 1964.
- Image:Moheliflag.png Mohéli (1997-1998). Now part of Comoros.
- Image:Rhodesia Flag.png Rhodesia. British Colony that unilaterally declared independence in 1965. This action was not legally recognized by any other nation, nor the declaration of Rhodesia as a republic in 1970. This entity remained until 1979, when it became Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, then Zimbabwe in 1980.
- Image:Flag of Transkei.svg Transkei (1976-1994). Former apartheid homeland, formed and only recognized by South Africa, Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, and Venda. Now part of South Africa.
- Image:Vendaflag.png Venda (1979-1994). Former apartheid homeland, formed and only recognized by South Africa, Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, and Transkei. Now part of South Africa.
- Image:Zimbabwe-Rhodesia Flag.png Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. Formed in 1979 after negotiations between white minority government and moderate black leaders. Unrecognized until 1980 when it became the Republic of Zimbabwe.
- Image:Rwenzururu flag.png Kingdom of Rwenzururu (1963-82). Was based in the Rwenzori Mountains between Uganda and Congo.
Image : Lado Kingdom - founded in 864 a.d still struggling for its freedom independence as occupied territory . Issue of independence was raised for the first time in United Nations Organisation ( UN )in 1947 but decidedly Britain stood against the independence using its Veto power . The territory Kingdom remains still occupied and stretched out in its devided parts into Republic of Uganda , The Republic of Sudan and The Democratic Republic of Congo , so done by Britain , thus removing it from the World Maps ( 1910 - 1914 ) .
- Image:Patriotes flag.png Republic of Lower Canada (1838). Now Quebec, part of Canada.
- Image:Bandeira do Acre.svg Independent State of Acre (1899-1903). Now part of Brazil.
- Image:California state flag.png California Republic (1846). Now part of the United States.
- Confederate States of America (1861-1865). Originally formed by seven slave states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana). After the American Civil War began, the states of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina joined. Recognized internationally only by Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the Holy See (dubious; discuss) , though recognized by some nations as a "belligerent power". Reintegrated into the United States.
- Image:Bonnieblue.svg Free and Independent Republic of West Florida (1810). Short-lived republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Alabama. Annexed by the United States.
- Kingdom of Hawaii (1810-1894). A unification of the smaller independent chiefdoms of O'ahu, Maui, Moloka'i, Lāna'i and the Big Island of Hawai'i. Now part of the United States.(dubious; discuss)
- Republic of Hawaii (1894-1898). Now part of the United States.
- Image:Flag of the Creek Nation.svg State of Muskogee (1799-1803). A short-lived Native American state in Florida; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles.
- Image:Flag of Rio Grande do Sul Without the CoA.gif Piratini Republic (1836-1845). Today's Rio Grande do Sul, part of Brazil.
- Republic of the Río Grande (1840). Now part of the United States of America and Mexico.
- Republic of Texas (1836-1845). Five nations recognized this entity. Now part of the United States.
- Image:Flag of Vermont Republic.svg Vermont Republic (1777-1791). Now part of the United States.
- Image:Republic of Yucatan flag.svg Republic of the Yucatán (1841-1843) & (1846-1848). Short-lived separatist state; reintegrated into Mexico.
- Image:Flag of Bougainville.png Bougainville (Republic of North Solomons) (1990-1997). Signed a peace deal with Papua New Guinea giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade.
- Image:Flag of Rotuma (1987-1988).svg Rotuma (1987-1988). This Polynesian-inhabited island which is administered by (Melanesian) Fiji declared its independence from Fiji by separatists after the military coups in Fiji in 1987. It did not have any substantive support.
Historic unrecognized or partially recognized governments with de facto control over their territory
These regimes had control over the territory of a country for which most other states recognized a different government as being the legitimate government:
- Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996-2001). Only three states recognized this entity while the Taliban controlled it. See: History of Afghanistan.
- Image:Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svg People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979-1989). Set up by the Vietnamese after their invasion and rout of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Only a few Soviet-Bloc nations recognized this entity, while the UN, China, and most other nations recognized the Khmer Rouge's Democratic Kampuchea government. Succeeded by the State of Cambodia, then the Kingdom of Cambodia.
- List of countries
- List of sovereign states
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of governments-in-exile
- List of territorial disputes
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- Micronationsan:Países no reconoxitos
de:Liste der völkerrechtlich nicht anerkannten Länder ko:미승인 국가 ka:არცნობილი ქვეყნების სია lt:Nepripažintos valstybės pl:Państwa nieuznawane ru:Непризнанные государства simple:List of unrecognized countries sr:Списак непризнатих држава sv:Lista över utbrytarstater uk:Невизнані держави zh:未被國際普遍承認的國家列表